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THE 



Psychological Bulletin 

EDITED MY 

SHEPHERD I. FRANZ, Govr. Hosr. FOR INSANE 
SAMUEL W. FERNBERGER, Umv. OF PENNSYLVANIA (Assittant Editor} 



HOWARD C. WARREN, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY (Rtview) 
JOHN B. WATSON, NEW YORK (/. of Exp. Psych.) 

JAMES R. ANGELL, YALE UNIVERSITY, {Mngr*pk} AH o 

MADISON BENTLEY, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS Udtx\ 

WITH THE CO-OfXKATIOlf OF 

B. T. BALDWIN, UNIVERSITY OF IOWA; W. V. BINGHAM, CARNEGIE INSTITUTE OF TECH- 
NOLOGY; J. E. COOVER, STANFORD UNIVERSITY; W. S. HUNTER, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS ; 
K. S. LASHLEY, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA; J. H. LEUBA, BRYH MAWR COLLEGE; M. F. 
MEYER, UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI; R. M. OGDEN, CORNELL UNIVERSITY; R. S. WOOD- 
WORTH, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. 



VOLUME XVIII, 1921 



Containing the Literature Section of the PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW 

PUBLICATIONS 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE 

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x\D 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XVIII 

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTIONS, REPORTS, GENERAL 
REVIEWS AND SUMMARIES, DISCUSSIONS 

Report of the Secretary of the American Psychological Associa- 
tion: E. G. BORING 57 

Cutaneous and Kinesthetic Senses: J. T. METCALF 181 

Social Psychology and the Social Sciences: C. A. ELLWOOD. . . 203 

Human Instincts: E. N. HENDERSON 353 

The Inheritance of Mental Traits: A. I. GATES 358 

Suggestion: C. H. TOWN 366 

Personality and Character: G. W. ALLPORT 441 

Mental Work: E. S. ROBINSON 456 

Recent Literature on the Psychology of the Musician: .M. 

SCHOEN 483 

The Psychology of Language: E. A. ESPER 490 

Further Statistics of the American Psychological Association: 

S. W. FERNBERGER 569 

Habit Formation in Animals: O. MAUPIN 573 

SPECIAL REVIEWS 

Bergson's Mind Energy: F. P. BOSWELL 210 

Hunter's General Psychology: C. A. RUCKMICK 212 

Hall's Morale: F. H. ALLPORT 216 

McDougall's Group Mind: C. A. ELLWOOD 219 

Fernberger's Method of Constant Stimuli: F. M. URBAN. . . . 222 

Cole's Social Theory: C. A. ELLWOOD 225 

Findlay's Sociology: C. A. ELLWOOD 225 

Bury's Idea of Progress: C. A. ELLWOOD , . 225 

Paynter's Trade-Mark Infringement: H. C. LINK 226 

Cobb and Yerkes' Status of Medical Profession: SCHWESINGER 228 
Hollingworth's Psychology of Functional Neuroses: F. L. 

WELLS 376 

Tansley's The New Psychology and Its Relation to Life: F. L. 

WELLS 378 

iii 



iv CONTENTS OF FOLUME XVlll 

Rignano's Psychologic du raisonnement: H. C. WARREN 380 

Burr's Practical Psychology and Psychiatry: C. A. RUCKMICK 381 

Buckley's The Basis of Psychiatry: C. H. TOWN 383 

Zacchi's L'Uomo: G. A. ELRINGTON 388 

Watt's Foundations of Music: R. M. OGDEN 497 

Pyle's Psychology of Learning: W. S. HUNTER 621 

Saxby's Education of Behavior: W. H. PYLE 622 

Meyer's Psychology of the Other-One: A. P. WEISS 623 

ABSTRACTS OF PERIODICAL LITERATURE 

General i, 113, 237, 297, 501, 629 

Nervous System 4, 120, 239, 301, 398, 508, 634 

Sensation and Perception 10, 122, 242, 302, 393, 510, 636 

Feeling and Emotion 129, 246, 307, 520, 641 

Motor Phenomena and Action. ... 15, 134, 247, 310, 394, 521, 642 
Attention, Memory and Thought. . 17, 135, 249, 312, 401, 523, 645 
Social Functions of the Individual. 20, 142, 250, 318, 406, 534, 647 

Special Mental Conditions 28, 147, 255, 324, 412, 543, 650 

Nervous and Mental Disorders. . . 36, 151, 266, 328, 416, 545, 655 
Individual, Racial and Social Psychology, 

41, 156, 279, 331, 419, 551, 657 

Mental Development in Man .... 45, 164, 282, 334, 423, 558, 660 
Mental Evolution 53, 177, 290, 352, 433, 563, 676 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Books Received 109, 234, 294 

Notes and News 56, 236, 296, 438, 568 

Communication: E. G. BORING 180 

Obituary, T. Flournoy 232 

Communication, E. B. TITCHENER 388 

Editorial Note 388 



Vol. 1 8, No. I January, 1921 

THE 



i. GENERAL 

1. TITCHENER, E. B., Wilhelm Wundt, 1832-1920. Science, 1920, 

52, 500-502. 

Psychology is fortunate in that Wundt lived at such a time that, 
although his labors overlapped those of the great standard-bearers 
of science of the middle of the nineteenth century, he still reaped 
the benefit of their pioneer labors, and that he lived sufficiently 
long to round out his work. The most original and constructive 
items of his published work are his "Beitrage zur Theorie der 
Sinneswahrnehmung" (1882); the Untersuchungen zur Mechanik 
der N erven und Nervencentren (1871-1876); the second part (Metho- 
denlehre) of the "Logik" (1883 and later); the " Psychologismus 
and Logizismus" (1910); and the little "Einfiihrung in die Psy- 
chologic" (1911). The "Grundziige der physiologischen Psy- 
chologic" is not a great book, although it is the standard work of 
reference for experimental psychology. In attempting to weld 
a highly imperfect nerve-physiology to a rudimentary experimental 
psychology, Wundt inevitably produced a mere encyclopedic 
handbook of the two disciplines. It represents only one side of his 
efforts. In the tremendous achievement of his old age, the " Volker- 
psychologie," he. maintains his intellectual freshness. The sig- 
nificance of Wundt's whole work lies in that he was the first con- 
siderable figure to attack the problems of philosophy and science 
from a psychological standpoint. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

2. BIRDIE, M. F., Scheme for Interchange of British and American 

Special School Teachers. Training Sch. Bull., 1920, 17, 
130-133. 

Arrangements are being made whereby American teachers of 
special classes may go to England and have the best opportunities 



2 GENERAL 

of seeing and showing various methods. English teachers of 
special classes may come to America. For particulars apply to 
Miss M. F. Birdie, Education Office, Margaret Street, Birmingham, 
England. 

E. MULHALL-ACHILLES 

3. BAXTER, M. F. Opportunities for College Graduates in Psy- 

Psychological Examining in Social Service and Education. 
/. of Applied Psychol., 1920, 4, 207-218. 

A lecture given at the Vocational Conference, Vassar College, 
February, 1920. The profession of psychological examining is 
discussed. Positions and the requirements are mentioned. 

E. M. ACHILLES 

4. MILES, W. R., A Pursuit Pendulum. Psychol. Rev., 1920, 27, 

361-376. 

The apparatus was originally used in testing aviation candidates, 
but it may also be useful in laboratory tests of ocular pursuit 
movements. It consists of a pendulum carrying a reservoir of 
water arranged so that a small stream flows from the lower ex- 
tremity as the pendulum swings over a sink. The subject, seated 
before the sink, attempts to catch the water in a tubular cup of 
limited diameter (19 mm.); the test may be made more difficult 
by reducing the diameter of the cup. The quantity of water 
caught measures the efficiency of the pursuit movements. This 
quantity may be measured directly by means of a graduated float 
placed in the cup, or the total amount of water caught in a series 
of tests may be determined by pouring it into a large graduate. 
A special arrangement for facilitating measurement is figured. 
Also two diagrams illustrate the mechanisms for releasing the 
pendulum and for controlling its period. The author prints learning 
curves (10 women, 8 men) as illustrative of results obtainable with 
the pursuit pendulum. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

5. SCOTT COMPANY, Tables to Facilitate the Computation of 

Coefficients of Correlation by Rank Differences Method. 
/. of Applied Psychol., 1920, 4, 115-125. 

Tables are given to facilitate the computation of the coefficient 
of correlation by the rank difference method. The computer 



GENERAL 3 

first arranges his two series of measurements to be correlated in 
rank order. The difference between the two ranks is obtained 
and then the square of these differences computed. The table 
presented in this article gives the square of the differences from 
o to 80 by halves, i.e., square of .5, i.o, 1.5, etc., up to 79.5. 
These squares of differences are added giving SZ) 2 . This sum, 
SZ) 2 is found in the body of the second table of this article. The 
head of each column indicates the number of cases. Thus if 21 
cases are ranked, one runs down the column headed 21 to find 
the entry nearest the obtained SZ) 2 and then reads the entry on that 
horizontal line which is under the heading p. This entry, p, is 
the coefficient of correlation. Reprints of this article with the 
tables may be obtained from the Journal of Applied Psychology. 
Orders should be addressed to Miss Florence Chandler, Clark 
University, Worcester, Mass. 

E. M. ACHILLES 

6. BORING, E. G., Predilection and Sampling of Human Heights. 

Science, 1920, 52, 464-466. 

A careful statistical study of men accepted for life insurance 
provides, among other things, a distribution of the heights of 
221,819 men. The distribution curve contains a remarkable 
inversion that is difficult to explain except as an artifact. The 
peak of the curve is at 5 ft. 8 in., and there are fewer men recorded 
at 5 ft. 9 in. than at 5 ft. 10 in. The inversion occurs for ten of 
the thirteen age-groups taken separately. We appear to have a 
special predilection in favor of a height of 5 ft. 8 in. or 5 ft. 10 in., 
or both, which is a function simply of human preference for these 
heights. The instance shows the difficulty of obtaining an "un- 
selected sample" merely by securing a large number of cases. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

7. MINER, J. B., Correlation. Psychol. Bull., 1920, 17, 388-396. 
A spirit of conservatism and caution in regard to intelligence 

test correlations animates numerous papers. Several writers urge 
the use of units of rank orders, in the estimating of mental abilities. 
(See, Boring, McEwen, Michael and the Scott Laboratory.) Ruml 
severely criticizes certain presumptions underlying statistical 
treatment of intelligence test results. Mitchell believes that 
memory span is not static for the same individual. Myers "cau- 
tions against individual or homogeneous group applications of 



4 GENERAL 

correlations between group and individual tests, found in groups 
including several grades and wide ranges of mental age"; and 
Thorndike shows the error in special ability estimates which is due 
to the "halo of general merit." 

A paper by Thompson severely questions the validity of the 
whole theory of the use of coefficients. "Interference factors" 
the author believes, may operate in favor of one test, and against 
another, so that a zero coefficient may not prove total antagonism 
between two given factors or elements. 

The general drift of several papers upon group, and general 
versus specific mental factors is summarized as follows: (i) A 
perfect hierarchy would demonstrate, as Spearman claims, that 
there is a single general factor and no group factors, except for 
quite similar activities and these of small effect. (2) An imperfect 
hierarchy would be explained by group factors with or without 
general factors. (3) Interference elements included in general 
factors, would account for any set of correlation coefficients. 
(Thompson.) (4) He is not certain whether the empirical data 
form a perfect hierarchy or only approach it. There seems a 
general tendency to accept important group factors. Thompson 
has severely shaken the hypothesis necessary to Spearman's 
General Common Factor. 

McEwen and Michael present a method for determining the 
functional relation of one variable to each of a number of correlated 
variety, which has been found practically more useful than the 
classical methods in making predictions, especially with biological 
and social material. The method utilizes a successive approximative 
to group averages. 

Short methods are presented in several papers. See Scott 
Company Laboratory, Burtt, Chapman and Ayres. 

WOODS 

2. NERVOUS SYSTEM 

8. TROLAND, L. T., The Physical Basis of Nerve Functions. Psy- 

chol. Rev., 1920, 27, 323-350. 

The author presents a theoretical discussion of the physical 
nature of nerve action, based mainly upon the works of Nernst, 
R. S. Lillie, and Lucas. The following headings indicate the 
topics considered: (i) The general mechanisms of excitation and 
stimulation (2) The specific mechanisms of the threshold impulse 



NERFOUS SYSTEM 5 

propagation, and other neural properties (3) The energetics of 
nerve processes (4) The basis of the all-or-none principle (5) The 
mechanism of the synapse (6) The mechanism of the receptor (7) 
Psychophysiological applications. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

9. ALLIS, EDWARD P., JR., The Branches of the Branchial Nerves 

of Fishes, with Special Reference to Polydon spathula. 

Jour. Comp. N enrol., 32, 1920, 137-154. 

The author has described in great detail the origins and rami- 
fications of the branched cranial nerves in certain fishes, principally 
Polydon spathula of which he used one adult and two smaller 
specimens. Chief among his findings is that of the presence of 
additional typical branches of branchial nerves, the existence of 
which had not been definitely established. In comparing the 
nerve pits of Polydon with the pit organs of other species he finds 
anatomical evidence which tends to show that in Polydon there 
exists a primitive form of nerve sac or ampulla the functioning of 
which is difficult to interpret inasmuch as the habits and habitat 
of Polydon do not support the view that these organs report depth 
of water, direction of currents or vibrations of low frequency. 
Rather, the nerve pits seem to have been adapted for the purpose 
of aiding in the search for food. It is further possible that the 
nerve pits as found in Polydon represent the last stages in the 
displacement of one sense organ by another, during which displace- 
ment the responses are to the same stimulus but are themselves 
more specific. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

10. DAWSON, A. B., The Intermuscular Nerve Cells of the Earth- 

worm. Seven figures. Jour. Comp. Neurol., 32, 1920, 
IS5-I72. 

This article contains a brief review of the literature on the 
subject suggested in the title; a contribution to our knowledge of 
the size, form, distribution and positions of four types of inter- 
muscular nerve cells in the earthworm tripolar; spindle-shaped 
bipolar; crescent-shaped bipolar; and long, slender, pyramidal or 
spindle-shaped cells together with a discussion of the function 
of these cells. Such a study is of particular interest since in the 
earthworm we find a nervous system which represents a transitional 



6 NERVOUS SYSTEM 

stage between the diffuse peripheral system of the lower inverte- 
brates into the centralized deep-lying system of the higher inverte- 
brates and vertebrates. The writer agrees with this theory, basing 
his belief upon the anatomical evidence and upon an evolutional 
viewpoint; but he disagrees with former opinions as to the afferent 
or efferent nature of these intermuscular cells. Owing to their struc- 
ture, staining properties, the appearance of the fibers, the distri- 
bution and spatial relation of the cells to the ventral cord, he 
concludes that the first three types of cells are most likely motor 
in function and represent outlying cells which, in the phylogenetic 
development of the nervous system, have not yet been incorporated 
in the ventral cord. The fourth type of intermuscular cell sends 
processes into the epidermis and therefore is believed to be sensory 
in function. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

11. MOODIE, R. L., Microscopic Examination of a Fossil Fish 

Brain. Two figures. Jour. Comp. Neural., 1920, 32, 

329-334- 

The author was fortunate in obtaining a beautifully preserved 
paleoniscid fish brain; and had it prepared by the petrographic 
method for microscopic study. Examination of these sections 
showed a wide meningeal space with preservation of some of the 
meninges and blood vessels. These spaces were filled with vesicular 
calcite. The brain substance itself had been converted into in- 
complete crystals of calcite and phosphate which had obliterated 
all traces of organic structure. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

12. DETWILER, S. R., and LAURENS, H., Studies on the Retina. 

The Structure of the Retina of Phrynosoma cornutum. 
Six figures. Jour. Comp. Neurol.j 1920, 32, 347-356. 

The theory that the rod-filled retina is adapted chiefly to 
twilight vision and the cone-filled retina to diurnal vision receives 
possible substantiation from the examination of animal retinae. 
The retina of lizards and turtles is peculiar in that, with few excep- 
tions, it contains only cones. The retina of Phrynosoma was 
found to possess only cones and a prominent area centralis which 
contained a maximally developed fovea. In these respects the 
retina resembled that of other diurnal saurians. The cones exhi- 
bited a considerable variation in size, shape, structure and dis- 



NERFOUS SYSTEM ^ 

tribution. At the fovea they were much thicker, greatly attenu- 
ated, and cylindrical in form as compared with the conical 
form of those in the extra-foveal region. The pigment was ex- 
tremely abundant and under ordinary conditions of illumination 
extended far down on the visual cells (even to the paraboloids), 
except in the fovea where only the outer segments of the cells were 
covered. The retina also had a highly vascular pecten which 
extended dorso-anterially about I mm. into the posterior chamber 
of the eye. WHEELER (Oregon) 

13. KUNTZ, A. and BATSON, O. V., Experimental Observations on 

the Histogenesis of the Sympathetic Trunks in the Chick. 

Three figures. Jour. Comp. Neurol., 1920, 32, 335-346. 
Here the chief purpose has been to throw more light upon the 
disputed origin of the sympathetic nervous system. The method 
consisted in destroying, at the end of 48 hours of incubation, just 
enough tissue along the dorsal aspect of the embryo to insure the 
elimination of the neural crest material without disturbing the 
ventral half of the tube. Seven embryos survived the operation 
two of which were killed at the end of 96 hours and the rest at the 
end of 1 20 hours. Results were found in harmony with those of 
Kuntz in the preceding number of this journal. The primordia 
of the sympathetic ganglia developed in the absence of spinal 
ganglia and dorsal nerve roots. However, when only the most 
ventral portion of the central nervous system is left intact, together 
with the ventral nerve roots, these primordia develop only to a 
slight degree and sometimes not at all. This suggests that while 
the primordia may develop in the absence of spinal ganglia and 
dorsal nerve roots, sections of the central nervous system aside 
from the ventral portion of the neural tube are essential for the 
proper development of sympathetic nerves. Perhaps those cells 
which normally give rise to sympathetic trunks are derived largely 
from those portions of the neural tube which, at the same time, 
give rise to lateral cell columns in the cord. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

14. BLACK, D., Studies on Endocranial Anatomy. II. On the 

Endocranial Anatomy of Oreodon (Merycoidodon). Forty- 
eight figures. Jour. Comp. Neurol., 1920, 32, 271-328. 
The Oreodons have been described in the literature as primitive 
hog-like ruminants which were known to have inhabited North 



8 NERVOUS SYSTEM 

America from upper Eocene to lower Pliocene times. The author 
bases his endocranial anatomy of these Oreodons on five casts 
taken from specimens which were originally found in North Dakota. 
In substantiation of the fact considerable knowledge concerning 
the cranial morphology of a fossil animal can be obtained from a 
study of endocranial casts, he points out that the surface of the 
brain leaves certain impressions upon the corresponding surface 
of the bone. This condition is best found in those adult animals 
whose growth shows early maturation. Since this early maturation 
does not occur in man to the extent that it occurs in the lower 
vertebrates these impressions are either absent or indistinct in the 
former. A restoration of the Oreodon brain reveals relatively 
large olfactory lobes and massive olfactory tracts or peduncles 
which make the rhinencephalon extend a considerable distance 
anterior to the neopallium. The neopallium characterizes the 
animal as a general, primitive ungulate, with very slightly developed 
association areas the function of which latter is conceivably that 
of associating a very highly specialized cerebellum with the 
cortical projection areas. The cerebellum is very highly specialized 
compared with the primitive neopallium and shows a plan of or- 
ganization very similar to modern artiodactyls. The large size 
and specialized character of the cerebellum and the small, simply 
arranged neopallium give evidence of the apparent independence of 
these organs during phylogeny. But at the same time it is doubtful 
whether the cerebellum, as is sometimes thought, assumed entire 
control of the motor coordination of the animal. A fairly well 
developed convolution bordering the coronal fissure indicates that 
a neopallial efferent projection center had developed and was 
functionally active in Oreodons. There are numerous features 
of these brains which distinctly indicate the primitive character 
of the animal as compared with its modern relatives, namely: 
small volume of cerebrum, limited caudal expansion of neopallium, 
practical absence of pre-sylvian neopallial areas and the course of 
the internal carotid artery. There are also many features of the 
brain which show the artiodactyl traits of Oreodon as well as evi- 
dences in support of the view that it was a ruminating animal with 
accompanying suilline traits. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 



NERVOUS SYSTEM 9 

15. NITTONO, K., On the Growth of the Neurons Composing the 

Gasserian Ganglion of the Albino Rat, between Birth and 
Maturity. Five charts and one plate (twelve figures). 
Jour. Comp. Neurol., 1920, 23, 237-269. 

Measurements were made of the largest ganglion cells in seventy- 
six gasserian ganglia taken from thirty-eight normal albino rats, 
and on ten of the largest fibers from four nerve roots in thirty-nine 
albino rats. These measurements were made at four day intervals 
beginning with the birth of the rats and at gradually increasing 
intervals up to 485 days, when the .observations ceased. The 
growth of the ganglion cells shows three phases: (i) a rapid growing 
period which extends from birth to about 20 days; (2) a slower 
growing period which covers from 2080 days (sometimes 100); 
(3) a period of much slower growth or even atrophy which extends 
to the end of the observations. Among rats of the same age, 
those individuals with heavier body weights have larger cell bodies, 
nuclei and fibers than those of lighter body weights. The cells 
assume an adult appearance about 20 days after birth. Further 
changes in the morphological character of the cells is confined 
to an increase in size of both cell body and nucleus and in quantity 
of Nissl substance. The volume of the ganglion cells increases at 
the same rate as the area of head surface in younger animals, 
before 80 days of age but beyond this age the growth of the neurons 
becomes relatively much slower than the growth of the head. 
From the i8th day on the areas of axis cylinders keeps pace with 
the growth of the head but prior to this time the head growth is 
relatively more rapid. The ratios between the diameters of the 
nerve fibers and the diameters of the ganglion cells decrease with 
increasing body weight for the reason that after puberty there is a 
longer continued growth in diameter of the fiber compared with that 
of the ganglion cells. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

1 6. KUNTZ, A., The Development of the Sympathetic Nervous 

System in Man. Thirty-one figures. Jour. Comp. Neurol. , 
1920, 32, 173-230. 

Much of our knowledge concerning the development of the 
sympathetic nervous system has been derived from studies on 
lower vertebrates with the result that many major problems in 
connection with the development of the human sympathetic 
system have never been adequately settled. After briefly reviewing 



10 NERFOUS SYSTEM 

the literature the author describes in detail the results of his extended 
studies of human embryos. Chief among the major problems in 
this field is the question whether the sympathetic nervous system 
is derived wholly from the cerebro-spinal ganglia (or neural crest) 
or partly from this region and partly from the ventral half of the 
neural tube. In other words, is the origin of the entire sympathetic 
nervous system due to outward migrations over sensory routes or 
to outward migrations over both sensory and motor routes. A 
second problem is the question whether the sympathetic system 
is built up upon unit cells which migrate from the cord or whether 
it is derived in part from these cells as such and in part from mitotic 
division of migrant cells. The findings of the author, which are 
assumed to possess greater validity than those of certain former 
investigators, owing to a more improved technique, lead him to 
conclude that on the whole, the sympathetic nervous system is 
derived from cells which advance peripherally along both the 
dorsal and the ventral roots of the spinal cord and further, that not 
all of these cells migrate as such from the cerebrospinal system to 
the positions of the sympathetic primordia. Many cells of the 
sympathetic system are observed to originate by mitosis along the 
paths of migration and even after the original cells have reached 
the primordia of the sympathetic ganglia. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

3. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

17. FROBES, J., Aus der vorgeschichte der psychologischen Optik. 

Zeits. f. Psychol., 1920, 85, 1-36. (Festschrift zum 70 

Geburtstag von Prof. Dr. G. E. Miiller.) 

After a brief discussion of the optical theories of the Greek 
philosophers, the author reviews at some length the work of Alhazen 
and his two commentators, Witelo and Roger Bacon. Their 
surprising modernity of outlook is duly praised. "The doctrine 
of color perception was still very modest in its reliance on facts, 
even more on usable explanations. There are not even prelimin- 
aries for a color theory. Even such fundamental knowledge as the 
correct arrangement of colors on the color-square had to wait for 
Leonardo da Vinci. Space perception was in a better position. 
True such an essential point as the retinal images remained for 
Scheiner to demonstrate, but with the substitute theory of the 
lens-image, the fundamental lines of a correct theory were marked 
out." ENGLISH (Wellesley) 



SENSATION AND PERCEPTION II 

18. FERREE, C. E. and RAND, G., The Limits of Color Sensitivity: 

Effect of Brightness of Preexposure and Surrounding Field. 

Psychol. Rev., 1920, 27, 377-398. 

The authors have studied the limits of the retinal color zones 
for red, yellow, green, and blue, in relation to the brightness of the 
preexposure (or surface exposed immediately before the color 
stimulus) and the brightness of the surrounding field. These 
factors modify the apparent color through the effects of after-image 
and contrast. Each of these factors is studied separately as well 
as the combined effect of the two. The principle result is that the 
retinal color zones are widest in extent when the brightness of the 
preexposed and surrounding fields is equal to that of the color 
stimulus. Hence in clinical or laboratory work standardization 
could be brought about by keeping the preexposure and surrounding 
field of the same brightness as the color stimulus. It is found that 
in some meridians the combined effect of these factors may narrow 
the zone as much as 20 degrees. The relative effects of black and 
white upon the limits of color sensitivity are compared in four 
tables and six charts. The work is part of a more general study 
of the variable factors which influence the chromatic response of 
the retina. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

19. PRATT, C. C., Highest Audible Tones from Steel Cylinders. 

(Minor Studies from the Psychological Laboratory of Clark 
University. XXIV. Communicated by Edwin G. Boring.) 
Amer. ]. of Psychol., 1920, 31, 403-408. 

A set of twenty-two steel cylinders, giving frequencies for three 
octaves of the natural diatonic scale from C 5 = 4096 to C 8 = 32,768, 
was used to determine the upper limit of hearing. The frequencies 
are calculated by the manufacturer, and appear to be slightly too 
high. Calibration by the Kundt dust method proved unsuitable. 

The tonal TR of sixteen observers was determined. The dif- 
ferences between observers were much greater than the variations 
of a single observer from judgment to judgment. In general the 
cylinders indicated that the limen is less than 20,000 vs. The 
oldest observer had the lowest limen, but there were no other 
evidences of age differences. The results obtained contrasted 
strikingly with results from the Galton whistle in that doubtful 
judgments with the cylinders were unusual. Although intensity 
was a factor, its control did not appear to be difficult. The set of 



12 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

cylinders may be used to demonstrate the upper limit of hearing 
before small classes. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

20. JONES, A. L, The Sounds of Splashes. Science, 1920, 52, 

295-296. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

21. DIMMICK, F. L., An Experimental Study of Visual Movement 

and the Phi Phenomenon. Amer. J. of PsychoL, 1920, 31, 

3I7-332- 

The aim of the experiment was to put the alleged elementary 
movement experience described by Wertheimer (the Phi pheno- 
menon) under critically descriptive conditions and to test its 
analyzability. A Dodge tachistiscope, modified by the addition 
of a third stimulus-field, was used in the experimental work, and 
the conditions described by Wertheimer were duplicated. The 
observers were instructed in half the series to report, in strictly 
psychological terms, upon the processes that they experienced; 
in the remaining series they were to characterize the perception 
(state its meaning). The two principal stimuli employed were 
those that gave movement from an oblique to a horizontal position, 
and from an upper horizontal to a lower horizontal position. 

Optimal movement (movement of a line all the way from one 
position to other) was obtained in a majority of the exposures, and 
partial movement of one or both members in all save a small fraction 
of the remainder. No uniform influence of the pre- and infra- 
exposure field appeared. A time-interval of 900- between the 
stimuli produced the highest average percent of optimal movement. 
The characterizations (under the "meaning" instructions) were 
paralleled by a series of "process" reports, which gave the psy- 
chological correlate of the perception of movement. This correlate 
was always a flash of grey. In the case of optimal movement it 
extended from one position of the line to the other; in partial 
movement it filled only a portion of the intervening space. 
The use of colored stimuli did not change the quality of the grey, 
but the brightness of the background affected its brightness in the 
opposite direction. There is no movement in the grey flash; the 
space is constant; the integration is one of time and quality. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 



SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 13 

22. WOOLBERT, C. H., Effects of Various Modes of Public Reading, 

/. of Applied PsychoL, 1920, 4, 162-185. 

The study attempts to bring the numerous problems of oral 
expression and public reading into the laboratory. The method used 
was based upon a study of the relation between changes in the use 
of the voice and specified responses of auditors; that is, the effects 
of various modes of public reading, employing different combina- 
tions of changes in the use of attributes of sound while reading. 
The attributes of sound are pitch, intensity, time and timbre. 
The conclusions show a presumption in favor of using an extreme 
degree of change in all four attributes especially for the purpose of 
securing retentiveness over an extended time. The four attributes 
differ in their effect upon the responses to oral reading. The 
results conform to generally accepted judgments. 

E. M. ACHILLES 

23. WALLIN, J. E. W., Congenital Word Blindness Some Analyses 

of Cases. Training Sch. Bull., 1920, 17, 76-84, 93-99. 

The article contains an analysis of some of the data gathered on 
95 consecutive cases from St. Louis examinees whose reading disa- 
bility has been attributed to visual aphasia or dyslexia. Word 
Blindness means inability to understand or interpret written 
characters. It is a form of asymboly which affects the imaging, 
remembering and interpretation but not the perception of printed 
symbols. 

The word blind cases as a group did not present any visual 
or auditory sense defects. The tests did not reveal any peculiar 
defects in auditory or visual imagery, apart from possible defect in 
visual word imagery. A selected bibliography is appended. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES. 

24. JONES, L. A. and REEVES, P., The Physical Measurement and 

Specification of Color, PsychoL Rev., 1920, 27, 453-465. 
Color may be measured synthetically by means of a color wheel, 
or analytically through an exact determination of the composition 
of physical radiation. In the synthetic method it is important 
to know the physical specification for the materials used. This 
specification may be given by separating the radiation into its 
components and measuring the intensity of the individual elements 
with a spectro-radiometer. The composition of any radiation may 
be shown by means of a spectral energy curve in which energy is 



14 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

plotted as ordinates against wave length plotted as abscissae. 
Methods of making such determinations are briefly described. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

25. BORING, E. G., The Control of Attitude in Psycho-physical 

Experiments. Psychol, Rev., 1920, 27, 440-452. 
Starting from an article by Dr. Godfrey H. Thomson (Psychol. 
Rev., 1920, 27, 300-307) the author discusses the exclusion of doubt- 
ful and reflective judgments; the establishment of definite criteria 
of judgment; the elimination of the stimulus error; the independence 
of the single judgment; the nature of the psychometric functions. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

26. POLLOCK, L. J., Nerve Overlap as Related to the Relatively 

Early Return of Pain Sense Following Injury to the Peri- 
pheral Nerves. Ten figures. Jour. Comp. N enrol., 1920, 
32, 357-378. 

The author's investigation of 500 hospital patients with peri- 
pheral nerve lesions is aimed at alleged evidence in favor of the 
protopathic and epicritic types of cutaneous nerve fibers. Sen- 
sitivity to light pressure was determined by the use of wisps of 
cotton. The sensation of pain was aroused by using a weighted 
needle sliding between a bit of glass tubing so that with different 
weighted needles a pressure of from 5-35 grams could be applied. 
The purpose of the investigation did not seem to warrant a finer 
technique, since the author's chief object was to ascertain the 
reason for the dissociated return of the pain sense. Hair sensibility 
was eliminated by close shaving; pressure-pain was avoided by 
taking care that the only responses to pain were those from the 
prick of a sharp point. The entire investigation showed that the 
dissociated return of pain is undoubtedly due to nerve overlapping 
and not to the early regeneration of a so-called protopathic sensi- 
bility, for (i) following the section of a mixed nerve the complete 
loss of sensibility to pain is far less than the loss of tactile sensitivity; 
(2) the early and dissociated return of pain occurs in areas which 
are constant for each individual nerve; (3) the areas in which this 
dissociated return of pain was observed were always along the 
borders fed by adjacent uninjured nerves; (4) when the nerves 
which supplied these adjacent areas were severed, sensitivity to 
pain in these border areas disappeared; (5) the pain sense did not 
return within the time usually allotted for the regeneration of the 



SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 15 

"protopathic" sense; (6) this possible overlapping was demon- 
strated as a likely cause for the early return of dissociated pain 
sensitivity in case of the radial nerve; (7) in all cases of resection 
and suture of a nerve, when sensitivity to pain was present in 
border areas, these areas remained, on the whole, as they were 
prior to the operation, showing that the pain sense existing before 
the operation could not have been due to a partial regeneration of 
the nerve. Thus in no instance where there could not have been 
an overlapping of adjacent nerves was there an early and dissociated 
return of the pain sense; and conversely, wherever there was possi- 
bility of overlapping, this so-called protopathic pain sensibility 
was present. While the question still remains, so far as this investi- 
gation is concerned, of the two sets of nerve fibers the protopathic 
and epicritic one can no longer see how the early and dissociateed 
return of pain can be used as evidence in favor of the two sets of 
cutaneous fibers. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

5. MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

27. WHEELER, R. H., Theories of the Will and Kinesthetic Sen- 
sations. Psychol. Rev., 1920, 27, 350-360. 

Theories of the will may be classed under the following headings: 
(i) Totally reductive theories or those reducing will to a peculiar 
order of sequence of sensations, images and affections (Munsterberg, 
Ebbinghaus) ; (2) Non-reductive theories or those admitting a unique 
and elementary will process (Lotze, Ach and Michotte, James); 
(3) Partially reductive theories which are intermediate between (i) 
and (2) (Herbart, Lipps, Stout, Calkins, Ach and Michotte, Meu- 
mann, Bain, Wundt, Fouillee); (4) Sehavioristic theories or those 
laying emphasis on the coordinated responses of the organism to 
its environment (Ribot). The partially reductive theories have 
failed to reduce conation, striving, feelings of activity, force, strain 
etc., to a common process; but such experiences, the author believes 
may be reduced to kinesthetic sensations. Hence extreme varia- 
tions in theories of will are referable to differences of interpretation 
placed upon a consciousness made up largely of kinesthetic sen- 
sations. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 



1 6 MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

28. GARTH, T. R., Racial Differences in Mental Fatigue. /. of 

Applied Psyc hoi., 1920, 4, 235-244. 

Tests reported in the Archives of Psychology No. 41 are given 
also to Indians and negroes. The difference between whites, 
Indians and negroes of equal educational opportunity in the 
matter of mental fatigue shows the Indians excel the whites and 
negroes in the curve representing fatigue in attempts and accurate 
performance; the whites excel the negroes. 

E. M. ACHILLES 

29. ESTERLY, C. O., Limitations of Experiment in Explaining 

Natural Habit, as Illustrated by the Diurnal Migration. 

Science, 1920, 52, 307-310. 

It has been found that the marine plankton animals are more 
abundant at higher levels at night, and at lower levels by day, 
and the phenomenon has been considered evidence of a diurnal 
migration. A number of explanations of such movements have 
been attempted, but their generality has not been established. 
The writer studied experimentally the reactions of these organisms. 
For only one species did he obtain data that showed why the 
diurnal movement takes place. The experiments did, however, 
bring to light matters affecting the interpretation of experimental 
results as applied to an explanation of a * natural habit.' The 
behavior of the various species shows such marked specificity that 
no general explanation of the migration is possible. There is 
something connected with either the removal of specimens from the 
sea or their retention in the laboratory that affects the responses 
in some cases. Specimens of the same species, but obtained from 
different locations or habitats, show noteworthy differences in 
behavior. It does not seem possible that the facts of diurnal migra- 
tion (or any other * natural habit') can be obtained without both 
laboratory and field studies. The results of work in the field 
will show what the animals do in their natural surroundings, while 
experimental work may show why they act as they do. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

30. WHITE, W. A., Extending the Field of Conscious Control. 

Ment. Hyg., 4, 1920, 857-866. 

The study of hidden motives which control our conduct has 
but just been begun, and "so long as these motives lie wholly 



MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 17 

without the field of consciousness, so long is the individual their 
creature instead of their master." The author presents several 
illustrations of the way things go wrong because of the unconscious 
motives actuating conduct. In order to get at these hidden 
motives the field of consciousness must be enlarged to include lost 
associations. A man in business, for example, may have a dangerous 
rival whom he wishes were dishonest and finally this wish is believed 
in. In this and other ways we approach all our problems of 
living with a bias. Education should be made more a process of 
unfolding rather than of repressing. The new psychology that 
teaches us to turn our vision within and to find the cause of our 
troubles in ourselves rather than in our environment has proved 
itself successful. Extending the field of consciousness control is 
the process of realizing, for oneself, the mechanisms by which we 
distort the real causes of our troubles. It is the principle of 
"open covenants openly arrived at," applied to the individual. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

31. MARTIN, E. G., On Strength Tests. /. Amer. Med. Ass., 

1920, 75, 880. 

(This is a summary and comments on an article appearing in 
Public Health Reports, 35, 1895.) Persistent exposure to tempera- 
ture above 30 C. is unfavorable to strength. Relative humidity 
between 70 and 80 favor high strength showing. Other climatic 
influences seem not to be operative. Effects of fatigue persist from 
day to day. Extreme fatigue one day is followed with mild fatigue 
the following day, even though there has been no additional exer- 
tion. The most pronounced indications of fatigue are presented 
in an operation requiring close concentration and care or in a 
disagreeable environment. 

SYLVESTER (Drake) 

6. ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 

32. ACHILLES, E. M., Experimental Studies in Recall and Recog- 

nition. Arch, of Psychol.j No. 44, pp. 80, New York, 

September, 1920. 

Experiments on recall and recognition of pictures, geometrical 
forms, words, syllables and proverbs were performed on normal 
children and adults of different ages and on insane subjects. Ma- 
terials, processes and subjects are compared. Superior scores in 



18 ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 

recognition are shown to vary with associative richness and degree 
of determination to remember. The influence of intention varies 
with the process and the materials, being greater for recall and for 
meaningful material. Primacy and recency are less effective with 
recognition and with meaningful materials than with recall and 
with material devoid of associations. Color and size variations 
are ineffective. There is but little correlation between recognition 
and recall or between different materials. No marked sex differ- 
ences in achievement nor in variability were found, the tendency 
being however toward superior records for the women. Insane 
patients show no differential modification of recall or recognition. 
Both processes improve with age and with school grade. Younger 
children score better than older ones in the same grade. New 
items are judged correctly more often than are old items. Various 
methods of scoring recognition data are considered. The difference 
between recall and recognition scores is explained in terms of 
"memory threshold." Depending on the distance of the retained 
item above the lower threshold of memory, it may be easily re- 
called, recalled with difficulty, easily recognized, recognized with 
difficulty, or not remembered in any way. There is no gap between 
recall and recognition scores, the threshold levels or distances 
constituting a continuum. 

H. L. HOLLINGWORTH (Columbia) 

33. JAENSCH, E. R. Ueber den Aufbau der Wahrnehmungswelt 

und ihre Struktur im Jugendalter. Zur Methodik experi- 

menteller Untersuchungen an optischen Anschauungsbil- 

dern. Zeits. f. Psychol., 1920, 85, 37-82. (Zestschrift 

zum 70 Geburtstag von Prof. Dr. G. E. Miiller.) 

The author has apparently carried on an elaborate research in 

the last three years upon upwards of 100 subjects, adults and 

youths, who possess or are gifted with visual percept-images. 

The forelying article is chiefly a diffuse defense of experiment in 

this field, declared by G. E. Miiller and Stumpf to be apsychonomic. 

The best defense would seem to be actual experiments of which, 

however, only enough are given to whet one's appetite. The 

phenomenon of the identical line of regard (Hering's Gesetz der 

identischen Sehrichtung) is shown to prevail with percept-images 

even though the subjects had never before noted it in perception. 

(See pp. 40-42.) Similarly the stereoscopic illusion due to the 

so-called retinal incongruence (Hering) may be demonstrated 



ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT ig 

where one half of the figure is a percept and one half is a percept- 
image. It is to be noted, however, that while all subjects who suc- 
ceeded in combining percept and image in this manner experienced 
the illusion, most subjects found such combination impossible. 
(See pp. 43-47.) Miscellaneous observations about the nature of 
percept-images are scattered throughout the article. Such is the 
statement (p. 53) that for many subjects, the percept-images are 
sufficiently vivid to conceal the background upon which they are 
projected, or the oft-repeated assertion that in virtually every 
psychological respect, the percept-image is intermediate between 
after-image and idea-image (Vorstellung). 

Upon the basis of an unpublished somatic study by his brother. 
W. Jaensch, the author distinguishes two types of "Eidetiker" 
(persons gifted with percept-images). Psychologically, these two 
types seem to differ only in degree, the images of the T-type ap- 
proaching more nearly the after-image, those of the B-type the 
idea-image, especially in respect to voluntary control and subjection 
to accidental, external influences. Somatically, they are said to 
differ more sharply. The T-constitution is "marked by galvanic 
and mechanical hyper-excitability of peripheral, especially of the 
motor nerves." The B-constitution presents a clinical picture 
not unlike the Basedow syndrome. Differences between the 
Marburg cases (Jaensch) and the Vienna cases of Urbantschitsch 
are ascribed to the prevalence in the latter city of Basedowoid types. 
In its extreme form, the B-type is so subject to accidental influences 
as to be really apsychonomic. This explains in large part why 
Urbantsch's cases (chiefly found in an ear clinic) yielded such irreg- 
ular results. 

Jaensch holds that percept-images are typical of a certain 
period (unspecified) in a child's life; their persistence in certain 
adults is a case of specialized infantilism. No evidence is presented 
for this view, but reference is made to previous articles (apparently 
in the Zeitschriff) by Kroh and Herwig. The whole article is 
organized as a defense of method; from any other standpoint it is 
very badly organized. The above abstract should suffice for all 
save the special student of this problem. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

34. BYRD, H., A Case of Phenomenal Memorizing by a Feeble- 
minded Negro. /. of Applied Psyckol., 1920, 4, 202-206. 
The case of a feeble-minded negro is described. He is chron- 



20 ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 

ologically 24 years and mentally between 8 and 9. He has a 
rather short auditory memory span failing on five digits. He has 
committed to memory a large array of facts about dates, places and 
locomotive engine numbers. Given a date month, year, and day 
of month he will give day of week. He cannot go back of 1901 
nor forward beyond 1924. Between these limits he never fails. 

E. M. ACHILLES 

35. OTIS, A. S., Do We Think in Words? Psychol. Rev., 1920, 27, 

399-419. 

The behavioristic conception of thought as "subvocal talking" 
is not adequate to the facts. We may think in words but the 
materials of thought are by no means limited to words; visual, 
auditory, kinesthetic, and other imagery may play a part. Words 
are only one kind of symbolization. Thought may be concerned 
with judgments of color, size, weight, motion, acceleration, sym- 
metry, etc. in which word symbols play little or no part. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

7. SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

36. BARNES, H. E., A Psychological Interpretation of Modern 

Social Problems and of Contemporary History: A Survey of 
the Contributions of Gustave Le Bon to Social Psychology. 
Amer. J. of Psychol., 1920, 31, 333-369. 

The range of Le Bon's interests is so great that his work in any 
special field lacks thoroughness. Taking a few striking psychologi- 
cal postulates, he applies them to nearly every phase of contem- 
porary life. His writings on social psychology are colored by an 
"anti-patriotic bias" and a "class bias." Yet he has pointed out 
tendencies, conditions, and psychological laws which had been 
previously overlooked. 

(The greater part of the article consists of a critical and analytical 
review of eight of Le Bon's works on social psychology, namely: 
"Lois psychologiques de 1'evolution des peuples" (1895); "La 
psychologic des foules" (1895); "La psychologic des socialisme" 
(1898); "La Psychologic politique et la defense sociale" (1910); 
"Les Opinions et les Croyances, genese, evolution" (1911); "La 
Revolution francaise et la psychologic des revolutions" (1912); 
"Enseignements psychologiques de la guerre europeene " (1916); 
and "Premieres consequences de la guerre; transformation mentale 



SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 21 

des peuples" (1917). There is appended a summary of his basic 
theories on social psychology.) 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

37. ROGERS, A. K., Principles in Ethics. Pkilos. Rev., 1920, 29, 

5II-529. 

The origin and sanction of moral judgments is to be found in 
certain pre-rational elements of impulse and feeling. It is the 
fact of approval as an empirical expression of human nature that 
tells us why we ought to do certain things. "Unless we found 
ourselves ... so constituted that some things are pronounced 
good by us and others not so good, no ... guiding insight would 
be possible." That what men usually approve of and consciously 
strive after is pleasure, or self-realization, etc., is denied. Rather 
we strive to do things "that we find interesting and important." 
The self has its interests and attention directed to things rather 
than to feelings. In order to find what kind of work carries with 
it the moral approval we must turn to the facts of experience not 
to the realm of self-evident truths. And turning to experience 
we find that, since men are differently built, no rational principle 
in itself can possibly tell us what sort of life in the concrete man is 
suited to. It is the individual liking that must determine the 
personal ideal. In principle (and in fact at times) one must sub- 
stitute considerations of purely objective value for the more per- 
sonal appeal of this or that particular form of the good but normally 
this "impersonal calculation is subordinate to the ends chosen by 
our constitution." When a man finds an interest which is capable 
of gripping him and keeping him steadily and pleasantly at work 
he should accept it as his ideal and "other things are good in 
proportion as they lend themselves to the accomplishment of this 
main design, or at least do not actively impede it." 

CAMPBELL (Wells) 

38. LODGE, R. C., Reality and the Moral Judgment in Plato. 

Philos. Rev., 1920,29, 453-475. 

This article shows, among other things, that Plato's writings 
contain much psychological insight. Courage, for Plato, is based 
upon what we now call the instinct of pugnacity. Temperance 
has its basis in a "certain innate disposition, a natural tendency 
toward quietness, orderliness, obedience to law, etc." Associated 
with this disposition are certain other tendencies of mind, e.g., 



22 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

evenness of temper, freedom from passion, etc. The virtue of 
justice is gradually developed from the instinct of gregariousness. 
All animals delight in motion but "to control the joyous abandon 
of animal motility, to re-shape it in terms of measure and rhythm, 
of harmony and balanced order, is specifically human, and is 
regarded by Plato as the basis of art in all its forms," Law arises 
as a natural reaction against forces which threaten the existence 
of the community. In the more primitive stages of social develop- 
ment it is almost wholly unreflective; but later becomes self- 
conscious. Man naturally reaches out after new experiences and 
these awaken in him the cognitive processes the activities of which 
result in immediate and instinctive satisfaction. This impulse 
to know is really based upon what we would now call the instinct 
of curiosity. In some it prompts to the task of working over and 
reorganizing the whole of human experience, in short to live the 
life which is the life of philosophy, the highest and most blessed 
possibility to man. 

CAMPBELL (Wells) 

39. PROCTER, T. H., The Motives of the Soldier. Internal. J. of 
Ethics, 1920, 31, 26-50. 

The following three questions are asked and answered: what 
made men join up, what sustained them during the long war, what 
is the effect of war upon the soldier. Three classes of motives 
made him join. Those acting under the first joined because they 
wanted to. They obeyed one of the following simple impulses: 
love of fighting, love of romance (including adventure), hatred of 
the enemy, doing what others are doing. The second class of 
motives had reference to an "ought." Here the motive was con- 
scious and intellectual, the action thoujght out. Under social 
compulsion and at a later date under conscription men joined, 
in most cases, because they were afraid not to. If it were possible 
to secure recruiting figures of the different months one would 
be able to show that the motives were present in the following order 
of frequency: fear, altrusitic motives, humanitarianism, attraction. 

Of the individual motives that sustained a man during the war 
the strongest was that accomplished through the merging of the 
individual into the general will. The personality of the army was 
substituted for that of the individual soldier. This was accom- 
plished through the most rigid discipline; fear being the largest 
element in this. As lesser individual motives are mentioned 



SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 23 

esprit de corps, instinctive anger which makes you want to shoot 
at the fellow that is trying to pot you, all that is included in the 
word comradeship. Of the over-individual motives belief in the 
cause and the emotion of hatred are the essential ones. 

Of the effects of the war the following are discussed: loss of 
idealism, general feeling of disillusionment, the loss of the temporary 
army virtues such as punctuality, neatness, cleanliness, fusion of 
social classes. The soldier is said to be drained emotionally, to 
have more or less lost his capacity to feel. He is however more 
responsive to mass impulses. He has continued the habit, gained 
in the army, of not forming independent judgments. He has come 
to regard life more cheaply and values higher the pleasures of the 
senses. War may be necessary, but it is evil. 

CAMPBELL (Wells) 

40. DAVIES, G. R., Progress and the Constructive Instincts. 

Amer. J. of Social. 1920, 26, 213-223. 

Every conspicuous advance of civilization is a consequence of 
instinctive energies thrown into new channels by increasing mental- 
ity, of constructive instinct radiating into invention and managerial 
ability. When a dynamic advance of society is nascent, men of 
superior natural ability in the groups affected are developed to 
give direction to the movement. Some of these are leaders in 
things intellectual and idealistic, but the substantial work is done 
by economic leaders. A primary condition upon which the organic 
relationships of society depend is the wide natural diversity and 
inequality of human nature. The functional society, ruled by a 
spirit of intelligent enterprise tends to become by a cyclical aging 
process a stratified static society, in which property is hereditarily 
concentrated, the common spirit of endeavor is displaced by group 
feeling, and energies are wasted in strife. Socialistic experiments 
have never made a successful appeal to the constructive instincts, 
but these instincts may be stimulated by a clarifying of the moral 
perspective and by a fostering regard for science. 

HART (Iowa) 

41. MORGAN, J. J. B., Why Men Strike. Amer. ]. of Sooo/., 

1920, 26, 207-211. 

Men strike because of the fact that the work of modern trades- 
men, craftsmen and laborers is so specialized, so devoid of intrinsic 
interest that the workman finds no incentive to work except the 



24 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

pay he receives. Laziness is an abnormality resulting from the 
conflict between desires to act in unconventional ways and fear 
of the results coupled with a distaste for conventional activity. 
The only permanent remedy for industrial unrest is to make work 
interesting for all classes, by introducing variation in each man's 
job, by showing him the relationship between his task and the 
project as a whole, and by opening up before him a possible route 
for promotion. HART (Iowa) 

42. GRIFFITHS, J., Give the Boy a Chance. Training Sch. Bull., 

1920, 17, 100-104. 

This is a story of a boy who came before the court three times. 
The judge knew his record; he was 13 years old, but mentally 9. 
Wishing to "give the boy a chance" he would not place him in an 
institution. Nine years later he had no job and had lost an arm in 
industry. He was charged with deserting his wife, age 19, and a 
two- week-old child. The judge then saw that the real chance for 
the boy would have been in an institution where he would have 
been training to do what he was able to do. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

43. JONES, C. T., Wyoming State School for Defectives. Training 

Sch. Bull., 1920, 17, I34-I35. 

The aim of training is to prepare the border-line cases who 
are not psychopathic for return to the community under an ade- 
quate parole system. Research is being conducted. Teachers 
who desire to prepare for work along this line may spend as long 
a period as is necessary at the school to learn to give mental tests 
and to get practical experience in teaching defectives. Room and 
board are furnished and there is no tuition. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

44. THE TRAINING SCHOOL (VINELAND) RESEARCH DEPARTMENT. 

Training Sch. Bull., 1920, 17, 84-87. 

The research dates from 1906; its annual cost is about $10,000. 
The present personnel consists of a director, assistant, librarian, 
and a stenographer. There are several research students who are 
voluntary workers. The general scope of the work has been 
problems of (i) recognition, (2) the causation, (3) prevention of 
mental defects. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 



SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 2$ 

45. LINK, H., A New Application of Psychology to Industry. 

/. of Applied Psychol.j 1920, 4, 245-249. 

This experiment suggests certain broad potentialities of indus- 
trial psychology. The problem of setting rates is a universal 
problem and it is one of the most trouble making questions with 
which industries have to deal. Psychological method could supple- 
ment the time-study method. The experiment reported here 
was conducted in a sporting goods factory. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

46. LINK, H. C., The Applications of Psychology to Industry. 

Psychol. Bull., 1920, 17, 335-346. 

Psychology as applied to industry is on the defensive, partly 
because industry has expected quick and concrete returns which 
the sometimes over-confident psychologists have not been able to 
produce. Some of the most significant applications of psychology 
to industry have been achieved by men who are not professional 
psychologists. The most promising new phase is the establishment 
of departments of psychology in many schools of business adminis- 
tration and other technical schools. 

In reviewing the literature, the author calls attention to Brierly's 
warning against the tendency of psychologists to let the practical 
demands of industry dominate their outlook, so that the personality 
of the men and the human side of the situation be dimmed in com- 
parison. In this connection he praises the articles of Tead, Marat, 
Southard and Carleton Parker. 

A fruitful field practically untouched by industrial psycholo- 
gists, is that of arousing interest in the work. Wolf makes a valuable 
contribution here, reporting an experiment in which graphic 
charts, describing elements in their tasks so aroused interest in 
workers that the output was greatly increased. Kitson's article 
also argues for this extension of information to create interest. 

In discussing the large literature dealing with the application 
of psychology to employment the author shows that he feels that 
more job analysis is needed. He says the use of a standard 
clerical test assumes the existence of a general clerical ability. 
Where job specifications for clerical work have been made it generally 
turns out to involve a wide range of work, requiring many special 
abilities rather than a general one. 

Discussing rating scales, Link suggests that they should rather 
be called "opinion records." He appreciates the constant error 



26 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

in such judgments which Thorndike has named the "aura" of 
general merit. He feels that important questions for both psy- 
chological technique and for industrial management are raised 
by Shelton's unique rating method, which uses secret ballots cast 
by the men as well as the managers. 

The author apparently agrees with Spaith, that the psychological 
studies of fatigue have so far been barren. He quotes with approval 
Watson's assertion that the division of work into mental and 
physical has brought the psychology of fatigue to an impasse. He 
feels that a genuine though non-psychological contribution to the 
subject of fatigue has been made by the Gilbreths, who are interested 
in eliminating useless movements. 

These investigators, too, have made the most important con- 
tribution to the problem of rate setting. In this field, Link opens 
up numbers of interesting and very practical problems which might 
well engage the industrial psychologist. 

A new German periodical, Pracktische Psychologie, devotes its 
first two numbers to the description of new apparatus designed to 
examine machine tool apprentices. The enthusiasm expressed by 
German writers indicates a strong vocational trend. An exception 
appears in the article of Tramm which describes the training of 
street car motormen according to the methods of applied psychology. 

Deploring the mass of pot-boiling material which is being turned 
out by the pseudo-scientific writers, Link is inclined to blame 
psychologists partly for its appearance. The applied psychologist 
has felt constrained to meet the greedy demand for something 
definite, understandable and applicable, and has been intrigued into 
attempting to popularize and apply before his materials and results 
were ready for such treatment. 

This stimulating article (which reviews 48 titles) closes with an 
appreciation of Watson's contribution. 

WOODS 

47. JOHNSTONE, E. R., On Institutional Management. Training 

Sch. Bull., 1920, 17, 89-92. 

The first requirement for the successful administration is 
confidence. One way of obtaining the parents' confidence is by 
letting the children take their relatives around the institution. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 



SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL ^^ 

48. JOHNSTONE, E. R., On Institutional Management. Training 

Sch. Bull., 1920, 17, 125-129. 

Most institutions have many "groups" and it is rare not to 
find one where a new child may live in comfort and happiness. 
Long experience unables the officers to make assignments suc- 
cessfully but reclassification may be necessary. To keep him in an 
environment suited to him is to develop a child's social life. To 
fully understand this group system and its benefits one must visit 
a good institution and go about seeing the poverty of life and oppor- 
tunity that has made a spiritual pauper of the child who has just 
entered and then, as you read the history of those who have grown 
up in a world devoted to their interests and see them performing 
their tasks with happiness and results, you may realize that they 
have found their "kingdom of earth." 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

49. ROBINSON, E. S., The Compensatory Function of Make- 

Believe Play. Psychol. Rev., 1920, 27, 429-439. 
The child's behavior is determined by inherited and acquired 
impulses of which some are adequately expressed while others are 
blocked either by environmental factors (extra-organic) or by an 
internal conflict (intra-organic). The incomplete adjustments of 
childhood are compensated for by "make-believe" play. The 
child would like to fight or hunt but since he is not able he pretends. 
"Make-believe" is also seen in the fantasy of adults and its com- 
pensatory function is the same as in the overt "make-believe" 
play of children. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

50. JOHNSTONE, E. R., On Institutional Management. Training 

School. Bull., 1920, 17, 120-124. 

Showing appreciation for the good work an employee does is a 
policy at Vineland (N. J.). The head of a department takes time to 
talk over the work with each new employee. Every month or two a 
meeting of the entire staff is called. Each employee may learn 
from such a meeting the part he plays in protecting the wards 
of the institution from society. A Bulletin Board is also a source 
of information and encouragement. Reports are made in diary 
form. The diary is returned daily or weekly with comments by 
the reader. No comments are made on things of which the reader 
does not approve. Another plan is to have the superintendent's 



28 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

secretary go from place to place and see individual children, talk 
over their improvement with the teacher, farmer, etc. This be- 
comes part of the written report on the child. 

Institutional birthdays are observed. When one is there one, 
two, etc., years he observes the anniversary of his coming. " Birth- 
day" greetings are sent and the employee enjoys doing something 
for a child who has a real birthday on the institutional birthday. 
After two years service an employee is eligible for the Diploma for 
Institutional Efficiency. His qualifications are considered by the 
superintendent and department heads loyalty and diligence are 
among the qualities considered. 

E. MLUHALL ACHILLES 

51. JARRET, M. C.,The mental hygiene of industry. Ment. Hyg., 

4, 1920, 867-884. 

This article points out the practical value of the mental hygiene 
movement in industry; cites several instances where a psychiatric 
social worker would have been of great service both to employer 
and employee; gives the opinions of physicians and employment 
managers regarding the importance of mental factors in industrial 
organizations and reviews three papers written by Dr. Southard 
on the problem in general. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

8. SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

52. ELIOT, T. D., A Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Group 

Formation and Behavior. Amer. J. of Social., 1920, 26, 

333-352- 

The points in this paper are simply applications of some of the 
new concepts in psychology in a way which makes psychology a 
helpmeet of social science. The social disapproval and disadvantage 
imposed upon the free expression of greed or self-interest have 
led to the camouflage of motives which are basically economic. 
The subconscious holds in leash the real wish which gets its ful- 
fillment or compensation by justifying itself in the name of social 
welfare, patriotism, revenge, culture, religion, rescue, necessity, or 
self-defense. Whenever an environment is such as to stimulate a 
similar set of behavior mechanisms with similar affects in a con- 
siderable number of people, group formation has its natural soil. 
While the ostensible purpose of a group is obvious, its growth may 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 29 

have been fostered by those who consciously, subconsciously or 
unconsciously are using its collective strength for very different 
ends, personal or factional. A group may be roughly likened to 
a magnetic field, polarized around the major purpose of the organ- 
ization. A well-organized minority in a group gains a majority 
by more or less skilful appeal to the interests of the bulk of the group. 
When two groups have a grievance or conscious thwart in common, 
they will make common cause in their immediate activity. When 
two groups both have wishes, and their fulfilment is mutually 
exclusive, both are thwarted acutely and there is war. Intimida- 
tion can only prevent rebellion or secession by making the instinct 
of self-preservation dominant over all thwarted desires. Justice, 
on the other hand, is the harmonization of wishes and of wish- 
fulfilment. Reason is secondary to wish-fulfilment. Thought 
points out to group leaders ways in which the unfulfilled or thwarted 
wishes of the given group can be fulfilled, if possible without thwart- 
ing the activities or desires of any other powerful group. Goods and 
services will satisfy most wishes, and many wishes can be satisfied in 
no other way, but all theories, including economic theory, are 
based ultimately upon the wishes themselves. 

HART (Iowa) 

53. PRUETTE, L. , A Psycho- Analytical Study of Edgar Allen Poe. 

Amer. J. of Psychol., 1920, 31, 370-402. 

The history of Poe's family shows a decided neuropathic in- 
heritance. After the death of his actor-parents, he was brought 
up by a Virginia planter and his wife. These foster parents never 
understood or sympathized with the highly sensitive and excitable 
child and, although his boyhood was passed as the spoiled son of 
indulgent parents, he never received the parental affection or family 
sympathy that he craved. Taunted by aristocratic schoolmates 
with his humble origin, Poe became imbued with an intense desire 
for superiority, a "will to power." As is usual in an only child, he 
was a poor competitor in the struggle for existence, spending his 
life in poverty, was unable to make or hold many friends, and could 
not tolerate the idea that there was any being superior to himself. 
His love-life was a series of disappointments. At the age of twenty- 
three he had lost by death his mother, his foster-mother, and an 
elderly lady to whom he had attached himself with filial devotion, 
and had parted from three sweethearts. His wife proved to be 
an invalid whose critical illnesses put him repeatedly during six 



30 SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

years through all the agonies of losing her. Little wonder, then, 
that he wrote of the death of beautiful women. 

The poetry of Poe represents two things, a very considerable 
degree of introversion and a flight from reality. His themes are 
few, resulting from a complete absorption in a few dominant ideas. 
The poems are songs of sorrow in which he constantly manifests the 
desire to flee from the imperfections of the world, and his heroes 
are largely autobiographical. 

In his stories, as in his poems, Poe continually links death with 
sex. The great majority of the tales contain one or more deaths. 
The colors which are symbolic of death and sex, black and red, 
appear again and again. Connected also with sex is the sadistic 
impulse. Thwarted on the sexual side of his nature, he embodies 
the repressed desires in poems and tales. All through his life two 
things are found together: his will to power, thwarted, demanding 
sadistic revenge, his sadism gratifying and reinforcing his will to 
power. While not so strikingly general, a masochistic tendency is 
extremely well displayed in a few stories. Indeed, his stories of 
ratiocination represent the delight of a mind that loved to torture 
itself. 

While proof that Poe was definitely syphilitic is lacking, he dis- 
played the same diathesis as many men of genius said to have 
been syphilitic the dying out of the phyletic tendencies and the 
dominance of the egoistic ones. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

54. SCHROEDER, T., Conservatisms, Liberalisms and Radicalisms. 
Psychoanalytic Rev., 1920, 7, 376-384. 

Since all institutions and creeds are but the expression of human 
desire, the evolution of the latter is, for the psychologist, more 
important than any particular objective change in the social, 
industrial, or political order. This evolution is towards a greater 
democritization of desire. It proceeds from a desire for exploitation 
and its aristocratic privileges to a desire for human welfare. From 
the psychological standpoint conservatism, liberalism and radicalism 
are not merely creeds and forms of conduct but are mental attitudes 
stages in the above evolutionary process. 

Feudalism must be understood from the psychological view- 
point of feudal-mindedness. This mental attitude has two stages 
of development. In the first stage the laborer is regarded as an 
insensate being belonging to the land like the crops and trees, and 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 31 

in the second stage (the stage of chattel slavery) he is regarded as a 
domestic animal which as such must be accorded animal rights. 
He should, and in the course of evolution will, be regarded as a 
human being whose welfare must be considered. Both stages of 
feudal-mindedness are however represented in our present social 
order. 

Subscription to a conservative, liberal, or radical creed, or 
activity in a cause is no evidence of conservatism, liberalism or 
radicalism as psychologically understood. We must know the 
why and how behind the creedal declaration. The same creed may 
be accepted by individuals at very different levels in the evolution 
of desire. Thus, many feudal-minded individuals are found in the 
ranks of the so-called radicals, driven thereto by mental conflict or 
instinctive impulse (fear, greed, self-assertion). The acquisition of 
power reveals the fundamental autocracy of such feudal-minded 
radicals. A real mature radicalism, as opposed to this infantile 
type, is reflective rather than emotional, and proceeds by education 
rather than by violence. The main task of such education is to 
accelerate the democritization of our mental attitude towards other 
human beings and towards our use of political institutions, economic 
might, and legal formalities. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

55. BOWMAN, K. M., Analysis of a case of War Neurosis. Psy- 
choanalytic Rev., 1920, 7, 317-332. 

The patient described was admitted to Maghull Red Cross 
Hospital, England, in August, 1918, as a case of "War Neurosis." 
He was suffering from the following mental symptoms: (i) depres- 
sion and worry, (2) insomnia and unpleasant dreams, (3) impulse to 
kill the nurse who had attended him in a recent mastoid operation 
and fear that he would do so, (4) exaggerated fear of death. 

The analysis began with the last two symptoms. These 
gradually disappeared when it was explained to the patient that his 
homicidal obsession originated in repressed anger aroused by the 
nurse's cruel or inconsiderate treatment of him, and that his thana- 
tophobia was due to the unusual prominence of death in his past 
experience. All his relatives had died of tuberculosis. The 
analysis revealed the following additional symptoms: (i) worry 
over loss of affection for his wife, and (2) hallucinations in which 
he saw a former sweetheart and sometimes heard her speak. Further 
analysis brought to light the fact that his wife would not permit 



32 SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

sex relations through fear of pregnancy. The complete recovery 
of the patient ensued upon the attainment of a more normal sexual 
adjustment. His former marital affection returned, his hallucina- 
tions disappeared, and his depression ceased. 

The writer calls attention to the fact that, although a war neuro- 
sis, this case like many others of the kind had its real foundation in 
civil life. He also emphasizes the importance of a superficial 
analysis in securing relief from, or decrease of symptoms. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

56. FAY, D. W., The Case of Jack. Psychoanalytic Rev., 1920, 7, 
333-3SL 

"A sensitive, overconscientious boy begins at puberty to worry 
over his inability to resist masturbation, believes it is a sign of 
weakmindedness, that other people can see in his face that he prac- 
tises it, and consequently look down on him, and he begins to with- 
draw from social contacts and to day-dream. As a result he does 
poorly at school and at work. In adolescence he falls in love, 
but his sense of inferiority causes him to withdraw in the face 
of a rival. He joins the navy. He contracts gonorrhea and 
considers himself hopelessly ruined and disgraced, and that he 
will never have the right to marry his girl or any other girl. He 
worries and worries. The fear of death from submarines aggravates 
his condition. Finally he believes people consider him a passive 
homosexual pervert, and he is sent to hospital, labeled: dementia 
precox, unfavorable for full recovery. 

"There he is retarded and negativistic, remorseful, and worrying 
over his sins. After much difficulty he is induced to confess them. 
The analyst belittles them and holds out hope for the future. 
Gradually he emerges from the psychosis and becomes free from 
delusions and hallucinations. Through psychoanalytic aid he 
gets full insight into his condition and understands the endogenous 
origin of all his former delusions. His recovery appears to be 
complete." 

Points of special interest in this paper are: (i) the apparent 
origin of the psychosis in conflict between socially tabooed sexual 
trends and a perhaps too puritanical conception of cultural morality, 

(2) the psychotic fantasies which are veritable myth constructions 
based quite obviously upon Oedipus and homosexual complexes, 

(3) the excellent illustration of projection in the hallucinations and 
of sublimation in the religious behavior, (4) the writers therapeutic 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 33 

method which is a psychological reeducation rather than a psy- 
choanalysis in the narrow sense, (5) the apparent recovery of a 
case of dementia precox as a result of this method. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

57. FAY, D. W., The case of Jim. Psychoanalytic Rev., 1920, 7, 

3S2-36S. 

This paper presents another case of dementia precox and 
recovery through psychoanalysis. The etiology and mental mech- 
anisms illustrated are similar to those described in "The Case of 
Jack"; and, although Jim is even more schizophrenic and intro- 
verted than Jack, a similar happy outcome is attained by a similar 
method. 

The writer summarizes his paper as follows: 

"A sexually precocious boy extremely fond of his mother makes 
incestuous attempts on her and his little sister. The sister incest 
haunts his life with bitter remorse. In adolesence he is bashful, 
retiring and lazy, much given to dreaming of easy money and sex 
fantasies. On board ship in the navy a psychosis develops. To 
his remorse is added the idea of fellatio. While his ship is at New 
York a fellow sailor's family take him to their home and he falls in 
love with the daughter, but feels utterly unworthy and tries to kill 
himself. He is put in a hospital, dramatizes his conflict as a contest 
between God and the devil, each trying to win him, and is sure the 
devil has gotten control of him forever, and that he is doomed 
to eternal punishment. His power is gone. With psychoanalytic 
aid he makes a rapid recovery, his potency returns, he goes home, 
and is now living a happy and busy life." 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

58. SLOSSEN, E. E., Jonathan Edwards as a Freudian. Science, 

1920, 52, 609. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

59. McDouGALL, W., Presidential Address. Proc. of the Soc. for 

Psychical Res., 1920, 80, 105-121. 

Dr. McDougall, in addressing the General Meeting of the 
Society, July, 1920, apologizes for the lack of support given the 
Society by psychologists feeling that, of all the men of science, 
they should be first to cooperate with them. He excuses his 
colleagues for this seeming disinterest by explaining that they are 



34 SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

afraid to affiliate themselves lest the public sieze the opportunity to 
misinterpret this interest as an outburst of witchcraft, superstition, 
etc. Psychologists, feeling a great responsibility for their reputa- 
tions are afraid of doing their Science an injury. He states that he 
believes telepathy is nearly established for all times and when it 
actually is, its importance for Science and Philosophy will outweigh 
the achievements of all the psychological laboratories. He refers 
to his book "Body and Mind" to which he is adding another 
chapter, since, following its publication he has been greatly con- 
cerned with cases of nervous disorder, which have been widely 
held to make untenable the conception of the unitary ego which 
the argument of his book has pointed. He discusses this at length 
and uses his position as executive, with those of his subordinates, 
as concrete examples. Dr. McDougall speaks of the apparent 
dependence of memory on the integrity of the brain and refers to 
the effects upon sense perceptions produced by the destruction of 
certain parts of the sensory cortex of the brain as recently brought 
to light by Dr. Henry Mead. He closes his address by bringing 
the attention of his audience to three great questions, in which he 
is very much engrossed, as a guide to research. 

BROOKE (Pennsylvania) 

60. VAN LOON, F. H. and WEINBERG, A. A., A Method of Investi- 

gation into Thought-Transference. /. of the Soc., for Psy- 
chical Res., 1920, 20, 4-23. 

Discusses a method of investigation into thought-transference 
and involves a scheme to be followed in making further researches 
along these lines. A detailed report is appended. 

BROOKE (Pennsylvania) 

61. WALES, H., Case. Proc. of the Soc. for Psychical Res. 1920, 

80, 124-218. 

A report on a series of cases of apparent thought transference 
without conscious agency. Part I involves cases in which the 
aggregate seems to exclude chance-coincidence while Part II 
discusses some cases which, assuming a telepathic connection, seem 
worth examining as throwing light on its nature. 

BROOKE (Pennsylvania) 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 35 

62. ANON., Case. /. of the Soc. for Psychical Res., 1920, 19, 

262-267. 

Report on an apparition seen twice after death by two indepen- 
dent witnesses. 

BROOKE (Pennsylvania) 

63. RAMSDEN, H., Case. Jour, of the Soc. for Psychical Res., 

1920, 19, 241-248. 

Report of a case involving experiments in Automatism obtained 
by a group of experimenters, members of the Norwegian Society 
for Psychical Research. 

BROOKE (Pennsylvania) 

64. McDouGALL, W., Case. /. of the Soc. for Psychical Res., 

1920, 19, 269-274. 

Report of three dreams giving evidence of knowledge super- 
normally acquired, the dreamer having recently been a member of 
Dr. McDougall's classes in Psychology at Oxford. 

BROOKE (Pennsylvania) 

65. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 1920, 

14, 425-476, 477-528. 

The numbers are devoted to memorials to James Hervey Hyslop 
late Secretary of the American Society for Psychical Research. 
They contain a Biographical and Sketch by Walter F. Prince, also 
Historical Sketches and Testimonials by George H. Hyslop M.D., 
Professor William Romaine Newbold, Dr. Max Dessoir, Professor 
Camille Flammarion, Professor John E. Coover, Professor H. N. 
Gardiner and others. 

BROOKE (Pennsylvania) 

70. WOOLBERT, C. H., A Behavioristic Account of Sleep. Psychol. 

Rev., 1920, 27, 420-428. 

For the behaviorist consciousness is "a matter of degrees of 
complexity and ordination among systems of muscular action." 
Hence an explanation of sleep must be in neuro-muscular terms. 
The muscular coordinations of the body are arranged in an hierarchy 
of fairly well-defined systems. The most fundamental, both geneti- 
cally and functionally, are those reflex systems controlling heart- 
beat, flow of blood, and other vital functions. At the top of the 



36 SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

hierarchy are the systems relating to speech, involving muscles 
of the jaws, lips, tongue and throat. The difference between 
waking and sleeping is to be found in the operation of this hierarchy. 
Sleep occurs when the lower systems dominate the higher. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

71. MILES, GEORGE W., Mental Mechanisms. Ment. Hyg., 
4, 1920, 940-949- 

Here the author describes in his own language the well-known 
mechanisms of the Freudian psychology. He begins with "affec- 
tivity" as the "mental cement" that holds our various mental 
functions together, which functions are likened, in their organiza- 
tion, to the stones and bricks which make up a building, the buildings 
in turn forming a town or city. Then in turn are defined repres- 
sions, conflicts, complexes, censorship, symbols, displacement, 
conversion, substitution, dissociation, the conscious and the 
unconscious, wish fulfilment, the various dream mechanisms, 
paranoid mechanisms, protective or defensive mechanisms, fixation 
mechanisms, regressive mechanisms and the like. While the 
author claims nothing original in this paper, his purpose was to aid 
in definitizing if not in standardizing nomenclature, which is being 
so widely used that the terms do not always mean the same thing 
when employed by different persons. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

9. NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

/ 

72. CLARK, L. P., A Clinical Study of Some Mental Contents in 

Epileptic Attacks. Psychoanalytic Rev., 1920, 7, 366-375. 
A study of epileptics' oral automatisms and responses to ques- 
tions during petit mal attacks suggests that these attacks may origi- 
nate in mental conflict. It is well known that the epileptic is 
morbidly sensitive and intensely egoistic and sexual. An attack is 
often precipitated by a rebuff to one of these intense fundamental 
trends, and the mental content revealed in the attack is often a 
relatively crude expression of his egoism and sexuality. The 
repression of such trends may not be causative of the disorder itself, 
but at any rate the attack allows these inhibited forces to express 
themselves. A careful study of the mental content thus revealed 
leads to a better understanding of the epileptic as an individual 
and to a better method of individual treatment through reeducation 



NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 37 

and sublimation. The writer presents several examples illustrative 
of his statements. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

73. ROSANOFF, A. J., A Theory of Personality Based Mainly on 
Psychiatric Experience. Psychol. Bull., 1920, 17, 281-299. 

Abnormal personality types are listed as (i) antisocial, (2) 
cyclothymic, (3) autistic, (4) epileptic personalities, and each is 
described. Kraepelin's description is quoted in differentiating 
the four varieties of cyclothymic personality, i.e., (a) manic make 
up, (b) depressive make up, (c) irascible make up, and (d) emotional 
instability. 

All of these traits may be found in normal individuals, and espe- 
cially in children, the differentiation between normal and abnormal 
manifestations being quantitative, rather than qualitative. Among 
the traits qualitatively distinguishing normal personality are to be 
mentioned inhibition, emotional control, a superior durability of 
mind, rational balance, and nervous stability. 

Mixed rather than pure types are the rule, and every different 
personality trait is subject to quantitative variations and may 
appear in many combinations. 

There is a tendency to evaluate normal personality very high, 
probably largely because abnormal personalities have secured 
attention through misdemeanors and marked social maladjustment. 
A good case, however, may be made out for the usefulness of certain 
"abnormal" traits. Doubtless much achievement is traceable 
to anti-social tendencies and much "literary and histronic art to 
the sensitiveness and power of expression of cyclothymic person- 
ality." 

Abnormal personalities types, though often of dissimilar quality, 
tend so strongly to appear in family groups, that physicians have 
tended to group their different manifestations together under the 
term "neuropathic constitution," and many are inclined to the 
theory that this "constitution" is heritable according to Mendelian 
law, as a recessive character. 

The author is inclined to doubt that such a vast number of 
different neuropathic manifestations can constitute a unit character, 
and proposes rather that a "degree of inhibition of such manifes- 
tations, which is desirable for social environments, and which is a 
a much more limited affair, probably constitutes, if not a single 
Mendelian unit, a homogeneous group of such units." He pro- 



38 NERWUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

poses using Bateson's terms "epistatic" and "hypostatic," the 
"implication being, that certain hereditary factors, while determining 
certain clinical manifestations, have at the same time the effect of 
inhibiting the manifestation of other factors which are also present." 

General intelligence does not seem to vary qualitatively, but 
does vary quantitatively in relation to temperamental makeups. 
For example, epileptic, dementia praecox and manic-depressive 
cases examined with intelligence tests showed distinct increase 
in amount of intelligence, in the order named. 

Sexuality, too, bears a distinct relation to certain personality 
types. Clinical experience associates general eroticism, sadism, 
masochism, and fetichism with epilepsy; inversious with schizo- 
phrenia; and frigidity with hysteria. Manic depressive psychoses 
are more common and demenia praecox slightly less common in 
woman than in men. 

The author stresses the importance of careful, detailed, long 
continued analyses of personality and would have these consider 
not only the data of direct investigation of the subject, but also 
the data of heredity, ontogenetic data, pharmacologic data, the 
data of organic pathology and of senile involution. A bibliography 
of 37 titles enriches this valuable paper. 

WOODS 

74. MENZIES, W. F., Mechanism of Involutionary Melancholia. 

/. of Mental Set., 1920, 66, 355-414. 

The presidential address of the Medico-Psychological Associa- 
tion of Great Britain and Ireland, July, 1920. In this address 
Dr.Menzies discusses the two processes of involutionary melancholia, 
involution and depression. He takes up briefly the relation of 
enterostasis to depression: the importance, development, divisions 
and functioning of the two parts (autonomic and sympathetic) 
of the involuntary nervous system: the physiology of emotion: 
the infracortical conducting paths: the state of depression: the 
exaltive emotion. He discusses atheroma and anoxaemia: the 
posture in melancholia: the functions of the cerebral cortex liable 
to be disturbed in "involutionary melancholia": the cortex in 
disease. He states that in response to the suboxidation caused by 
bacterial fermentation and enterostasis a sympatheticotonus occurs, 
the sensori-motor resultant of which is depressive emotion. Invo- 
lution, he says, is a march of gradually increasing cytolysis depen- 
dent to an appreciable extent upon the power of reaction of the 



NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 39 

hepatic antitoxin to the intestinal toxins, the penalty of failure 
being defective oxidation. He warns against the substitution of 
easily understood psychological explanations of disease for the 
more intricate and complex physiological and chemical expla- 
nations. He makes a plea for the physiological and chemical tests 
and for more carefully kept clinic records to assist the physiologist 
and biochemist in their work. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

75. MATSUMOTO, T., Study of the Relation between the Repro- 

ductive Organs and Dementia Praecox. /. of Mental Sci., 

1920, 66, 414-422. 

This is the report of a study made by Matsumoto of Chiba, 
Japan, under the direction and supervision of Sir Frederick W. 
Mott. Dr. Matsumoto describes the normal histology of the 
testis from birth to old age, illustrating by cases. He then takes 
up the histology of the testis in idiocy, imbecility, general paralysis 
of the insane, manic-depressive insanity, dementia praecox, senile 
dementia and general hospital cases. He discusses regression and 
concludes that the regressive atropy found in dementia praecox is 
primary in origin and not due to the diseases to which cases of 
dementia prsecox so frequently succumb, viz., tuberculosis and 
dysentery. He further states that neither organic dementia nor 
extensive brain destruction produces regressive atrophy of the testis 
and it cannot therefore be secondary to brain lesion. He concludes 
by remarking that the interrelation of the endocrine organs and 
the organs of reproduction in dementia prsecox is a subject worthy of 
intensive study from a combined histological, micro-chemical, and 
chemical point of view. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

76. WHITE, E., Abstract of a Report on the Mental Division of 

the Welsh Metropolitan War Hospital, Whitechurch, 
Cardiff, September, 1917-September, 1919. /. of Mental 
Sci., 1920, 66, 438-449. 

This is a report on the 1,773 cases admitted during the period 
covered by the report. Major White discusses briefly the causa- 
tion, forms of mental disorder, treatment and final disposal in these 
cases. He gives fifteen brief case histories illustrating the different 
forms of mental disorder. He remarks that there is no proof that 
exhaustion per se will produce any of the psychoses. He states 



40 NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

also that the State, which is largely dependent for its welfare on 
the fitness of its manhood and has to provide directly or indirectly 
for the maintenance of the unfit, would do well to consider more 
seriously the problem of the mentally unfit both individually and 
progenically. He says that the war has shown us that with far 
earlier treatment more can be done towards recovery. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

77. EAST, W. N., Some Cases of Mental Disorder and Defect Seen 

in the Criminal Courts. /. of Mental Sci., 1920, 66, 422-438. 
This is a report on some of the most interesting cases out of a 
group of 141 prisoners held under observation in the Liverpool 
Prison for a suspicion of mental defect or disorder. In this report 
Dr. East states that the accurate diagnosis of the state of mind of 
the prisoner under mental observation forms one of the most im- 
portant, responsible and exacting duties of the prison medical 
officer. Dr. East takes up insanity, mental deficiency and mental 
disorder not amounting to insanity. He illustrates each group with 
several case histories and discusses them from the viewpoint of 
the medico-legal witness. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

78. HOUSE, W., On Occultism and Insanity. /. Amer. Med. Ass. t 

1920, 75, 779-781. 

We are on the advance stages of a rising tidal wave of occultism 
and mysticism; the "psychic wave" of the lay press. History 
abounds with examples of similar waves. Occultism, pernicious 
as it is, can not be successfully combated openly and directly. 
We can only wait patiently for the wave to recede, and in the mean- 
time we must minister to its victims whose latent tendencies it 
has excited into mental break downs. 

SYLVESTER (Drake) 

79. SPAULDING, E. R., Imbalance in the Development of the 

Personality as a Cause of Mental 111 Health. Meni. Hyg., 
1920, 4, 897-910. 

The author asks for a closer watch over the personality develop- 
ment in children than is being manifested at present. The physical 
health of children is being cared for more and more and closer 
attention is being paid to outstanding mental defects. The proper 



NERFOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 4! 

balance in personality may be ascertained in numerous ways: (i) in 
the physical makeup of the individual; (2) in the relation between 
physical and mental growth; (3) the individual's methods of ex- 
pressing his energy; (4) by studying opposing characterological 
traits aggressive versus passive instinctive tendencies, masculine 
versus feminine traits, concentration versus distractibility, deliber- 
ation versus impetuosity, etc. We should utilize not only the 
knowledge of psychologists and psychiatrists but the philosophy of 
poets and philosophers. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

10. INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

80. BOWERS, P. E., Treatment of Criminals. /. of Delinq. t 1920, 

5, I43-I59- 

This paper shows that the history of the treatment of criminals 
bears a striking resemblance to that of the insane. In 1793 Piniel 
proved the insane to be sick individuals and not the body of evil 
spirits or the objects of wrath of an angry God. As late as 1797, 
two hundred and twenty-two different crimes were punishable by 
death. The beginning of the reformatory treatment of criminals 
is credited to Pope Clement XI in 1704 and to John Howard in 
England. Crime is a symptom of a body politic and is the result 
of social and individual degeneracy. Psychopathic laboratories 
are showing the significant part that mental deficiency plays in 
crime with eugenics as a remedial agency through restriction, 
segregation, and asexualization of the criminal. The criminal 
should be examined and the case diagnosed in the laboratory before 
he comes before the court; all prisons and reformatories should 
maintain psychopathic laboratories supplemented by recreational 
facilities, the parole system and the indeterminate sentence. 
Prisons should "become moral, orthopedic institutes for the 
physical, mental and ethical rehabilitation of criminal man." 

BALDWIN (Iowa) 

81. CLARK, W. W., Success Record of Delinquent Boys in Relation 

to Intelligence. /. of Deling., 1920, 5, 174-182. 
This investigation aims to determine the extent to which intelli- 
gence and social or vocational achievement are correlated by means 
of the intelligence ratings and "success records" of 301 boys from 
the Whittier State School. The criteria for success records are, 



42 INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

"Doing well, doing fairly well, doing poorly;" the I.Q.'s range 
from 47 to 122. The coefficients of correlation given between 
success records and intelligence levels by occupational groups show 
a success record for the whole group, with an intelligence rating 
of +.19, with a range of +.74 in the agricultural group and .51 
in the case of those engaged in transportation. " Intelligence is one 
of the important factors and should be considered in social diagnosis, 
with due consideration of supplementary data." 

BALDWIN (Iowa) 

82. FERNALD, W. E., An Out-patient Clinic in Connection with a 

State Institution for the Feebleminded. Ment. Hyg., 

1920, 4, 848-856. 

Here are discussed the advantages to the community of an 
out-patient clinic in connection with a school for the feeble-minded, 
the methods persued in the Waverly Clinic, and a few typical 
cases from the 377 which were handled at that clinic during the year 
1919. Few of these cases had ever been under adequate medical 
care, several had caused disciplinary trouble in the schools, and 
numerous cases revealed problems of mental adjustment and adap- 
tation the early attention to which not only adds rich material to the 
field of preventive medicine but renders a real service to mankind. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

83. WATSON, J. B. and LASHLEY, K. S., A Consensus of Medical 

Opinion upon Questions Relating to Sex Education and 
Venereal Disease Campaigns. Ment. Hyg. t 4, 1920, 769-847. 
The authors have compiled the results of an extended question- 
naire sent to various physicians over the country as an outgrowth 
of a grant given by the U. S. Interdepartmental Social Hygiene 
Board. Replies were received from about 70 physicians. The 
questionnaire contained questions relating to education by means 
of films and included such topics as the sex instruction of adults, 
information which should be supplied to persons contemplating 
marriage, frequency of maladjustments due to ignorance of sex 
matters, methods in treating or preventing sexual maladjustments, 
the causes of illicit sexual acts, instruction before maturity (amount, 
time, etc., of instruction and the desirable teacher), public instruc- 
tion concerning venereal diseases by means of films and the like. 
It was pointed out that in devising educational films the consensus 
of medical opinion should be taken into consideration rather than 



INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 43 

individual opinions. While in the main education by means of 
films meets with medical approval opinions differ with respect to 
certain details which should be emphasized. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

84. STRECKER, E. A., Physical Factors in Mental Retardation. 

/. Amer. Med. Ass., 1920, 75, 659-661. 

A backward child's future should never be decided by a psy- 
chometric test alone. Congenital mental deficiency was found to 
exist in only 14 of 32 children, who would have been labeled as 
feeble-minded, according to psychological tests. In 15 of the 32, 
the mental retardation depended on physical factors. Of these, 
6 were congenital syphilis; I was tonsil disease and heart; I rachitis; 
I angular gyrus lesion; I hypo-pituitarism and 5 were under- 
nourished and underdeveloped as a result of economic and environ- 
mental conditions. The writer believes that n of the 15 will 
eventually gain a normal level. Every mentally retarded child 
should be given neurological, psychiatric and psychometric tests 
and examinations. 

SYLVESTER (Drake) 

85. POWERS, M. J., The Industrial Cost of the Psychopathic 

Employee. Ment. Hyg., 4, 1920, 932-939. 
Attacking the problem from the point of view of the financial 
cost of the psychopathic employee, the author points out the need 
for a more widespread and serious study of this source of waste in 
industry. The public in general and employers in particular must 
be educated in the understanding of human nature from the psy- 
chiatric viewpoint. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

86. HAINES, T. H., The mental hygiene requirements of a com- 

munity. Ment. Hyg., 4, 1920, 920-931. 

The mental hygiene requirements of a community are: (i) a 
survey of the management (or mismanagement) of mental hygiene 
in a community; (2) organization of qualified and responsible 
persons in order that their sphere of influence in the community 
may be extended; (3) establishment of local clinics; (4) aid in securing 
appropriations and statutory provisions. The author treats each 
of these problems in some detail, offering suggestions as to how the 



44 INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

requirements can be met, in a measure, at least, in every com- 
munity. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

87. BROWN, S., On Social and Medical Aspects of Childhood 

Delinquency. /. Amer. Med. Ass., 1920, 75, 987-990. 
About fifteen thousand New York children appear in the courts 
annually. Under the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, 
a physician, a psychologist, and a social worker investigated a 
group of these children to determine what types constituted the 
group. Of 150 boys whose cases were studied in detail 50 were 
found to be nervous. They fall into the following types, hyper- 
active, hypo-active, emotional and anxiety. Preventive measures 
covering the physical, mental and social aspects would have relieved 
many of these nervous conditions and would have saved the boys 
from conduct resulting in their being brought into court. 

SYLVESTER (Drake) 

88. WOODILL, E. E., Public-school Clinics in Connection with a 

State School for the Feebleminded. Ment. Hyg., 4, 1920, 
911-919. 

This paper contains a description of the work done in school 
clinics in Massachusetts, under the direction of the Massachusetts 
School for the Feebleminded at Waverley. It shows what functions 
a school clinic should exercise in serving the child, the school and 
the community in a medical, advisory, and educative way. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

89. WILLIAMS, F. E., The State Hospital in Relation to Public 

Health. Ment. Hyg., 4, 1920, 885-896. 

The article is an appeal to State Hospitals to enlarge their 
service to the community beyond that of receiving mental cases. 
Such hospitals can be the centers for positive constructive contri- 
butions, pooling with other organizations the special knowledge 
which they possess and rendering it for the welfare of the state. 
As evidence of what psychiatrists have been able to do, by concerted 
efforts, he cites their part (i) in reducing the number of war prisoners 
expected to be sent to Fort Leavenworth during the present war 
from 50,000 to the actual number of about 5,000; (2) in reducing 
the number of anticipated suicides from over 2,000 to 94 in the 
A.E.F.; (3) in cutting down the per cent, of insanity in the fighting 



INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 45 

forces, and the like. Such leadership as was manifested by the 
psychiatrists and psychologists in the war, in coping with these 
problems, should not be relinquished during peace times. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

ii. MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

90. DAVENPORT, C. B., Heredity of Constitutional Mental Dis- 
orders. Psychol. Bull., 1920, 17, 300-310. 

This article, like that of Rosanoff in the same journal, evinces 
an interest in the question as to whether each type of mental dis- 
order is inherited as a unit character or whether any or certain 
mental disorders, if not due to accident, are the clinical evidence of 
abnormalities of the cytoplasm of the germ cell or of the chromo- 
somes, conditioning mental disorders in the offspring which may 
present the same or quite other clinical manifestations. 

Feeble-mindedness, the author holds, with Goddard, follows 
Mendelian law, and is due to the absence of a single Mendelian 
factor. He admits that such analyses as have been made of the pedi- 
grees of the feeble-minded have mostly been scientifically insuffi- 
cient, yet he holds this result established. "This result seems at 
first remarkable and almost incredible, but on further consideration, 
it becomes plausible that the germinal defect results in the insuffi- 
cient production of some hormone upon which the development of 
the higher functions depends. If this hormone is insufficient, then 
the intellectual centers develop each with its idiosyncrasies but 
cease development prematurely at a certain low level. The 
consequence is that the feeble-minded of one psychological age 
differ from each other because their fragmentary intellectual capa- 
cities differ as they do among normal people." Mongolian im- 
becility, formerly asserted to be non-inheritable, has been investi- 
gated by Herrman, who finds that careful study usually reveals a 
neurotic condition in both parents. Brandeis finds amaurotic 
family idiocy to be a simple Mendelian recessive. 

The epilepsies, classified by Fischbein in about one hundred 
groups, give evidence according to an analysis of over 100 cases by 
Weaks, of being inherited as a simple Mendelism defect. Flood 
and Collins afford at least partial conformation of this conclusion. 
They say "Feeblemindedness is also associated with epilepsy, and 
there is some evidence that both are caused by the same defect. 
Fitting the material to the two hypotheses, first that epilepsy is a 



46 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

recessive trait that is inherited only as epilepsy and second, that 
epilepsy, feeble-mindedness and insanity are due to the same defect 
which may appear in the form of any one of them, there is no striking 
evidence in favor of one to the exclusion of the other. The truth 
probably lies some where between the two." Lundborg, in an 
exhaustive study of myoclonic epilepsy demonstrates that it is a 
simple recessive Mendelian trait. 

Dementia pracox, too, is a simple Mendelian recessive. Studies 
of Riedin, Cannon and Rosanoff, Rosanoff and Orr, Jolly and 
Witterman, seem to support this conclusion. 

Temperament. "That temperament is inherited cannot be 
doubted." The author finds in a study of his own upon the tendency 
to periodic outbursts of violent temper, that this trait is a Men- 
delian dominant. He works out formulae for expressing the possi- 
bilities in the inheritance of choleric, cheerful, phlegmatic, melan- 
cholic and nervous temperaments, and their various combinations. 

Hunting's Chorea is inherited as a dominant disease. 

Criminality may be due to one of several causes and its inheri- 
tance will follow according to the cause and type. 

Consanguinity per se is not responsible for mental disorders. 
If, however, both parents come of of tainted stock and carry some 
recessive defect, like that which is responsible for feeble-mindedness, 
epilepsy and depression, the inherited taint will appear in at least 
one quarter of the children. 

WOODS 

91. PETERSON, J., Tentative Norms in the Rational Learning 

Test. /. of Applied Psychol., 1920, 4, 250-257. 
A rational learning test is described. Over a hundred students 
have been tested and the norms calculated. 

E. M. ACHILLES 

92. REEDY, E. and BRIDGES, J. W., A Short Point Scale for Mental 

Measurement. /. of Applied Psychol., 1920, 4, 258-262. 
An abbreviation of the Point Scale consisting of nine tests with 
a total score of 50 points is presented. Comparison with the 
complete scale seems to show that this short scale gives fairly 
reliable results within the limits of six to twelve years. 

E. M. ACHILLES 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 47 

93. PINTNER, R. and RENSHAW, S., A Standardization and Weighing 

of Two Hundred Analogies. /. of Applied Psychol., 1920, 
4, 263-273. 

200 analogies are arranged according to difficulty with the 
percentile, sigma and point values. The standardization is based 
on 917 cases. The product moment coefficient of correlation be- 
tween Otis and analogies scores showed r .785. 

E. M. ACHILLES 

94. BEESON, M. F., Intelligence at Senescence. /. of Applied 

Psychol., 1920, 4, 219-234. 

Twenty inmates, ten men and ten women, of A Home for the 
Aged were tested by the Stanford revision of the Binet-Simon scale. 
Average age is 75 years; average mental age is 13-3 and the average 
I.Q. 82.9. Average age of the men is 80.3 and of women 69.6. 
Average I.Q. for men is 78.2 as compared with 87.6 of the women. 
The Homes for the Aged are selective agencies and the old people 
cared for by even the most selected Home are dull. It is very 
probable that this dullness is due to a great extent, to a decline in 
the mental processes at senescence. The reason for the women's 
I.Q. being higher than the men's is in part due to a slow deteriora- 
tion of the mental processes of women in old age. It is probably 
due in part to the fact that women receive less pay for the same 
quality of work than men, and consequently require greater intelli- 
gence than men in order to earn the income necessary for self sup- 
port. 

E. M. ACHILLES 

95. MARCUS, L., Vocational Selections for Specialized Tasks 

A Study of Selective Tests for Hollerith-Machine Operatives. 

/. of Applied Psychol., 1920, 4, 186-201. 

Candidates for Federal service as operatives of the Hollerith 
Statistical machine are given Civil Service examination. Experi- 
ments show that the coefficient of correlation between Efficiency 
and the Civil Service examination was .31. The coefficient of 
correlation between a "Team of 5" psychological tests and effi- 
ciency was .45. The Team of 5 can be completed in twelve minutes 
and can be scored in two minutes. 

E. M. ACHILLES 



48 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

96. MOORE, B. V., General Intelligence Determined by its Weakest 

Essential Element. /. of Applied PsychoL, 4, 155-161. 
A chart is presented giving a diagrammatic representation of 
general intelligence and some arbitrarily selected special abilities. 
The A;-ordinate or base of the diagram represents the extent of the 
qualitative variety or the multiplicity of abilities of the total capa- 
city of an individual. The height of the diagram of any particular 
part represents the quantitative aspect or the amount of any 
particular ability. A few particular abilities are represented by 
curves similar to the frequency curves. General intelligence might 
be represented by a line touching the tips of the particular abilities 
entering into general intelligence as it is usually considered. The 
measure of general intelligence might more consistently be repre- 
sented by the elevation of a straight line drawn as to just touch the 
top of the curve of the weakest necessary ability. General Intelli- 
gence is similar to a chain which is no stronger than its weakest link. 
Fourteen references are appended. 

E. M. ACHILLES 

97. FOSTER, J. C., Significant Responses in Certain Memory 

Tests. /. of Applied PsychoL, 1920, 4, 142-155. 
The experienced clinical psychologist sometimes reports that 
something is queer about a mental examination-even when a low 
rating is given the patient is not believed to be feeble-minded. An 
attempt is made to get a numerical statement for this "queerness" 
so that the psychologist may recognize certain cases as cases 
properly to be referred to a psychiatrist. Certain memory tests 
were used and the following conclusions drawn: there is no evidence 
that the insane give responses in the memory span for digits or 
sentences which are markedly different from those given by normal 
persons of the same mental and chronological ages. The responses 
given by the insane in the tests for memory drawings and memory 
for short paragraphs are less adequate than those given by the 
normal and feeble-minded of the same mental and chronological 
ages. In certain types of insanity there are significant responses 
not indicated in the score, such as extreme size and irrelevant details 
in the case of the memory drawings, and numerous errors and addi- 
tions in the reports of the paragraph selections. 

E. M. ACHILLES 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 49 

98. FREEMAN, F. N., Clinical Study as a Method in Experimental 

Education. /. of Applied PsychoL, 1920, 4, 126-141. 
The paper presents some reflections upon the relationship 
between group study and individual study as a method of educa- 
tional investigation. As an illustration an analytical study of a 
case of alexia is described. The patient, a girl of 9^ years was in 
the fourth grade. She was unable to read and unfit for to do the 
work of the grade. The child was found to be of normal intelligence. 
No difficulties were observed in auditory speech and she was able 
to reproduce from auditory presentation. The child showed diffi- 
culty in the visual language tests. The words the, and, and tone 
were spelled correctly and fairly readily, but there was difficulty 
with horse and house. The difficulty seemed to be connected with 
the translation between visual and sound symbols. Photographic 
records of the eye movements in reading both before and after 
treatment are reproduced. The conclusion drawn was that phonetic 
drill had been used beyond the point where it was useful. The 
treatment attempted to develop more direct associations between 
sight of words and their meaning. For a time phonetic analysis 
was abandoned. The treatment is described in detail. The 
conclusion is that it is justified to raise a serious question whether 
there is such a thing as specific congenital word blindness or alexia. 
We should keep in mind continually that it is individuals with 
whom we are to deal and that our conclusions should always be in 
terms of individuals. E. M. ACHILLES 

99. ROSENOW, C., The Stability of the Intelligence Quotient. 

/. of Deling., 1920, 5, 160-173. 

Does the intelligence quotient of a child decrease with chrono- 
logical age? This paper examines the logical presuppositions 
underlying this belief and concludes fro'm experimental evidence 
based on Wallin's data (649 cases, single examinations) that "neither 
the facts nor the arguments we have examined so far justify the 
conclusion that there is a type of individual whose I.Q. tends to 
decrease with increasing age." A study of 69 cases, some of whom 
were reexamined once by the Stanford scale and others reexamined 
once by the Binet scale, 1911, by six different psychologists, gives 
an average I.Q. of 80.391 for the first examination and 80.754 for 
the second. For patients of the Institute for Juvenile Research, 
Chicago, "there is no tendency for the I.Q. to deteriorate regardless 
of the age of the patient." BALDWIN (Iowa) 



SO MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

100. PROCTOR, W. M., The Use of Psychological Tests in the 

Vocational Guidance of High-School Pupils. /. of Ed. 
Res., 1920,2:533-546. 

This is the third and last of a series of articles bearing upon the 
practicability of psychological tests in determining the pedagogical 
and social fitness of pupils in the secondary schools. The first 
article dealt with predictions of school success, the second with the 
possibilities of testing in relation to educational guidance, and 
this, the third, with the value of intelligence testing for vocational 
guidance. 

An interesting attempt is made to determine the intelligence 
found functioning on various occupational levels, carrying forward 
the results of the army mental tests, and attempting some correla- 
tion between the actual intelligence of 930 high school pupils and 
the intelligence necessary for average success in the occupations 
of their choice. An analysis of the situation reveals many pupils 
aiming too high for their mental power, and others aiming too low. 
On the whole choices seem haphazard, and out of proportion with 
either the needs of the locality from which the children come, or of 
the nation. 

The author concludes that "the employment of psychological 
tests as an aid in vocational guidance is in the early experimental 
stage, but sufficient progress has been made to justify their use in a 
negative way, i.e., as a means of discovering to the counselor the 
kinds of occupations that a given high-school pupil would probably 
better avoid." 

KOHS (Portland, Ore.) 

101. BUCKINGHAM, B. R. and MONROE, W. S., A Testing Program 

for Elementary Schools. /. of Ed. Res., 1920, 2, 521-532. 
To those interested in group tests this article introduces the 
"Illinois Examination" Parts I and II. The tests comprise the 
following material: 

(1) An Intelligence Test, composed of seven sub-tests, namely, 
analogies, arithmetical problems, sentence vocabulary, substitution, 
verbal ingenuity, arithmetical ingenuity, and synonym-antonym. 

(2) A Revision of Monroe's Standardized Silent Reading Test. 
This test yields measures both of rote and of comprehension. 

(3) A Test of Ability in the Operations of Arithmetic. In Part I 
there are eight sub-tests, four on the combinations, and four 
involving simple examples in each operation. In Part II there 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 51 

are seven sub-tests, column addition, long multiplication, long 
division, subtraction, addition and subtraction of fractions, multi- 
plication and division of fractions, division of decimals. 

Part I is intended for application in grades III, IV and V, and 
Part II for grades VI, VII and VIII. 

Although the total time required for giving either of the two 
parts is approximately one hour, the actual working time for Part I 
is 27 minutes, and for Part II, 37^ minutes. 

Record sheets and the handbook of instructions accompany the 
test material which may be ordered from the Public School Publish- 
ing Co., Bloomington, 111. 

The outstanding advantage claimed for this group test is the 
assembling within the covers of one examination-booklet both 
intelligence and subject-matter tests. Thus after one-hour's 
examination, the I.Q.'s (intelligence quotients) and A.Q.'s (achieve- 
ment quotients) for a group of children are immediately obtainable. 
This form of examination, therefore, measures on the one hand 
ability to learn, and on the other amount of routine pedagogical 
knowledge already acquired. KOHS (Portland, Ore.) 

102. GRAY, C. T., Educational Psychology. Psychol. Bull., 1920, 
17, 375-387. 

"The outstanding features of the literature in educational 
psychology for the past year may be summarized as follows: 
(i) No decrease is to be noted in the interest shown in educational 
tests and measurements. Several new scales and tests have 
appeared along with articles which attempt careful and detailed 
interpretations of data collected by means of the earlier tests and 
scales. Interest in this type of work among those who are con- 
cerned with the subject-matter of various subjects rather than with 
psychology seems to be increasing. (2) Many articles have ap- 
peared which are concerned with intelligence tests as a basis for 
educational procedure. (3) Clinical methods for diagnosing diffi- 
culties in particular school subjects has been discussed briefly. 
(4) The proper instruction of bright children has received the 
attention of a few investigators." 

This summary is based on a review of 103 articles, monographs 
and books, dealing with educational tests, gifted children, intelli- 
gence tests and psychology of school subjects. Seashore's Psy- 
chology of Musical Talent is mentigned as the most noteworthy 
special treaties. WOODS 



52 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

103. PRESSEY, S. L., Suggestions Looking Toward a Fundamental 

Revision of Current Statistical Procedure, as Applied to 
Tests, Psychol. Rev., 1920, 27, 466-472. 

The author briefly criticises the concepts of "reliability" and 
"validity" as applied to tests, and the use of the normal curve in 
practical problems of classification. It is suggested that all methods 
of testing be made subservient to the solution of specific practical 
problems. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

104. THEISEN, W. W., Provisions for Individual Differences in 

the Teaching of Reading. /. of Ed. Res., 1920, 2: 560-571. 

Beginning with the statement that standardized tests have 
everywhere revealed wide differences in reading ability, responses 
to a circular letter addressed to teachers and supervisors are analyzed 
to determine first, what provisions for individual differences are 
employed by teachers generally considered successful in the teaching 
of reading, and second, what suggestions for the less experienced 
teacher can be gained from this study. 

Both extra-classroom and intra-classroom provisions were found. 
Among the first may be enumerated, (i) attention to physical needs, 
(2) a flexible system of promotions. Among the second are pro- 
cedures classifiable under seven headings: (i) testing of individual 
abilities, (2) grouping of pupils within the classroom, (3) gradation 
of materials, (4) variation in amount of reading practice, (5) 
personal attention given to individuals, (6) adaptation to and 
development of individual interests, (7) specific forms and phases 
of instruction, so-called "methods." 

The analysis reveals that but a very small proportion of teachers 
have anything like an adequate comprehension of the problem 
confronting them. 

After discussing the various provisions rather fully, the author 
suggests the following as possessing the greatest merit: silent 
reading, voluntary reading in free periods, special help for specific 
pupils in small groups by ability, material graded to individual 
ability, thought drills, tests of rote and comprehension, materials 
chosen according to individual interests, problem assignment and 
intelligence tests. 

KOHS (Portland, Ore.) 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 53 

105. BASSETT, D. M. and PORTEUS, S. D., Sex Differences in Por- 

teus Maze Test Performance. Training Sch. Bull., 1920, 17. 

A review of the tests reported by many led to the conclusion 
made by Thorndike that the differences of man from man and of 
woman from woman are as great as the differences between man 
and woman. The comparison of brain growth in the male and 
female is quoted from the work of Berry and Porteus. Advantages 
are fairly well balanced, the superiority if any being in favor of 
the girl. It is evident that the mental correlates for the increased 
post pubescent brain development must be looked for outside the 
field of learning capacity. 

Sex differences in the Porteus graded maze tests are studied. 
These tests are said to reflect the subjects forethought, planning 
capacity, mental alertness, to inhibit impulsive action, to resist 
misleading suggestions and to prove the capacity for speedy and 
successful adjustment to a concrete situation new to experience. 
The boys are able to complete the task successfully in less time 
than do the girls and generally speaking with less errors in working. 

At 14 an average of 62.7 per cent of the boys have scores better 
than the median for girls, 30.06 per cent, have scores better than 
the 75 percentile for girls. At 15, 64.9 per cent, of the boys score 
better than the median for girls. At 17 the boys outstrip the girls 
more than at any other age. The boys have the smallest advan- 
tage at 14. 

It is concluded by the authors that in the capacities involved 
in the solution of the maze problem boys tend to exceed girls, both 
as regards speed and accuracy, the advantage being more marked 
in speed. A bibliography is appended. 

E. M. ACHILLES 

12. MENTAL EVOLUTION 

106. ALLARD, H. A., The Flight of Fireflies and the Flashing Im- 

pulse. Science, 1920, 52, 539-540. 

The flight movements of firefles and their flashing bear some 
relation to each other. Each is attended by a sudden upward 
flight impulse. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 



54 MENTAL EVOLUTION 

107. ALLARD, H. A., Some Observations Concerning the Periodical 

Cicada. Amer. Natural, 54, 1920. 

This paper describes some casual experiments which showed 
that the pupae of the periodical cicada are evidently negatively 
phototrophic. Further experiments on pupae were designed to 
ascertain why, after being taken from their normal surroundings 
and not allowed to crawl up into trees and bushes, metamorphosis 
was inhibited but the experiments were unsuccessful. The songs 
of certain species are compared and an unusual night concert 
described, in which the singing commenced with two individuals 
and ultimately spread over a wide territory. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

1 08. CHIDESTER, F. E., The Behavior of Fundulus heteroclitus on 

the Salt Marshes of New Jersey. Amer. Natural, 54, 1920. 
The author has described the migrations of this fish in the 
Spring from salt water to fresh water marshes, their behavior in 
the marshes during the summer and the return to salt water in 
the fall. Climatic and food conditions seem to determine these 
migrations. One of the principle foods of this fish consists of the 
salt marsh mosquito. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

109. GRIFFITH, C. R., The Effect upon the White Rat of Continued 

Bodily Rotation. Amer. Natural., 54, 1920, 524-534 
The chief purpose of this investigation was to ascertain the 
effect of regular and continued repetition of bodily rotations upon 
ocular movements. Certain medical men (/. of Amer. Med. Ass., 
1919, Vol. 72, 7796) have attacked the experimental findings that 
"after-nystagmus" disappears wholly or in part when individuals 
become accustomed to turning movements. This criticism is 
based upon the calling into question the stability, permanency and 
constancy of reflex action; for without these characteristics reflex 
action can no longer be held as reliable clinical phenomena. The 
author experimented on white rats which were unusually good 
subjects because of their docility and their lack of distant and 
foveal vision. A rat was placed upon a pivoted wooden platform 
and under a glass bell-jar. The entire apparatus was revolved 
by means of a small motor. The number and frequency of eye- 
movements was recorded by means of an electric signal marker 
which registered upon a revolving smoked drum. In preliminary 



MENTAL EVOLUTION 55 

trials it was found that the appearance of nystagmus was directly 
proportional to the number and speed of the rotations. Ten 
trials of ten rotations each were repeated two or three times a day, 
with a speed of approximately ten revolutions per second, in the 
main series of experiments. Here it was not only found that there 
was a rapid decrease in the after-nystagmus from day to day but 
that also there was a general decrease in the duration of the nystag- 
mus within any single day's turning. Two females, rotated during 
the period of gestation, showed greater tendencies toward nystagmus 
than the other rats. Nystagmus was invariably longer in morning 
than in evening tests. Tendencies toward defecation, ' micturation, 
violent trembling, refusal to eat immediately after a test, to move 
in the opposite direction of rotation during the test with reversal 
of these movements at the end of the test, assuming a "rotation 
posture," inhibition of the scratch reflex, were additional phenomena 
all of which disappeared or tended to disappear along with the 
nystagmus. Thus it would seem that nystagmus is closely related 
to other organic responses and, like these other responses, is due to 
a large group of undetermined factors. The attempt of recent 
investigators to explain away the disappearance of after-nystagmus 
in human subjects by charging that the subjects were pathological 
or that a few subjects were gazing upon distant objects can hardly 
be applied to white rats. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 



NOTES AND NEWS 

BRYN MAWR COLLEGE seeks an instructor in psychology for 
the following courses during the absence of Professor J. H. Leuba, 
who will be on sabbatical leave in 1921-1922: A, General Intro- 
ductory Psychology (to be taught in two sections); J5, Instinct and 
Emotion; Comparative Psychology (chiefly animal behavior); 
C, Social Psychology (or some other suitable topic may be sub- 
stituted). All courses are undergraduate, and half-year; each is 
scheduled for five hours. The appointee will be relieved of all or 
nearly all graduate work. The salary offered is $2,500. Applica- 
tions or communications regarding the position should be addressed 
to Professor J. H. Leuba, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

AT the Christmas meetings of the American Psychological 
Association held at the University of Chicago, the following officers 
were elected: President, Margaret Floy Washburn, Vassar College; 
Members of the Council, 1921-1923, George F. Arps, Ohio State 
University, Walter S. Hunter, University of Kansas; Division of 
Anthropology and Psychology, National Research Council, Walter 
B. Pillsbury, University of Michigan, George M. Stratton, Uni- 
versity of California. Edwin G. Boring, Clark University, con- 
tinues as Secretary-Treasurer. 

THE American Psychological Association will hold its thirtieth 
annual meeting at Princeton on December 28, 29 and 30, 1921. 

THE death is announced at the age of seventy-six years of Dr. 
Theodore Flournoy, formerly professor of physiology and psy- 
chology at the University of Geneva. 

AT the Chicago meeting of the American Association of the 
Advancement of Science the following vice-presidents of sections 
were elected: Psychology, E. A. Bott, University of Toronto; 
Education, Guy M. Whipple, University of Michigan. 

DR. FRANK H. REITER, of the University of Pennsylvania, has 
been appointed psychologist in the public school system at Newark, 
New Jersey. 
56 



Vol. 1 8, No. 2. February, 1921 

THE 

PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL 

MEETING OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL 

ASSOCIATION, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

DECEMBER 28, 29, 30, 1920 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY, EDWIN G. BORING, CLARK 

UNIVERSITY 

The American Psychological Association held its twenty-ninth 
annual meeting at the University of Chicago on Tuesday, Wednes- 
day and Thursday, December 28, 29, and 30, 1920. The sessions 
were held in the rooms of the Law Building and were largely at- 
tended. One hundred forty-eight names were registered on the 
Association's roll and very many more persons participated in the 
meetings. Fifty-seven papers were read: seven in general psy- 
chology, sixteen in experimental psychology, sixteen in clinical 
psychology and intelligence tests, seven in other branches of applied 
psychology, six in comparative psychology, and five in social 
psychology. 

The sessions of the Section of Psychology and the Section of 
Education of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science constituted together a parallel program which was held in 
the same building with the meetings of the Association and which 
was attended largely by members of the Association. On Wednes- 
day morning the Association held a joint session devoted to the 
subject of intelligence tests with these two Sections. On Wednes- 
day afternoon Professor Yerkes delivered the vice-presidential 
address to Section I, which was attended by the members of the 
Association. 

On Tuesday afternoon the Section of Clinical Psychology held 
its principal program which was, however, open to all members of 
the Association. The session was followed by the business meeting 
of the Section of Clinical Psychology. 

57 



58 

The large number of papers made it necessary to conduct parallel 
sessions at all times except Tuesday morning. There were thus 
with the sessions of Sections I and Q usually three simultaneous 
sessions among which the members circulated according to the 
nature of the programs. 

The annual banquet was held in Ida Noyes Hall with one hun- 
dred fifty persons present. After the banquet the retiring Presi- 
dent, Mr. Franz, read his presidential address on "Cerebral- 
Mental Relations." Messrs. Cattell, Judd, Scott, and Pintner 
contributed personal reminiscences of Wilhelm Wundt. Professor 
Jaederholm, the Association's guest from Sweden, and Professor 
McDougall, newly from England and elected to the Association's 
membership, were called upon for remarks. 

The apparatus exhibition was held in the Law Building and the 
C. H. Stocking Company of Chicago made an extensive exhibit. 
In addition Mr. Bean exhibited a portable stadiometer and portable 
school scales, Mr. Ruckmick photographs of emotional expressions, 
and Mr. Pressey the X-O tests. 

TRANSACTIONS AT THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING 

The Annual Business Meeting was held on December 30, from 
four until nearly seven p.m., in the Law Building. 

It was voted that the minutes of the previous meeting be 
approved as printed. 

The Secretary announced the deaths of the following members 
of the Association during the year 1920: Elmer Ernest Southard, 
February 8, 1920, aged forty-three; Kathleen C. Moore, July 24, 
1920, aged fifty-three. 

The Secretary announced that the Association had been repre- 
sented by Mr. Dashiell at the inauguration of President Chase, 
one of its members, at the University of North Carolina. 

The following items of business were reported from the Council 
and acted upon by the Association: 

1. The Treasurer's report as printed below was read and ac- 
cepted. 

2. The Treasurer reported the following estimate of resources 
for the year 1921: 

ESTIMATE OF RESOURCES 

On deposit 3284.76 

Dues (approximate) 825.00 

Interest (approximate) 50.00 

Sale of monographs (approximate) 5.00 31,164.76 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 59 

3. Upon recommendation of the Council the following budget 
for 1921 was approved: 

BUDGET 

Printing and supplies $325.00 

Postage 125.00 

Reprints 150.00 

Abstracts 50.00 

Incidentals of meeting 50.00 

Apparatus Exhibition 25.00 

Election committee 70.00 

Secretary's stipend 250.00 

Committee on Qualifications and Certification of Consulting 

Psychologists 50.00 

Standing Committee on Certification of Consulting 

Psychologists 50.00 $1,145.00 

4. The Secretary announced for the Council the appointment 
of a program committee for 1921, consisting of the Secretary, 
Mr. Langfeld, and Mr. F. L. Wells. 

5. It was announced that no invitations had been received for 
the meeting in 1921, and that the Council deemed it inadvisable 
to meet with the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science at Toronto. On recommendation of the Council it was 
voted that the determination of the place and time of the next 
meeting and the appointment of the local member of the executive 
committee be referred to the Council with power to act.* 

6. On nomination by the Council, Mr. E. K. Strong, Jr., was 
elected as representative of the Association for 1921 on the Council 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 

7. On recommendation of the Council the following thirty- 
seven persons were elected to membership in the Association: 

Adams, Henry Foster, Associate Professor, University of Michigan. 

Bagby, English, Ph.D., Instructor in Psychology, Yale University. 

Bills, Marion A., Ph.D., Assistant in Clerical Research, Carnegie Institute of Tech- 
nology. 

Bird, Grace Electa, Ph.D., Professor of Educational Psychology, R. I. State College. 

Blanchard, Phyllis, Ph.D., Interne Psychologist, Bellevue Hospital, N. Y. City. 

Bott, Edward A., B.A., Lecturer in Psychology, University of Toronto. 

Bridgman, Olga L., M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Clinical Professor of Abnormal Psychology, 
University of California. 

Castro, Matilde, Ph.D., Professor of Education, Director of Model School, Bryn 
Mawr College. 

Chamberlin, Edwin M., Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, College of Business Adminis- 
tration, Boston University. 

* The Council has since accepted the invitation of Princeton University for the 
Association to hold its thirtieth annual meeting at Princeton on December 28-30, 
1921, and has appointed Mr. C. C. Brigham local member of the executive committee. 



60 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

Chassell, Clara Frances, Ph.D., Instructor in Experimental Education, Teachers 

College, Columbia; Psychologist, Horace Mann School. 

Chassell, Laura Merrill, Ph.D., Instructor in Psychology, Ohio State University. 
Coburn, Charles A., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Psychology, Boston University. 
Conklin, Edmund S., Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, University of Oregon. 
Dimmick, Forrest L., Ph.D., Instructor in Psychology, Northwestern University. 
Friedline, Cora L., Ph.D., Adjunct Professor, Randolph-Macon Woman's College. 
Gatewood, Esther L., Ph.D., Research Assistant, Carnegie Institute of Technology. 
Griffith, Coleman R., Ph.D., Instructor in Psychology, University of Illinois. 
Henry, Theodore S., Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Western State Normal School, 

Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Hoisington, Louis B., Ph.D. Instructor in Psychology, Cornell University. 
Howard, Delton T., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Psychology, Northwestern Uni- 
versity. 

Humphrey, George, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Psychology, Wesleyan University. 
Humpstone, Henry J., Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, University of North Dakota. 
Jordan, Arthur M., Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, University of Arkansas. 
Kingsbury, Forrest A., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of 

Chicago. 
Link, Henry C., Ph.D., Director of Education, U. S. Rubber Company, Footwear 

Division, New Haven, Conn. 

McDougall, William, M.B., F.R.S., Professor of Psychology, Harvard University. 
Ordahl, George, Ph.D., Psychologist, Sonoma State Home, Eldridge, California. 
Otis, Arthur S., Ph.D., Camp Grant, Illinois. 
Pressey, Luella Cole, Ph.D., Research Fellow, Indiana University. 
Rice, D. Edgar, Ph.D., Division of Testing and Grading, Camp Grant, Illinois. 
Robbins, Samuel D., Ph.D., Director, Boston Stammerers' Institute. 
Root, William T., Ph.D., Head Department of Educational Psychology, University 

of Pittsburgh. 

Shaw, Edwin A., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Education, Harvard University. 
Toops, Herbert A., Ph.D., Development Specialist in Vocational Tests, Camp Grant, 

Illinois. 
Wells, Wesley R., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Psychology, Colby 

College. 
Williams, J. Harold, Ph.D., Director, California Bureau of Juvenile Research, Whittier, 

California. 
Wooster, Margaret, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Psychology, Beloit College. 

8. On recommendation of the Council it was voted that a 
committee of three, to include the Secretary, be appointed by the 
President to revise the requirements for membership and to report 
at the next annual meeting of the Association. 

9. On recommendation of the Council it was voted that no 
nomination of a new member be considered unless it be accompanied 
by letter in support of the nomination signed by one of the nomina- 
tors. A motion that the new membership committee prepare a 
blank calling for fuller information concerning each candidate was 
lost. 

10. The Council recommended that persons residing in foreign 
countries be not elected to active membership; that distinguished 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 6l 

psychologists in foreign countries be elected, upon recommendation 
of the Council, corresponding members of the Association; and 
that such corresponding members be not subject to the payment 
of dues. It was voted to refer the matter to the new committee on 
qualifications for membership. 

n. The Council recommended the establishment of a treasurer- 
ship by the amendment of Article III, Section I, of the Constitution 
to read as follows: 

The Secretary and the Treasurer of the Association shall be nominated by the 
Council and elected by the Association at an annual meeting, and shall serve for a 
term of three years. 

The recommendation was approved, and goes over to the next 
annual meeting for second passage. 

12. On recommendation of the Council it was voted that the 
President oppoint a committee of three members to consider manu- 
scripts submitted to Mr. Bingham in competition for the Thomas 
A. Edison prize for the most meritorious research on the effects of 
music, and to report to the Council thereon; that the time for the 
submission of manuscripts be extended to October i, 1921; that 
the payment of the prize be not made until the successful manuscript 
is published or accepted for publication; and that the Association 
express its thanks to Mr. Edison for the donation of the prize and 
to Mr. Bingham for his organization of the plan. 

13. The Council recommended the adoption of a set of by-laws 
which embody the various actions of the Association since its 
organization. It was voted that the proposed by-laws be printed 
in the Year Book and action upon them deferred until the next 
annual meeting. 

The President then called for reports of committees. 
Mr. Scott reported for the Committee on the Election of Officers 
the following elections : 

President, Margaret Floy Washburn, Vassar College. 

Members of the Council, 1921-1923, George F. Arps, Ohio State University, Walter S. 

Hunter, University of Kansas. 
Nominees for appointment to the Division of Anthropology and Psychology of the 

National Research Council, Walter B. Pillsbury, University of Michigan, George 

M. Stratton, University of California. 

Mr. Warren reported progress for the Committee on Termi- 
nology, and it was voted at his request that the committee be 
continued. 

Mr. Seashore reported for the joint committee on the publication 



62 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

of abstracts. The report presented the following plan for an 
abstract journal: 

The Psychological Review Company offers to initiate a system of abstracts of 
publications on psychological subjects to be published for the present in connection 
with the Psychological Bulletin, provided the American Psychological Association or 
individuals will guarantee a maximum of #1500, to provide against a possible deficit; 
the guarantee to extend over two years at not more than #750 a year. 

It is proposed to devote six issues of the Psychological Bulletin to these ab- 
stracts, the alternate numbers being devoted to reviews, reports, notes, etc. The 
editors are endeavoring to secure the cooperation of foreign psychologists through 
the medium of their journals, as well as the cooperation of American psychologists in 
making the abstracts. The number of pages in the Bulletin will be increased as far 
as necessary. The abstracts will be grouped in each issue under a few general headings. 
The plan of abstracting suggested at the meeting will be followed as nearly as may be. 
The editor of the Psychological Bulletin, however, will assume final responsibility for 
the form of the abstracts. 

The Committee recommended the adoption of this plan and the 
pledge of the cooperation of the Association in the enterprise, 
with the exception that Mr. Yerkes expressed himself as disapprov- 
ing the use of the Association's funds to underwrite the venture. 
On motion of Mr. Judd it was voted that the report be received and 
the Committee discharged, that final action be postponed until 
the next annual meeting, and that the President appoint a committee 
of seven to take into consideration the report already rendered 
and the general matter of the relation of the Association to scientific 
publication. The recommendation of the Council that the Asso- 
ciation underwrite the proposed guarantee for the new abstract 
journal up to the present amount of the principal fund was referred 
to this committee. It was voted that the committee of seven 
include three members of the discharged committee. 

Mr. Baldwin reported for the Committee on Qualifications and 
Certification of Consulting Psychologists, presenting a printed 
report. The Council recommended that, in the case of the adoption 
of the report, the expenditure of the standing committee created be 
contingent upon the funds collected as fees by the committee. 
After considerable discussion Mr. Seashore moved that the Asso- 
ciation adopt the report of the committee. Mr. Yerkes moved 
to amend the report by striking out the provision for the withdrawal 
of a certificate once awarded and by the inclusion of the recom- 
mendation of the Council to limit the budget of the standing com- 
mittee to the amount of the fees collected. The report was adopted 
as amended, and the committee discharged. On motion of Mr. 
Judd it was voted that the Standing Committee on Certification 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 63 

of Consulting Psychologists, created by the report, be instructed 
to grant no certifications until it has rendered a full report to the 
Association of the procedure which it will adopt. 

The President then called for new business. 

On motion of Mr. Jastrow it was resolved that the following 
message be sent to President G. Stanley Hall: 

Resolved that the following message be sent by the Secretary of the American 
Psychological Association to President Emeritus G. Stanley Hall, Clark University, 
Worcester, Mass.: 

The members of the American Psychological Association express to you, on the 
occasion of your retirement from active duties, their appreciation of your long and 
distinguished services to psychology and education; and extend to you their cordial 
good wishes for further years of health and happiness in the completion of your life- 
work. 

On motion of Mr. Cattell the following resolution was adopted. 

Resolved that the American Psychological Association places on record its sincere 
thanks to the University of Chicago and to the psychologists of the University and of 
the city for the admirable arrangements made for the scientific sessions of the Associa- 
tion and for the entertainment of its members. 

The meeting adjourned at 6:50 p.m. 
REPORT OF THE TREASURER FOR THE YEAR 1920 

DR. 

To balance from the previous year 31,551.32 

Dues received from members 766.28 

Interest from July i, 1919 to July i, 1920 53.86 

Sale of Monographs 51 and 53 in 1919 7.67 32,379.13 

CR. 

By Printing and Supplies 3183.03 

Postage 93-56 

Reprints 51.50 

Incidentals of 1919 meeting 12.21 

1919 Apparatus Exhibition 7.06 

1920 Election Committee 28.25 

Secretary's Stipend for 1920 < 250.00 

Exchange on Checks 2.10 

Committee on Academic Status of Psychology 126.85 

Committee on Qualifications and Certification of 

Consulting Psychologists 53.34 3 807.90 

Balance in Fifth Avenue Bank 284.76 

Balance in Union Dime Savings Bank 1,286.47 32,379.13 

WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS, EDWIN G. BORING, 

December 21, 1920 Treasurer 

Audited and found correct: 
C. S. YOAKUM, 
B. T. BALDWIN 



6 4 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PSYCHOLOGISTS 

The Secretary has published a statistical analysis of the subjects 
of instruction and research and other personal data of the member- 
ship of the Association in 1920 (PsYCHOL. BULL., 1920, 17, 271-278). 
Because it bears upon the question of the most desirable location 
for the annual meeting, he takes this opportunity to submit data 
on the geographical distribution of the membership of the Associa- 
tion in 1920 as indicated in the figures below. The center of the 
psychological population of the United States in 1920 lies approxi- 
mately at latitude 40 45' and longitude 84 15'. This point is 
about seven miles west of Lima, Ohio, one hundred miles north of 
Cincinnati, one hundred twenty-five miles southwest of Detroit, 
and one hundred ninety miles southeast of Chicago. This center 
is the average center, not the medium. 





TITLES AND ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS 

Cerebral-Mental Relations (Presidential Address). SHEPHERD 
IVORY FRANZ, Government Hospital for the Insane. 

GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY 

Functional Psychology in the Laboratory. DELTON THOMAS HOWARD, 
Northwestern University. (Introduced by R. A. Gault.) 

There are two sciences of psychology. The first is the science 
of experience "as dependent on the human organism." It aims 
at the identification, analysis, and description of those items of 
experience that are found to be dependent as to their being-in- 
experience, their appearance and disappearance on the human 
nervous system. This science has nothing to do with the uses, 
possibilities, or meanings of things. It is concerned with dependent 
phenomena only for the purpose of determining their status as 
existences in the natural order of the world. 

The second science of psychology may be called the "science 
of consciousness." By consciousness is meant a specific type of 
human activity (not the mere presence in experience of things). 
Looking, listening, sensing, discriminating, judging, reasoning, 
are conscious or control activities. They are activities a man 
engages in for the purpose of determining the meaning, value, or 
possibilities in the way of consequences of any datum of experience 
that happens to need that treatment. It is this evaluating, prob- 
lem-solving, stimulus reconstructing process that constitutes the 
subject-matter of "functional" psychology. Conscious activity 
may be distinguished from reflex and automatic forms of response 
by reference to the stimulus. For whereas unconscious or auto- 
matic response follows serially and causally upon the excitation of 
the end-organ, consciousness holds up the stimulus, scrutinizes it, 
seeks to find out what it signifies in the way of consequences. 

The first type of psychology is already established as an experi- 
mental science. Functionalism must become experimental or 
surrender its claim to be an empirical science. 

The conscious process is concrete, an activity of the whole man 
(not an activity occurring in the "depths of the soul"). If this 

65 



66 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

is true, then it ought to be subject to experimental investigation. 
With this thought in mind I have undertaken certain laboratory 
studies of consciousness, now going forward. I give a brief sketch 
of these experiments. 

What Should be Taught in the Introductory Course? L. L. THURS- 

TONE, Carnegie Institute of Technology. 

The fundamental trouble with conventional textbook psy- 
chology is its emphasis on the momentary psychosis. This is the 
main point of the paper. 

We are ignoring the permanent trends, the life motives that 
determine our character traits, and the compensations and subli- 
mations that determine our social successes or failures. Our text- 
books in psychology are entirely lacking in socially significant 
content. Practically all of our content centers around the momen- 
tary mental states. 

The whole subject of sensation including such teaching items 
as the doctrine of specific energies, cold and warm spots, theories 
of hearing, peripheral vision and color mixture, all refer to the 
momentary psychosis. 

We might continue to teach our barren subject if no other con- 
tent were available but that is not necessary. Those of the medical 
profession who are interested in mental phenomena have busied 
themselves with the permanent cravings and life motives which 
really determine our careers. That is the fundamental difference 
between the content of orthodox psychology and the psychology 
which the medical profession has contributed. 

I do not wish to convey the impression that we should do away 
with the conventional categories. Far from it. But I should like 
to see our present main categories such as perception, imagination, 
the concept, and others, serve a secondary role as stages in the act. 

My object with this sketchy outline is to show that we have 
entirely failed in our textbooks to deal with socially significant 
and interesting content and that we must turn to the literature of 
psychiatry, abnormal psychology, psychoanalysis, psychopathology, 
and mental hygiene, for the psychological principles that really 
count. 

The most important task for psychologists at the present time is 
to organize and rewrite the material of these studies in psychologi- 
cally acceptable form with special reference to the normal mind. 

We have within reach in the direction which I have indicated 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 67 

the possibility of making ourselves more generally accepted by the 
public and our subject the most popular one on every college 
campus. 

An Objective Interpretation of Meanings. J. R. KANTOR, Indiana 

University. 

Paradoxical as it may seem it is still true that the problem of 
meanings, which provided so much difficulty for the introspective 
psychologist, presumably because meanings seemed to possess 
essentially an inner character which could not be connected with 
mental content of any particular sort, meets with an easy solution 
by the methods and materials of the objective psychologist. From 
an objective viewpoint meanings are concrete and actual, although 
implicit, responses to objects as stimuli. In their functioning 
meanings are precurrent adjustments in the sense that they antici- 
pate and condition what the final adjustment to any particular 
object is to be. Meanings, then, for the objective psychologist 
refer to definite differential responses acquired by actual contact 
with objects, their qualities and relations as they have served to 
stimulate the person. The differential responses are evaluatory 
reactions which make for orderly and appropriate adjustments of 
the individual to the surrounding things. 

The development of meanings is therefore a process of acquiring 
particular sorts of reaction systems as they arise from the person's 
contact with objects. But how do these reaction systems function 
as meanings in later adjustments? The answer is that the meaning 
reactions become detached from the original stimulus-response 
situation and operate separately. Obviously this reaction when 
operating in relative independence of the original situation is a 
truncated or partially occuring act. Thus the meaning of a candle 
flame to a child may be the operation of merely the seeing phase 
detached from the original seeing-touching reaction. 

The highest point of development in meaning reactions is 
marked by the acquisition of numerous symbolic reactions which 
serve as anticipatory responses to other appropriate final reactions. 
The development and operation of meanings are most effectually 
aided by the use of language and speech symbols substituted for 
the original adjustment. 

The Validity of Votes. J. MCK.EEN CATTELL, Garrison-on-Hudson, 
N. Y. 

In order to select on two occasions groups of a thousand men 



68 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

of science for statistical study, the workers in each science were 
arranged in the order of the merit of their work by ten of their more 
distinguished colleagues. The average position of each was calcu- 
lated, together with a probable error which shows the validity of 
the position and also measures the differences between the men. 
In a third selection of scientific men a general vote has been ob- 
tained by methods described in this paper. For example by a 
preliminary vote a hundred psychologists were selected and each 
was then asked to select from this group the fifty who have done 
the best work in psychology and the five whose work has been most 
important. Eighty-four replies were received; the vote for each 
of the hundred ranged from 84 to 3, or counting the double votes 
for the five leading psychologists from 144 to 3; 35 five votes gave 
a man a place among the fifty. The problem treated in the paper 
is the assignment of a probable error to the positions obtained by 
such a vote. It is a question of some theoretical and practical 
interest, for it is often desirable to know the validity of a vote. 
Thus if the independent opinion, say, of six of the eight members 
of the council of the American Psychological Association is favorable 
to a given measure, how likely is this to represent a majority vote 
of all the members? Similar questions arise whenever a division of 
opinion and a vote occur, as in an election or in a trial by jury, 
where we may assume that there is a random selection from a larger 
group. 

Effects of Music. W. V. BINGHAM, Carnegie Institute of Technology. 

The major interest of investigators in music-psychology has 
naturally centered in the task of analysing and explaining the 
phenomena of musical pleasure. But in addition to these esthetic 
phenomena, the psychologist must recognize that responses to music 
include varied phenomena not comprehended within the scope of 
musical esthetics. 

Certain of these effects are of both theoretical and practical 
import. Thus, muscular tension and strain is diminished or in- 
creased, depending on the type of the selection. Some music 
soothes, quiets, rests and relaxes, while other types of selections are 
predominantly stirring, exciting or stimulating in their effect. 
Routine movements of skill and dexterity may be facilitated or 
hampered by music. Artistic fancy or constructive imagination 
of other sorts, may be initiated. The thought processes are 
speeded up or retarded. Prevailing moods are modified. 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 69 

In this paper, certain difficulties of control and of objective 
measurement are pointed out and considerations of method and 
technique in attacking outstanding problems are touched upon. 

The Common Sense of the "Stimulus-Error" E. G. BORING, 

Clark University. 

The stimulus-error is a descriptive term which applies in cases 
where the correlation between stimulus and response is equivocal 
because of a failure in the scientific control of certain middle terms 
that affect the stimulus-response relation. Although the history 
of the stimulus-error indicates that it is an error only for psy- 
chologists who work from the introspective point of view, the 
argument of this paper is that the error is much more far-reaching 
and is one that interferes with accuracy of scientific prediction 
whether the problem is couched in terms of behavior or in terms of 
the psychology of introspection. 

The nature of the equivocal correlation that may result from 
judgment of stimulus is best illustrated by the facts of the cutaneous 
linen of duality. Here, avoiding any stand upon the issue of 
parallelism or interactionism, we may nevertheless assume that 
we are dealing with a dependent series that involves a stimulus, an 
excitation, a perceptual pattern (Henri, Gates, etc.), and a report. 
The dependence of excitation upon stimulus is a function of the 
mode of stimulation and would ordinarily be controlled in any 
careful psychological experiment. The perceptual pattern issues 
from excitation under the laws of attention and cannot be univocally 
determined unless attention is controlled. The report issues from 
the perceptual pattern in accordance with the particular criteria 
that have been established and varies with the attitude of the 
subject (Titchener, de Laski, Friedline). The technique for the 
control of attention and of attitude, which was first developed in 
introspective laboratories, constitutes a mode of control for these 
intermediate variables and is the only method at present available 
for achieving precise prediction of response on the basis of stimu- 
lation. To avoid their control and to seek to condition response 
solely upon stimulation is to deal in uncertain relationships and to 
make the stimulus-error. 

Experimental Determination of the Nature of Inhibition in Human 
Nervous System. RAYMOND DODGE, Wesleyan University. 
Admitting the probability of inhibition in mental processes, its 



70 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

actual conditions in human nervous systems are of both theoretical 
and practical importance. Excluding the supposition of specific 
inhibitory processes, for which there seems to be no physiological 
evidence, there are two outstanding hypotheses that challenge 
experimental verification, the Verworn refractory phase theory, 
and the McDougal drainage theory. Available techniques for 
studying the reflexes seemed to offer conditions for crucial experi- 
ments. They indicate that both forms of inhibition are actually 
found in human nervous system. In this case the real problems 
are to trace the operations of these different processes instead of 
confusing them under a common concept. 

EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 

The Pitch Range Audiometer. CORDIA C. BUNCH, University of 
Iowa. (Introduced by C. E. Seashore). 

This audiometer makes it possible to measure quickly and 
accurately the acuity of hearing pure tones in a continuous 
series from 30 d. v. to 15,000 d.v. The instrument consists of an 
alternating current generator with its variable speed driving motor, 
a telephone, and a potentiometer for varying the current through 
the telephone. 

Records of both normal and pathological cases are shown the 
fields of hearing for certain lesions are found to be typical and of 
service for differential diagnosis in otology. Certain principles of 
hearing have been demonstrated with this instrument. For prac- 
tical work in the otological laboratory this audiometer makes it 
possible to make the hearing test in less than one-tenth of the time 
required with the Bezold Continuous Tone Series and the record is 
continuous for all tones instead of being given for the pitch of 
certain forks. 

Determination of Relative Liminal Intensities for Sounds of Dif- 
ferent Pitch. MARTHA GUERNSEY, University of Michigan. 
(Introduced by W. B. Pillsbury). 

It is one function of this investigation to make a large number 
of direct, quantitative measurements of minimal sound intensities 
at different vibration rates, in order to approach a determination 
of absolute intensities for the average human ear. A second part 
of the experiment was devoted to testing the validity of Weber's 
Law in the field of audition. 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 71 

Our apparatus makes use of vacuum tube oscillation, and 
comprises essentially the same electrical phenomena as those 
employed in ordinary radio phenomena. A circuit containing 
variable capacity and self-inductance is started into oscillation by 
the mutual inductance of two coils. Tuning is accomplished by 
varying the capacity. The tones are measured by comparison 
with Edelmann tuning forks. After several measurements, the 
inductance may be determined from the formula T = 27rVZ.C, 
and for the upper limits the pitches may be obtained from the 
known capacity and inductance. 

So far, the determinations quantitatively worked out make 
the amount of energy in ergs required for a liminal tone of 120 
vibrations slightly less than Wien's results. Our results also show 
differences in sensitivity for different pitches. Tones of the upper 
middle range are more easily perceived than tones either below 
or above it, when unit energy is used as a common stimulus. 

For the pitches hitherto studied, Weber's Law seems to apply, 
within limits. The fraction is roughly constant, and resolves 
into an average of one third. It is smaller near the limen and 
increases toward the upper limit of intensity. 

The Distribution of Effort in Memorizing And Its Effect upon Re- 
tention. EDWARD S. ROBINSON, University of Chicago. 
Two experiments were performed. In the first a list of 10 
three-place numbers was presented either 12 times at a single 
sitting or 6 times at one sitting and 6 times 24 hours later. The 
relative efficiency of the two methods was tested by written recall 
5 minutes, 20 minutes, or 24 hours after the completion of study. 
Distributed effort proved to be better than concentrated, and this 
superiority was slightly clearer after 24 hours than it was after 
5 minutes or 20 minutes. 

In the second experiment a list of 10 three-place numbers 
was presented either 6 times at a single sitting or 3 times at one 
sitting and 3 times 24 hours later. Again the relative efficiency 
of the two methods was tested by recall 5 minutes, 20 minutes, or 
24 hours after the completion of study. At 5 minutes after study 
concentrated effort was superior to distributed. This condition 
changed, however, with the progress of forgetting. At 20 minutes 
after study recall was slightly in favor of distributed effort, and 
after 24 hours the advantage of distribution was unmistakable. 
The results of these experiments suggest that the relative merits 



72 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

of concentrated and distributed effort depend upon: (i) the total 
effort expended, (2) the units into which that effort is divided, 
and (3) the stage in the forgetting process at which memorial effi- 
ciency is tested. The second of these factors might also be stated 
in terms of the degree of learning involved. That is, interruption 
of study may vary in its effects according to the point in the learning 
process at which it is introduced. 

The Flashing of Fireflies: A Study in Visual Rhythm. CHRISTIAN 

A. RUCKMICK, University of Illinois. 

For a number of years a considerable amount of discussion has 
been published concerning the appearance of supposedly synchro- 
nous flashing of fireflies and the "rhythmical" behavior of other 
animal forms. The synchronism has been positively affirmed by 
some observers and as stoutly denied by others. Interpretations 
have been proposed in regard to the alleged occurrence and these 
are usually influenced by biological, chemical, and psychological 
considerations. 

Although, as suggested, a psychological explanation has already 
been offered, there has been no experimentation on the subject 
and consequently no verification of the mental factors presumably 
involved. With the help of several student collaborators the 
writer has investigated the problem for the last few years and 
has duplicated the primary conditions of the phenomenon in the 
laboratory. Apparatus was devised to give variable series of 
flashes, twenty in number, in an irregular pattern on the wall of a 
dark room in which the observers were seated one at a time. The 
observers represented several degrees of training in psychological 
experimentation and, except for some control series, were ignorant 
of the purpose or nature of the investigation. That the effect was 
comparable to that of the flashing of fireflies was discovered from 
the unsolicited statements of the observers. Later series were 
added to give more nearly the correct flashing time and intervals 
as obtained from investigations recently published by the Snyders. 
This semester movement of flashes was reproduced by rotation of 
the framework on which the lights were mounted. 

In all of the reports there was indubitable evidence that organi- 
zation of the flashes, even when not physically synchronized, is the 
rule rather than the exception. Just as we tend to group sounds 
into rhythmical patterns when, as for example, we hear a dozen 
clocks ticking at different rates, so we group visual presentations 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 73 

into spatial and temporal patterns. This tendency is more readily 
and more speedily set off when the presentations are at first physi- 
cally grouped in the series as when a few flashes are actually made to 
coincide temporally. 

The application of these results to the fireflies would seem to 
indicate that there may be for a short time a synchronism of many 
flashes in a group due to conditions of temperature and moisture, 
but that the continuous flashing in such manner, the regularity of 
it, and the uniformity of it- throughout the group of fireflies, are 
matters of mental rather than of biological interpretation. 

Reaction-Time as an Index of the Dependence of Visual Performance 

on Variable Conditions of Observation. H. M. JOHNSON, The 

B. F. Goodrich Company. 

As compared with determination of sensory thresholds, measure- 
ment of the rate of learning or of variable productivity, the measure- 
ment of reaction-times has been little used in recent investigation. 
However, the time required for a stimulus to become effective is a 
cardinal factor in the relation between stimulus and response, 
It is also an exceedingly sensitive indicator of the effects of differen- 
tial conditions of observation. Its sensitiveness necessitates the 
use of certain precautions which have been neglected by some stu- 
dents, and which by an appearance of complexity have deterred 
others from using the method. 

This report shows graphically the distribution of some 30,000 
reaction-times according to days of practice in two kinds of visual 
observation. The measurements tend to concentrate about 
several widely separated and stable modes. At first the preference 
is for modes representing the larger values. The effect of learning 
is represented, not by gradual shifting of the values of the modes, 
but by increasing concentration about shorter ones definitely 
present from the first; and by gradual disappearance of the longer 
ones as training approximates completion. 

The statistical reliability of such differences as are found depends 
on the ratios between their magnitudes and their probable errors. 
It is quite practicable to make as many as 400 measurements in an 
hour. Thus it is feasible to attain any desired standard of statistical 
certainty by simply making the required number of measurements. 
The labor required is much less than in other types of study. 

The probability of an observed difference being due to chance 
may be reduced to an infinitesimal value before enough measure- 



74 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

ments have been taken to distribute the effects of infra-serial 
practice and fatigue equitably among the compared variables. 
The sensitiveness of these measurements surpasses that of 
threshold-determinations made in the ordinary way. If the 
duration of the stimulus is made an essential variable, as Cobb 
has suggested and done, the advantage of reaction-time measure- 
ment is diminished. The relative convenience and usefulness of 
the two methods then depends largely on the magnitude of the 
investigation. 

Monocular and Binocular Perception of Brightness. PRENTICE 

REEVES, Eastman Kodak Company. 

Many of the experimental determinations of the least per- 
ceptible brightness and the least perceptible difference in brightness 
have, through necessity, been made monocularly. In many of 
the practical problems where such data may be applied, however, 
the working conditions usually involve binocular vision. The 
results in the literature are discordant and are more qualitative 
than quantitative. This paper is a preliminary report of results 
obtained from a practiced observer, the writer, in monocular and 
binocular perception of brightness and brightness differences. 
It is primarily a quantitative determination. 

The results were obtained with an improved visual sensitometer 
and the precedure was the same as in previous experiments with 
this apparatus. The eyes were fully adapted to darkness, o.i 
millilambert or i.o millilambert and the stimulus exposed for a small 
fraction of a second, i, 2, and 5 seconds. The effect of the previous 
condition of the retina was also studied. 

The conditions of the experiment are such that stereoscopic 
differences are reduced to a minimum. The results show a greater 
sensibility to brightness and brightness differences for binocular 
than for monocular observations. The difference between the 
two observations varies with different conditions of retinal adap- 
tation and shows clearly that more results are necessary before 
definite conclusions can be made. 

In monocular observations the unused eye was covered so that 
a marked difference in adaptation conditions existed. The next 
step in the experiment will be to determine the effect of exposing 
both eyes to the same brightness in monocular as well as binocular 
observations. The experiment is to be repeated for adaptation to 
higher brightnesses and results are now being secured from several 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 75 

observers of varying amounts of experience in photometric obser- 
vations. The effect of exposing both eyes to afield of non-uniform 
brightness is also proposed. 

Light-Spot Adaptation.'^ KNIGHT DUNLAP, The Johns Hopkins 

University. 

In earlier work (Dunlap, Arch. f. Psychol., 1912, 24, 299-304) 
I found that with oblique vision of a light spot (small luminous 
area) in a darkened room, the spot disappeared in a few seconds, 
if eye-movement did not intervene, eye-movement having a definite 
restorative effect on sensitivity. 

In recent work in the Nela Research Laboratory, I found that 
when the stimulation of an extra-central area in one eye was con- 
tinued for a sufficient number of seconds beyond the time at which 
the lightspot disappeared, the corresponding area in the other eye, 
previously unstimulated, was inhibited, i.e., blinded. 

The fact of a central inhibition (adaptation?) is thus demon- 
strated, as well as the fact that light, although invisible, may pro- 
duce a definite effect on the nervous system. 

This paper will appear in the Amerian Journal of Physiology. 

The Registration of Compensatory Eye-Movements. RAYMOND DODGE, 

Wesleyan University. 

Exact knowledge of the eye-movements and their role in vision 
has been materially increased by photographic registration. All 
traditional techniques of this sort require open eyes, and at least 
one brilliantly illuminated point in the visual field. True reactive 
compensatory eye-movements in response to stimulation of the 
semi-circular canals, and other movements of normal non-seeing 
eyes have never been adequately recorded, and in consequence 
are very imperfectly known. 

The eccentrically placed cornea, which is commonly exploited 
in direct photography may be made to activate a small recording 
mirror which rests on the closed eyelid. Such a mirror will tend 
to assume positions tangential to the underlying globe. If it rests 
on the cornea it will deflect a pencil of light in a direction opposite 
to that of the moving eye. While not adapted to record accur- 
ately the successive fixation points, it will give reliable data on the 
beginning, duration, and direction of eye-movements and will 
roughly indicate their relative extent. It may be used for class 
demonstration of reading and other eye-movements if one eye may 
be kept closed. 



76 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

The Influence of Varying Amounts of Initial Visual Control in Maze 

Learning. HARVEY A. CARR, University of Chicago. 

A stylus maze was so constructed that the cul-de-sacs and the 
correct path can not be distinguished by means of vision. A group 
of human subjects was permitted the use of vision during the 
first trial, and was then compelled to complete the mastery of 
the maze without the aid of sight. A second group was permitted 
the use of vision during the first two trials, another during the initial 
three trials, and a fourth for five trials. These results are compared 
with those of a fifth group that mastered the maze entirely without 
the aid of sight. 

The introduction of vision during the first or the first two trials 
is without effect upon the number of trials necessary to learn the 
problem, but in both cases it does decrease very materially the 
number of errors made while vision is used as well as during the 
subsequent period of mastery. 

Visual control during either the initial three or five trials de- 
creases the number of trials by 45 per cent.; these amounts of 
control are very much more effective upon the average number of 
errors per trial in the period subsequent to vision than is any lesser 
amount of control. 

The results indicate that this visual perceptual control is effec- 
tive upon the time of learning only when the maze is practically 
mastered in visual terms. Of the first two groups only one of the 
twenty-four subjects obtained a visual mastery of the problem, 
while in the last two groups eighteen of the twenty-three subjects 
had the maze learned in visual terms at the end of the third trial. 

The Effect of Varying Amounts of Initial Guidance of Maze Learning. 

KATHERINE E. LUDGATE, University of Chicago. 

Six groups of 15 subjects each learned a stylus maze. In 
five groups the Experimenter controlled the initial trials by grasping 
the base of the stylus and guiding the subject's hand over the correct 
pathway, thus preventing any errors. Group (i) was given this 
control the first 2 trials, group (2) the first 4 trials, group (3) the 
first 8, group (4) the first 12, and group (5) the first 16 trials. They 
then completed the learning without aid. Their records were com- 
pared with group (6) which learned without guidance. 

The results indicate that there is a marked saving in average 
total trials only in the group with 2 controls, those with 4, 8, and 
12 controls approximating the record of the uncontrolled group, 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 77 

and those with 16 controls exceeding it. There is a large saving in 
total errors (retracings and cul-de-sacs) in all controlled groups. 

Sex Differences in a Case of Trial and Error Learning. GEO. S. 

SNODDY, University of Utah. 

In a previous study (PsychoL Mono., 1920, 28, No. 124) the 
writer has made an analysis of the learning to trace by mirror 
reflection the path of a star diagram cut from brass. In this 
study it was shown that the improvement in the early stages of 
the learning was dependent upon the resolution of a zig-zag, of 
back and forth course of the stylus into a straight or smooth course 
of the stylus down the middle of the path. This resolution of the 
zig-zag course of the stylus into a straight one was shown to be 
dependent wholly upon the interposition of time intervals between 
successive circuits. Improvement in the more highly practiced 
learners, in later stages of the learning curve, was shown to depend 
in part upon the elimination of the time intervals between circuits, 
or series practice. Since early learning is dependent upon insertion 
of time intervals and consists of the resolution of a zig-zag movement 
into a straight away movement, this was interpreted to mean 
that this improvement, adaptation, depends upon a simultaneous 
irradiation of the nerve impulse to the lateral musculature of the 
tracing arm. 

When the data of this experiment are examined for sex differences 
some remarkable results are found. These may be summarized as 
follows: (i) Among university students the efficiency of the men 
at various stages of the learning curve is seventy-five per cent, of 
that of the women. (2) Only one man in eight reaches the average 
of the women. (3) The deviation of the male average from the 
female average shows slight though apparently significant variations 
at certain stages of the learning curve. (4) A study of public school 
children below 12 shows boys and girls very similar, with boys 
slightly, more efficient. (5) A study of junior high school students 
of 15 years shows the same percentage relations as obtained among 
college men and women. (6) If college women are in a state of 
excitement from instructions, dosage of caffeine or thyroid glands, 
of toxic goiter, their records and behavior closely approximate 
those of the males. (7) From the above the conclusion is reached 
that puberty for the male means an increase in the irritability of 
the cortical centers which lowers the rate of adaptability in the 
learning functions involved in mirror tracing. 



78 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

Interference Effects in Series of Habits. J. F. DASHIELL, University 

of North Carolina. 

In the case of habits that contain enough identical and enough 
dissimilar elements interference effects are well known to be pro- 
duced when the subject leaves off one and starts practice on another. 
A question that arises is: In case a subject practices successively 
upon a series of such identical dissimilar habits, will the interference 
effect observable in a change from a first to a second habit reappear 
in equal or in different degree in each following shift from habit to 
habit? The question was attacked by having subjects learn series 
of habits chosen among different kinds of materials (card sorting, 
pencil mazes, and substitutions). In some cases the interference 
effect did not reappear, in some cases it did. Analysis of factors 
bearing on these results is then attempted. 

The Shortening of the Trial and Error Series into Simple Habits. 

STEVENSON SMITH, University of Washington. 

Although some series of trial and error responses may in their 
entirety become chain reaction habits, others, such as the series of 
puzzle-box responses, are shortened in the process of habit formation. 
Often all but the essential response is finally eliminated. This 
process of shortening may be described in the following way. 

Most stimuli which when weak cause an approach response, 
cause avoidance when they become very intense. The less remote 
an object is, the more intense is its stimulation. Thus approach 
to an object may cause an intensity of stimulation which then 
results in avoidance. 

Approaching an object may cause the stimulation of sense 
organs not at first affected. Thus a single object may be the source 
of approach stimuli to distance receptors, and later the source of 
avoidance stimuli to cutaneous receptors and proprioceptors. 
When an object is first approached and then avoided, the approach 
stimulus is still operating while the avoidance reaction is being 
given. Thus avoidance tends to become a conditioned response to 
the approach simulus. The approach stimulus then arouses two 
incompatible responses of approach and of avoidance. This may 
be an incompatibility of integration or of orientation. Such ambi- 
valence makes a compromise response impossible. The instinctive 
emotional reenforcement to avoidance is usually much greater than 
that attaching to approach responses, so that, in the rivalry of 
approach and avoidance, avoidance is likely to prevail. An 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 79 

exception to this rule is found in mating and in food getting re- 
sponses, where approach often has the greater reenforcement. 

The animal in the puzzle box thus develops conditioned avoid- 
ance responses to all the rigid confining surfaces, as avoidance is 
caused by resistance to his manipulation. He does not learn to 
avoid the movable door-opening device, as this, unlike all other 
parts of the box, affords no avoidance stimulus. Although the 
animal turns away from the door-opening device in response to 
the open door, he does so not because the opening device repels 
him but because the open door attracts him. Approaching the 
opening device and approaching the open door are finally the only 
approach responses which are uninhibited by conditioned avoidance 
responses, and while the door is closed the opening device alone 
calls forth an uninhibited approach. 

Some Experiments on Learning. JOHN F. SHEPARD, University of 

Michigan. 

This is a brief preliminary report on work now in progress. 
The animal maze used is constructed as follows. A solid wood 
floor is mounted on a heavy frame which in turn is mounted on 
rollers. In the floor are set square posts 14" high and 12" o.c. 
in both directions. In each side of the posts is a vertical groove into 
which are fitted five-ply veneer pieces. The floor is covered by a 
waterproof flooring, 12" X 12" units, with cutouts at the corners 
for the posts. The whole arrangement is fifteen units square and 
is covered by removable ^" mesh wire screen. Any maze which 
can be drawn within these limits can, therefore, be set up. 

In the recent work, one group of animals has been used in a 
series of mazes as follows: three mazes were learned in which the 
different sections of true path (eleven in each maze) were unique. 
After each maze, the animal learned modified forms of the original, 
involving changes of from one to three sections. The specific 
error introduced was generally eliminated quickly, but might 
recur on succeeding days, and nearly always led to other errors, 
especially those preceding the changed portions, and those intro- 
duced by previous changes. A maze was used in which the sections 
of true path were alike kinaesthetically, somewhat different visually. 
This proved nearly or quite impossible for the animal to learn. 
There were also learned in order a maze in which the culs-de-sac 
were replaced by traps having no blind ends but returning on them- 
selves; a maze in which there were no true paths and blinds, but 



80 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

only short and long sections connecting two successive points; 
a maze in which all junctions are cross-roads, the right or the left 
as the animal approaches being true path and the left or the right 
connecting through various turns to the path directly ahead. 
In these mazes the backward order of dropping errors was much 
more evident than in the earlier types. 

Humans have been used in maze apparatus more nearly dupli- 
cating the animal conditions with results much different from 
those with the usual pencil maze. The errors are eliminated 
more systematically according to order, and introspections on 
adapting to changes are in terms of the maze rather than absolute 
position. 

Massed vs. Distributed Effort in Learning. L. A. PECHSTEIN, 

University of Rochester. 

Groups of college students and white rats were taught mazes 
under conditions highly comparable. Short and long mazes were 
utilized, it being found possible to secure satisfactory learning 
from the animal groups with distributing the practice. The follow- 
ing conclusions may be drawn: 

1. For a new, short run, massed effort is preferable. 

2. For subsequently learned short runs (allowing transfer 
possibilities), massed effort continues preferable. 

3. In connecting short maze patterns learned as separate units, 
this complex act of connection is not only possible in a massed pro- 
gram but is accomplished with very great economy, just so long as 
the units have been learned as massed effort problems. 

4. The longer the problem, the more necessary to break it up 
into units and learn each unit and to mass the learning upon each 
unit, it being uneconomical either to mass the effort in learning 
the long problem or to distribute it. 

5. It is clear that the question of massed vs. distributed learning 
is tied up with the question of whether the difficult problem is to 
be learned as a whole or in parts. 

6. Results hold for motor learning of the maze type and for 
both animals and humans. 

Learning when Frequency and Recency Factors are Negative. JOSEPH 
PETERSON, George Peabody College for Teachers. 
Frequency factors seem to be alone responsible for the backward 

elimination of errors in the maze. This is shown most clearly in 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 8 1 

mental maze experiments which eliminate the influence of disturbing 
spatial factors. The probability of one's getting successfully past 
a blind is greater near the goal (food box, in animal mazes) than 
near the entrance, and the learning coefficient constantly increases 
from the entrance-end toward the goal-end of the maze. This 
advantage for learning to eliminate entrances to blinds in the latter 
part of the maze is traceable to the fact that in each trial the forward 
runs will exceed the backward runs by one;/ I = b, where/ is 
for the forward and b is for the backward runs. 

It has been found possible in the present study to present to the 
human subject in the mental maze, a situation which entirely 
eliminates the positive effects of frequency and recency factors in 
learning, and to obtain a full record of all subject's responses 
under conditions affording a quantitative treatment of results. 
The method is the same as that published in the Journal of Experi- 
mental Psychology, 1920, 3, 257-280, with the exception that on 
each wrong choice the subject is immediately brought back to the 
entrance, and again given the alternative choices at the first blind. 
In such a situation the chances each time of getting successfully 
past the several blinds in order from the first to the tenth are 
1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/64, 1/128, 1/256, 1/512, and 1/1024, 
respectively. The chance of getting to the goal in any one trial 
(that is, without an error) is I to 1,024. 

Results clearly indicate recency and frequency effects, but they 
are negative and tend to fix errors and thus to obstruct learning. 
Errors are eliminated in the forward instead of in the backward 
direction, and the errors in the goal-end of the maze exceed, and 
those in the entrance-end fall short of expectations on chance laws. 
In this case learning seems to be based upon, and indeed is possible 
only by the overlapping of the effects of successive stimuli, in 
accordance with the principle of "completeness of response.'* 
The neural basis of such cumulative effects of stimuli is not yet 
known, but a suggestion is made for a neurone action theory that is 
susceptible of mathematical treatment. 

INTELLIGENCE TESTS AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 

The Services of the Clinical Psychologist. G. W. A. LUCKEY. 

Clinical pscyhology is but a branch of psychology, as psychology 
in turn is but a branch of science, and science but a branch of the 
larger field of human experience. Any grouping of the men of 
science leaves without the fold a much larger group of scholars still 



82 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

unclassified. But human interests are closely related to and affected 
by all. 

In the evolution of any subject of human learning, its helpfulness 
and dangers tend to increase in geometric ratio. Hence, "Drink 
deep, or taste not the Pierian spring." There is a growing, per- 
nicious tendency in education to narrow, differentiate and isolate 
subject-matter from its fountain source, under the mistaken idea 
of simplification and of short-circuiting the natural processes 
of education. It is here especially, that "a little learning is a 
dangerous thing." Our efforts in behalf of universal education 
(a necessity in an efficient democracy) are filling places of great 
responsibility with uncultured brains of small caliber, a danger 
that might be avoided through better understanding of education 
and saner methods of teaching. 

Civilization is passing through an epoch-making period. The 
destruction and after effects of war, always create soul-racking 
disturbances, unbalancing weak and undisciplined minds. Such 
periods call for all that is good and true in heart and mind to stem 
the tide of evil. It becomes necessary to take an inventory of 
stock and to do some quick adjusting in order to prevent national 
and international calamities. Small minds lack vision, become 
lost in details, and can not sense the fundamentals that lead to 
higher levels. It behooves the scholar to keep his bearing and hold 
his light that it may be seen. 

The two most promising fields open at present for the services 
of the clinical psychologist are, in my judgment, the elementary 
schools and the juvenile court. No child should pass through 
either without receiving a careful physical and mental examination 
by the best of experts. Every correction possible to human better- 
ment should be discovered and righted. Intelligence scales should 
be perfected. Better standards of living and doing should be set up. 
The moral ideas of the people should be aroused and strengthened. 
We should increase our knowledge of the organic weaknesses and 
mental defects of the children, including the causes and the remedies. 
Finally in the scientific reconstruction of education that must follow 
as a result of the war, the clinical pyschologist must lead the way 
in setting up right ideals and standards of education, and in pre- 
senting the truth with sufficient clearness to be catching and im- 
pelling. 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 83 

Mental Measurements of Undernourished Children. BUFORD JOHN- 
SON, The Johns Hopkins University. 

The total number of entrants to the first grade classes of a 
public school in New York City were measured for selection of 
the undernourished. Out of the group of one hundred and twenty- 
six boys, forty were found from 8 to 20 per cent, underweight, with 
an average of 1 1 .6 per cent. These were segregated into one class 
for study. A Control Group was formed of forty-one boys nearest 
the normal standard, with an average percentage overweight of 
0.83. The following tests were given to both groups: card sorting, 
cancellation, controlled association, and cylinder. 

Scores in the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Tests and 
in the Haggerty Mental Examinations, together with Teacher's 
ratings, were secured. Seven in the Nutrition Group are below 
normal in intelligence, and two are borderline cases. Eight in 
the Control Group are below normal and three are borderline 
cases. When group averages are considered, all three measure- 
ments are favorable to the Nutrition Group. 

The Nutrition Group was also given the following tests: tapping, 
steadiness, target, substitution, picture completion. Where norms 
are established, the scores for the undernourished children, if the 
mental defectives are eliminated, fall within the normal range. 
Those of firm muscle tone and without hyperactive reflexes make 
better averages in total output in tapping tests than those defective 
in these respects. 

The comparison of the gains in weight during the period of the 
Nutrition experiment made by those having high intelligence scores, 
and those of low intelligence quotients, shows a significant dif- 
ference in favor of the more intelligent. 

The curves of growth suggest that a percentage of 8 or 9 per 
cent, underweight by present standards does not materially affect 
the normal growth of a child in weight; a percentage of IO or more 
involves less absolute gain and less than the expected normal gain. 
A marked seasonal variation is also indicated. 

Other conditions being equal, especially the levels of intelligence, 
children from 8 to 20 per cent, underweight compare favorably with 
other children in mental traits. 

Interest Psychographs. J. B. MINER, Carnegie Institute of Tech- 
nology. 

A method for describing by contrasts the interests of an indi- 



84 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

vidual is set forth. It was developed from a suggestion of Dean 
Herman Schneider of the University of Cincinnati Engineering 
College. The method has been tried with high school pupils and 
college freshmen. Standard psychographs for the sexes and for 
those in different types of courses are shown. They point to a 
plan for guiding young people into that work in which they will 
find the nearest approach to their own distribution of interests. 
To reduce the waste of human energy from misdirected effort to 
vocational lines which do not call forth the individual's fundamental 
drives is the main aim. 

Report on Series of New Learning Tests. AUGUSTA F. BRONNER, 

Judge Baker Foundation. 

Careful estimation of capacities necessarily involves estimation of 
learning ability. Heretofore no experimental data has been pub- 
lished on the extent to which performance on age-level and other 
tests indicates learning ability for ordinary subjects. We find great 
individual differences. Practically all investigations of learning 
have been concerned with acquirement of motor skill. We need 
more light on learning capacity for school subjects and along voca- 
tional and cultural lines. Attempting to supply the need we have 
devised a set of learning tests for four different types of learning: 

(A] Forming associations between two visual percepts, an 
improved substitution test. 

(.Z?) Associations between a visual and an auditory percept. 

(C) Associations between visual percept and idea of numerical 
value. 

(D) With logical material, association of complex visual percept 
with a series of ideas. Description of the tests, tentative method 
of scoring, and some indication of norms. 

The Clinical Significance of the Kent-Rosanoff Association Tests. 

FLORENCE MATEER, Assisted by FLORENCE FITZGERALD, and 

MARGARET DAVISON, Ohio Bureau of Juvenile Research. 

The association test has undergone manifold experimental 

modifications and usages but the general opinion in psychological 

fields today is that its clinical usage is a hazardous and little worth 

while proceeding, since the variability of normal individuals is so 

great that only the exceptional clinic patient lies outside the normal 

range of variability in his reactions. This is undoubtedly true if 

an attempt is made to study an individual by means of the associa- 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 85 

tion test alone. The value of the test lies in its correlative use with 
other standardized tests. There are qualitative, as well as quan- 
titative differences which reveal themselves only when the most 
detailed analyses are attempted. 

The Bureau of Juvenile Research has found the usage of the 
Kent-Rosanoff association test well-repaying the time spent on it. 
Even though the norms available for the study of frequency of 
common associations are imperfect, they give a basis from which 
standard deviations may be calculated and variabilities evaluated. 

The test shows definite variations in reactions of individuals 
of different mental levels, hence it must have new norms established 
in relation to mental age. In general, the higher the mental level 
the fewer the common associations and the more frequent the 
individual associations. These frequencies may be easily graphed. 

The individual associations are more frequent in a psychopath 
than in a normal person of the same mental level. The difference 
in the individual reactions of the two is easily ascertained by a 
qualitative analysis for neologisms, perseverations, sound associa- 
tions, automatisms and other aberrent types of functioning. The 
individual reactions of the normal person may easily be analyzed 
into logical associations portraying much of his individuality, pro- 
fessional interest, etc. 

The highest clinical value derived from the use of the association 
test comes from the repeated observation of the patient day by day. 
The association test gives the first indications of improvement or 
impairment. It takes only a few days in most cases to determine 
whether there is a variability of the psychopathy or a more or less 
persistent stability of abnormality. One can understand better 
fugues, depressed phases, excited spells, and other abnormal episodes 
by use of the association series. 

A Comparison of Three Methods for Making the Initial Selection of 
Presumptive Mental Defectives, J. E. WALLACE WALLIN, Psycho- 
Educational Clinic and Special Schools, St. Louis. 
Since the special schools for mental defectives were organized 
in St. Louis in January, 1908, the following methods of making 
initial selection of cases has been tried: (i) initiation of examinations 
left entirely with the individual schools; (2) selection by the psycho- 
educational clinic from preliminary reports made by the elementary 
schools (being compulsory for all schools) twice annually on a pre- 
pared form (ij-H) of children judged to be most deficient mentally; 



86 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

and (3) selection of pupils making the lowest scores in a group 
intelligence test (Pressey Primer). 

The second method has proved decidedly more effective than 
the first, and somewhat more effective than the third in routing out 
the lowest grades. The average Stanford-Binet I.Q. was .69 for 
the I3-H selections compared with .72 for the lowest-score cases 
in the group test. While the correlation between the scores in 
the group intelligence test and the individual intelligence test 
was high, .73, the results were quite discrepant in a considerable 
number of cases. 

Group intelligence tests are of considerable value as one item 
in pedagogical and social classifications, but they do not enable us 
to dispense with the child's pedagogical record, nor with the neces- 
sity of making individual diagnoses (particularly the analyses 
based on a psychoclinical examination), nor do they enable us to 
classify and promote children irrespective of their specific intellec- 
tual and pedagogical disabilities and abilities. 

The conclusion that it was possible to select the lowest-grade 
pupils for examination from reports made by teachers and principals 
in conformity with prepared instructions, just as effectively, if not 
more effectively, than could be done by means of group intelligence 
tests might not apply to school systems with an inexperienced, 
poorly trained, and unintelligent teaching staff. 

The Sub-Normal Mind versus the Abnormal. HENRY H. GODDARD, 
Bureau of Juvenile Research, Columbus, Ohio. 
Up to the present time there has been little or no consistency 
in use of the terms abnormal and subnormal. Have we not pro- 
gressed far enough in our knowledge of the conditions connoted by 
these terms to consistently distinguish between the two. It has 
been somewhat customary to represent the range of human intelli- 
gence by a line curving upward; the length of the line and its 
height representing the entire range from infancy to genius, and 
to consider that for adults there is a more or less definite point, 
sometimes fixed at twelve years, below which a person is said to be 
subnormal. 

But we must remember that mind may be "away from" the 
norm as well as "below" it. An analysis of the results of mental 
tests shows that a mind may be of normal level but abnormal in 
its functioning. Hence it seems that our line should become an 
upward sloping band or ribbon, one edge of which, above a certain 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 87 

point, represents normality, while the rest of the ribbon represents 
greater or less abnormality. But however we may represent it, it 
is now clear that there is a very definite distinction between mental 
level and mental functioning. The child whose mind does not 
function normally we call psychopathic or abnormal. It is the 
result of disease and the disease may have become so serious that 
we have as a result not only abnormality but subnormality due to 
deterioration. 

Various curves developed from the study of the feeble-minded 
could not be made to adjust themselves to the theoretical curve. 
It is now clear that this was due to the inclusion, among the cases 
studied, of a group of psychopaths. 

The whole matter of the I.Q. for instance, becomes of no signi- 
ficance, because a person may be psychopathic or abnormal with 
an I.Q. of 100 or of 140 as well as one with an I.Q. of 75 or 50. 

For the future it is of course clear that in making our studies we 
must be careful to have homogeneous groups; that in working with 
problems of intelligence we must lay greater stress on the quali- 
tative work than on quantitative. In other words we have ap- 
parently come to the point in our study of this problem where 
progress is to be expected along the lines of abnormal functioning 
quite as much as, if not more than, along the developmental lines. 

The Will-Profile of Psychotic and Psychopathic Subjects. JUNE 
E. DOWNEY, University of Wyoming. 

Will-Profiles have been plotted for a few groups of psychotic 
and psychopathic subjects in order to determine the presence of 
specific characteristic reactions or of any type-patterns for the 
Will-Temperament scale as a whole. The subjects were patients in 
the Boston Psychopathic Hospital. Only those cases are utilized 
in the diagnosis of which the staff were agreed. 

As compared with the profile of the normal adult, the profiles 
in the collection under consideration are characterized by great 
inequalities in scores, high at some points, vanishing at others. 

With reference to special groups, dementia precox patients 
give a profile showing great retardation in speed and excessive 
load, with little power of inhibition or of coordination. At the 
center, the graph has a high peak for such traits as motor impulsion 
and reaction to contradiction. It is difficult to get dementia 
precox subjects to react at the signal; they retouch their writing 
frequently and may react with suspicion to the contradiction test. 



88 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

Manics, after recovery from an acute attack, run high on the 
aggressive traits, excessively so on motor impulsion. The graph 
dips at both ends, but not to the degree found in dementia precox 
patients. There are premature reactions to signals and, in the 
passing of character-judgments on self, a loss of time through un- 
necessary and, frequently, irrelevant comments. 

Patients in the depressed phase of manic-depressive insanity 
give very low scores for speed of movement and of decision, and in 
the case of the latter test exhibit a maximum of emotional blocking. 
Such subjects showed very great interest in detail and more capacity 
for inhibition than was evident for any other group. They were 
dissatisfied with their performances. The most characteristic 
record, however, is the low score on motor impulsion where they 
exhibit writing diminished in size in comparison with their normal 
and in contrast to the extraordinary magnification found in the 
manic. 

Psychopathic personalities give one of two pictures, either a uni- 
formly low record throughout; or an emphasis of speed, lack of load, 
and high motor impulsion, with a total collapse of the graph on 
such traits as motor inhibition, coordination of impulses, interest 
in detail, and flexibility. 

Method of Study. A. S. EDWARDS, University of Georgia. 

Examinations of the ability of students to tell how to study 
reveal a poverty-stricken condition in this respect. In most 
classes in the city schools of Athens, Ga., there is progressively 
more known by the higher grade pupils, but in most cases the infor- 
mation given rises very little above zero and in many cases is zero. 
In a few classes in which teachers have definitely taught pupils how 
to study, the results are obvious and information clearly superior. 
In the practise school of the State Normal School (Athens, Ga.) 
the pupils show knowledge of how to study superior to that of 
the city school pupils and clearly indicate results of having been 
taught how to study. A careful examination of papers written 
by Normal School seniors shows a fair knowledge of facts about 
how to study in the case of part of the class, but entire lack of 
judgment as to what can be taught to elementary school pupils 
about how to study; their written plans for teaching children how 
to study show that they would attempt to teach as much to first 
grade as to sixth grade pupils. Whereas, teaching how to study 
must for many years if not forever, be emphasized in the high 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 89 

school and college, experiments have shown successful teaching of 
how to study in the elementary grades. Two of the most urgent 
problems connected with studying are, first, the preparation of 
teachers to teach how to study; second, the formulation of tests, 
not only of knowledge of how to study, but of performance in 
studying. 

The Correlation between College Grades and the Army Alpha Intelli- 
gence Tests. J. W. BRIDGES, Ohio State University. 
In October, 1919, the Army Alpha Test was administered to 
five thousand nine hundred and fifty students at the Ohio State 
University. The correlations here reported are based on the college 
grades and intelligence scores made by students selected at random 
from this group. Correlations between academic grades and the 
total Alpha scores and between academic grades and the scores on 
each of the^ sub-tests were calculated. This was also done separ- 
ately for students of different college ranks; seniors, juniors, and 
sophomores; and for students registered in different colleges of the 
university. Arts, Education, Engineering, and Agriculture. 

The correlations between grades and total Alpha scores vary 
from .54 in the college of agriculture to .22 in the College of Engi- 
neering with an average of .36. The correlations in the case of 
the subtests are in general lowest for tests I (directions) and 3 
(practical judgment), and highest for tests 4 (synonym-antonym) 
and 8 (information). There are, however, marked variations in the 
different colleges. For example, in the college of arts the corre- 
lations are highest in the case of tests 4 and 5 (disarranged sentences) 
and lowest in the case of tests 2 (arithmetic) and 6 (number series 
completion) ; while in the college of engineering the correlations are 
highest in the case of tests 2 and 6, and lowest in the case of test 4. 
These results seem to indicate that intelligence tests for uni- 
versity students should be selected and standardized for the dif- 
ferent colleges separately, or that in addition to a general intelligence 
test for all students there should be specific tests for the students 
of the different colleges. 

Intelligence of 6188 High School Seniors Going to College. WILLIAM 

F. BOOK, Indiana University. 

In May, 1919, the senior classes in 320 commissioned high 
schools of Indiana were given the Indiana University Group 
Intelligence tests. The chief purpose of the investigation was 



90 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

to locate the brightest seniors graduating from the high schools 
of the state, and to make arrangements whereby the most superior 
individuals might be encouraged to continue their education in 
college. But besides the intelligence scores so obtained the fol- 
lowing additional information was secured from the high school 
principals and teachers, and the pupils taking the tests: (i) age at 
time of graduation, (2) number of semesters spent in completing 
a four year's high school course, (3) their exact college intention, 
(4) yearly income of father, (5) father's occupation, (6) student's 
favorite study in high school, (7) choice of a life occupation, (8) 
scholastic standing in each subject studied in his junior year, etc. 
The following facts are revealed by these comparisons: 

1. High-school seniors with all grades of intelligence possessed 
by high-school seniors are going to college in about equal numbers. 
Almost as many seniors rated E or F are going to college as merit 
intelligence ratings of A+ or A. 

2. Many of the brightest seniors graduating from our high 
schools are not planning to go to college at all. Of those rated 
A+ 22 per cent, stated that they never expected to go to college; 
of those rated A 24 per cent. ; of those rated B 28 per cent. Many 
students, on the other hand, with the lowest grades of intelligence 
found among high school seniors are definitely planning to go to 
college, and have all arrangements made to attend. Of those 
ranking D, E, and F on our tests (the most inferior seniors in the 
state) 64, 62 and 70 per cent, respectively stated that they would 
attend college next year. 

3. Taken as a whole the students who have decided to go to 
college rank slightly higher on the intelligence tests than those who 
have not. Those who have selected the college they will attend 
rank higher than those who have not decided. Those rated A+, 
A and B are slightly more likely to attend college than those whose 
test score placed them in the middle or lower sectors of the dis- 
tribution. 

4. The brightest seniors in the state, i.e., those rated A-f- or A 
selected a college of liberal arts, while more seniors rated C+ and C 
selected a professional or technical school. 

5. For every grade or level of intelligence the boys ranked 
higher than the girls. The higher the grade of intelligence the 
greater is the percentage of boys. 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 91 

A Scale for Investigating Graduation Standards from Junior High 

School. SIDNEY L. PRESSEY, University of Indiana. 

The scale is intended as a first step in the direction of an exami- 
nation for standardizing graduation requirements for the junior 
high school. As such, the plan involves certain unusual features 
of method: (a) no use is made of the "normal curve" instead a 
bi-modal distribution of failures and successes is being sought, 
(b) items are being chosen with reference to their differential value 
rather than to their position on a "scale," and (c) the "efficiency" 
of the examination will be determined in terms of its ability to 
distinguish those who actually are failed from those who are gradu- 
ated, in standard schools. 

The scale in its present form is essentially a preliminary in- 
vestigatory instrument. It consists of a four-page folder, giving 
tests in history, reading vocabulary, English composition, and arith- 
metical reasoning. The history test is informational; the arith- 
metic test is so planned that problem-solving, as distinct from 
ability in the fundamentals, is involved. The important feature 
of the scale appears in the handling of the problem of measurement 
in English. 

Critical investigation of "silent reading ability" led to exclusion 
of any test aiming to measure such a hypothetical factor (reported 
by Mrs. Pressey). It was found that ratings by means of a com- 
position scale (Willing scale) were much more unreliable than is 
usually supposed, because of the unreliability of the sampling, in 
obtaining compositions from school children. A reversal of the 
situation was therefore tried; the children were required to judge 
compositions of known value, and scored according as their judg- 
ments were in accord with the judgment of a large number of adult 
judges. A higher correlation with estimated ability in composition 
was obtained from this test, than from single samples of written 
work, as rated on the Willing scale. This test was supplemented 
by the reading vocabulary test, as covering the important informa- 
tional element, in English work. 

The Relation of Degree of Indian Shod to Score on the Otis Intelligence 
Test. WALTER S. HUNTER assisted by ELOISE Sommermier, 
The University of Kansas. 

The study is an application of the 1919 edition of the Otis 
test to 715 American Indians at Haskell Institute, Lawrence, 
Kansas. Official records of the degree of Indian blood in the subjects 



92 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

made possible comparisons between degrees of Indian blood with 
respect to score. Results for whites were furnished by Dr. Otis. 

The median score for all Indians is 82.64, ff 3^'7t an d f r J 366 
fifteen year old whites 122.58, 0-30.9. This relationship holds 
between whites and Indians also for the years 14-18 inclusive. 
The partial correlation (using only the Indians) for the 4/4, 3/4, 1/2, 
and 1/4 degrees of Indian blood and total score on the test, with 
age and total months of schooling constant, is .41. The Pearson 
formula applied to the four degrees of blood and the 1 5-year-old 
whites gives a correlation of .64 .008. When a representative 
one tenth of the 15 year old whites are used, the correlation is 
.51 =t .017. 

The quartiles for total score decrease consistently with an 
increase of Indian blood. The median scores on each of the ten 
tests making up the scale decrease with a decrease in white blood. 
The percentage of individuals testing at and above the Otis age 
norms decreases with increase of Indian blood. The percentage 
testing below age increases with an increase of Indian blood. 

A consideration of the factors of sex, age, social status, total 
months of schooling, and grade in school leads to the conclusion 
that the most probable causal factor involved is one of racial dif- 
ferences either of intelligence or temperament. 

Group-Test, Will-Profile. JUNE E. DOWNEY, University of Wyom- 
ing. 

In order to make the Will-Temperament tests, which, when 
presented in form of a graph, are called the Will-Profile, available for 
extensive use, a group form of testing is desirable. To determine the 
feasibility of such group-testing, the scale was given to 140 college 
students, to no high-school students, and to 50 seventh and eighth 
grade pupils. As far as possible the procedure in the individual 
form of the scale was retained. It was necessary to shift from a 
work-limit to a time-limit basis, and to substitute pencil for pen 
records, changes which necessitated the establishment of new norms 
of scoring. 

Group-testing proved fairly successful for speed of movement 
and of decision, freedom from load, motor inhibition, motor impul- 
sion, coordination of impulses, and, possibly, for volitional per- 
severation. It was found necessary to substitute other tests for 
reaction to contradiction and to opposition and for revision, and to 
elaborate all instructions so as to guard against misunderstanding. 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 93 

The giving of the group Will-Temperament Scale to high-school 
and grade children makes considerable demand on the personality of 
the examiner. In comparison with the individual form of the 
tests there was noticed an influential social factor operating, par- 
ticularly in case of speeding or retardation of movement. 

Extensive utilization of the Group Test will make it possible 
to establish norms for different performances at a great variety 
of ages. Records from individuals indicate very significant age 
differences at both extremes of life and suggest some interesting con- 
clusions concerning both the acquisition and the loss of capacity and 
the connection between intellectual and temperamental maturity. 

The Group Test does not permit one to make the many subtle 
observations possible in individual testing. For clinical work the 
latter will always be more satisfactory. 

Some Results of Intelligence Tests in School, College and Industry. 

JAMES P. PORTER, Clark University. 

During the past two years the writer has tested considerably 
more than one-thousand subjects in grammar and high schools, in 
college, and in industry. 

The Otis group Intelligence Scale, Forms A and B have been 
used in nearly all cases. Too recently for more than bare mention 
in this report some two hundred office employees in industry have 
been tested with the Otis general intelligence examinations. 

1. The total scores obtained with the various groups agree with 
results of other similar studies in showing the widest individual 
differences within the groups and the extensive overlapping of the 
groups. The highest scores of the children in the seventh grade 
almost reach the average or median of many of the older groups, 
these latter groups for the most part being composed of heads of 
departments and their subordinates. 

2. If we compute the average percentage of accuracy for each 
group the same conclusions are possible. 

3. For each group thus far carefully studied those who have 
the highest scores are the most accurate. For example in the 
7th grade, in three high schools, four industrial groups, and one 
freshman college class, there is a difference in accuracy between 
those above and below the median ranging from 8 to 20 in favor of 
the higher half. 

4. In at least some of the school groups the boys in both total 
score and accuracy rank higher than the girls. Those at grade-age 



94 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

or younger than grade-age rank higher than those who are older 
than normal grade-age. 

5. A Freshman class in college when given the test in October 
and again in June shows an average gain of 6.3 per cent. It should 
be added that the second test fell at the close of the final college 
examinations. 

6. There is a moderately significant correlation between total 
scores of the Otis test and average grades of college freshmen. 

7. A close relationship has been found with departmental 
heads in industry between the total scores of the Otis Tests and 
The Thorndike College Entrance Tests, the latter being so modified 
as to omit all parts in which the scoring involved personal judgment 
of the examiner. 

The Results of Some Tests on Full and Mixed Blood Indians. THOMAS 

R. GARTH, University of Texas. 

Problem. To find out how Mixed and Full Blood Indians differ 
in the results of their performance of nine psychological tests. 

Subjects. There were 371 Indians of U. S. Indian School at 
Chilocco, Oklahoma, of whom 185 were males 74 being mixed 
blood and 112 full-blood Indians, and 186 females 80 being mixed 
blood and 106 full-blood Indians. Their ages ranged from 9 to 
30 years. Their educational attainment ranged from the fourth 
through the tenth grade. 

Materials. There were nine tests, viz., four association tests: 
opposites, genus-species, part-whole, and free (continuous) associa- 
tion test; three memory tests; concrete and abstract rote memory 
and logical memory test; two word-building tests: aeirlp, and 
bmtaeo. 

Method of Handling Results. We have here groups of different 
ages, education and sex as well as different racial blood. The 
subjects were classified along these lines with the exception of the 
classification with respect to education and age which offered such 
difficulty that the former, according to education, had to be deferred 
until larger numbers could be secured. The tabulations were 
made for Mixed and Full Blood separately of age group accomplish- 
ment in each test and the average was found for each. The 
overlapping of Mixed Bloods on the Full Blood distribution for 
each age group was calculated. The sexes were kept separate. 
Some effort was made to evaluate the educational attainment of 
the groups. 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 95 

Results. The results of the two^methods of handling the data- 
averages and overlapping, indicate that generally the Mixed 
Blood age groups are superior to the Full Blood groups. However, 
since the educational attainment of the Mixed Blood seems to be 
on the average one year more than that of the Full Bloods this fact 
may account for some of the differences. It is interesting to observe 
that some Full Bloods do as well as many Mixed Bloods. 

Conclusion. Because of the fact that the educational element 
could not be kept constant within the groups we are not willing 
to agree that these differences are racial differences. Individual 
differences can account for a large part of the differences as well. 

APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY 

Some Empirical Tests in Vocational Selection. HERBERT W. ROGERS 
Yale University. 

1. Three groups of typists examined with psychological tests; 

one group at the beginning of their practice curves, one group 
at varying points in their practice curves, and one group near 
the end of their practice curves. 

2. Correlations of the individual tests with achievement in typing 

and correlation of a team of four tests, weighted by means of 
weights assigned by the method of multiple correlation, with 
achievement in typing. 

3. The scatter formula as a means of measuring the accuracy of 

predictions made by means of the line of regression. 

4. The scatter formula as a means of determining the practical 

value of a coefficient of correlation and of determining what 
constitutes a "significant coefficient of correlation." 

Further Data on the Influence of Race and Social Status on the Intelli- 
gence Quotient. ADA HART ARLITT, Bryn Mawr College. 
The tests used were the Stanford Revision of the Binet tests. 
These were given by the author and four graduate students, all 
experienced testers. The children, 304 in all, were taken from the 
primary grades. Of these, 169 were the children of native born 
white parents, 68 were Italians and 67 were Negroes. All of the 
Italians spoke English without difficulty. 

The total group was first divided according to social status. 
Twenty-three were of very superior social status, 48 of superior, 
84 of average, 77 of inferior and 71 of very inferior social status. 



96 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

The median Intelligence Quotients for the groups were respectively 
125.9, Il %'7> IO 6-5> 87 and 83.4, showing a wider difference between 
the children of different social status than is usually reported. 

The children were then divided into groups on the basis of 
race alone. The median I.Q. for the native born white group was 
106.5, for the Italian group 84.3 and for the Negro group 83.4. 
The disparity between the three groups was marked. However, 
90 per cent, of the native-born white children came from families of 
average or superior social status, whereas 88.2 of the Italian and 
Negro children came from families of inferior and very inferior 
social status. In order to eliminate the difference due to social 
status the Italian and Negro groups were compared with the native 
white group of children from families of inferior and very inferior 
social status. The median I.Q. for the native white group was then 
92, that is 8.6 points above that of the Negro and 7.7 points above 
that of the Italian group. The curve of distribution of Intelligence 
Quotients of the Italian and Negro groups is skewed markedly to 
the side of inferior ability as compared with that of native-born 
white children of the same social status. This difference seems to 
be racial. 

The number of children tested is too small to make it possible 
to draw conclusions which will be universally applicable but the 
results seem to show that, although there is a difference which is 
due to race alone, the disparity between children of the same race 
but of inferior and superior social status is greater than that be- 
tween children of different races. 

Modification of Will-Temperament Tests for Group Testing. M. J. 

REAM, Carnegie Institute of Technology. (Introduced by C. S. 

Yoakum.) 

Measurements of volitional characteristics are a needed supple- 
ment to intelligence test scores in predicting school success, and 
such measures become increasingly important with less literary 
occupations such as that of salesman. 

To facilitate such testing the individual Will-Temperament test 
of Professor Downey has been modified at Carnegie Institute of 
Technology so that a large group can be tested at one time. In the 
individual test the time on each part is recorded, whereas in the 
group adaptation the time allowed is kept constant and the amount 
accomplished is the variable to be measured. The following items of 
the Downey test are retained: speed of movement, freedom from 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 97 

load, flexibility, speed of decision, motor impulsion, assurance, motor 
inhibition, interest in detail, coordination of impulses, and volitional 
perseveration. Resistance to opposition is not used, but a measure 
of self-consciousness is added. The group test is printed in pam- 
phlet form and can be given in twenty minutes. 

The test has been given to six hundred freshmen of the day school 
and to several schools of Life Insurance Salesmanship at the Car- 
negie Institute of Technology. Charts are presented showing the 
already demonstrated value of Will-Temperament tests in predicting 
the success of salesmen. 

The Inspiration-Expiration During Truth and Falsehood. HAROLD 

E. BURTT, Ohio State University. 

The inspiration-expiration ratio (I/E) was recorded with an 
improved technique while the subject was lying (L) or telling the 
truth (7*). The average I/E for the 3 to 5 breaths following the 
subject's answer was subtracted from the average I/E for the 3 to 5 
breaths between the experimenter's question and the subject's 
reply. The hypothesis under investigation was that this difference 
(Z>) should be negative for L and positive for T. 

In some series the subject lied or told the truth about cards 
containing letters and numbers. Other series involved imaginary 
crimes with the subject fabricating an alibi or recounting one pre- 
pared by an assistant. In some instances a group of spectators 
were present. 

Averaging the Z)'s for T and L separately, there is a considerable 
corroboration of the hypothesis with both kinds of material. This 
result is due primarily to a few crucial questions. D is in many 
instances approximately zero but occasional marked deviations 
occur in both directions. The problem of diagnosing two "crimes" 
covered in an hour's experiment, one known to be T and one L, is 
solved successfully in 73 per cent, of the cases. Systolic blood 
pressure (measured incidentally) makes this diagnosis in 91 per 
cent, of the cases. It appears that practically as good a diagnosis 
can be made by using the first breath following the experimenter's 
question in comparison with the first one following the subject's 
reply. 

The lying consciousness appears to have an emotional (probably 
fear) content and it is possible to influence expressive measurements 
somewhat by emotional control. It is thus important in practical 
work upon deception to use a combination of several methods. 



9? AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

Will "Industrial Relations" Survive the Outgoing Industrial Tide? 

ELLIOTT FROST, Rochester Chamber of Commerce. 

The chief compelling motive power behind the work of the world 
is the desire for group approval. This made possible, during the 
War, the speeding up of production and heightening of morale. 
Since then, consumption has increased and production decreased 
until we find ourselves caught in an ebb tide, industrially speaking. 
And the failure of numerous panacea to stem it has inclined the 
manufacturer to be wary, if not suspicious, of all proposals to 
help him. 

Cooperation among employees is favored first, when the 
community is small; second, when its industries are diversified; 
third, when business is good; fourth, where quality of products 
outranks quantity, and fifth, where industries are locally controlled. 
Cooperation among employees is favored where men work in an 
open shop, are satisfied with their wage, like their foreman, and 
where both shop and home conditions are good. Cooperation as 
between employer and employee is possible only where each holds 
the right attitude and each understands the other. 

Militating against these various forms of cooperation are 
first, the behavior of labor, especially during the last two years; 
second, the failure of many welfare programs; third, the theorists 
who have been trying to run industry, and fourth, the irritating 
interferences by the government. 

In spite of these handicaps, something permanent has been 
gained. It is becoming increasingly possible for a conservative 
science to meet particular industrial needs. The Bedaux Point 
System illustrates this. 

Industrial Relations will not go out with the ebb tide although 
many particular forms which have been set up will be swept away. 
A reconsideration of the human relations in industry has come to 
stay. How soon we shall stabilize industrial relations depends 
largely upon the employers' education. This in turn depends upon 
the Industrial Relation man's conception of his job, and his ability 
to analyze and use the psychology inherent in it. 

Experimental Development of the Graphic Rating Method. MARY H. 

S. HAYES and DONALD G. PATTERSON, The Scott Co. Laboratory. 

The Graphic Rating Method is a new method for securing the 
judgment of superiors on subordinates. Two basic features are 
involved: (i) the rator is freed from direct quantitative terms in 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 99 

judging men; (2) the rator can make as fine a discrimination of 
merit as he chooses. 

Graphic rating scales are simple, self-explanatory, concrete 
and definite. The qualities included in the scales are objective, 
and conceded to be of general importance for success. 

The Graphic Rating Method was subjected to extensive experi- 
mental trial. Ratings were secured on a variety of groups of work- 
ers, such as clerks, carpenters, draftsmen, machine operators, and 
assemblers. Practically all groups were rated independently by 
two supervisors, and for certain groups three successive ratings 
were secured. 

The Graphic Rating Method was found to be highly reliable, 
as shown by the close relationship between ratings on the same men 
by the same judge for different months, and by the close relationship 
between ratings on the same men by different judges. High corre- 
lations were found between ratings given to the same workers in 
the first month and in the second and third months by each of the 
supervisors. The correlations between the second and third ratings 
were even higher for each and every supervisor. 

Not only was each supervisor consistent in agreeing with him- 
self from month to month, but he also agreed with other supervisors 
whose ratings of the same workers were equally reliable. Corre- 
lations over +.65 were the rule. 

Some supervisors tend to rate all of their workers too high and 
some tend to rate all of their workers too low. These differences 
were found to be so great as to require the reduction of the ratings 
of each supervisor to a common basis by the method of statistical 
correction. This is done by dividing the distribution of the ratings 
given by each supervisor into five classes on a percentage basis. 
Each total rating is thus converted into a final letter rating. It is 
evident that these final ratings remove the error arising from dif- 
ferences of standard of judgment, while they preserve all real 
disagreements. Radical disagreement of two or more letter steps 
occur in only a small percentage of the cases. In practice such 
radical disagreements are eliminated by conference of the disagree- 
ing supervisors with subsequent re-ratings. 

The Fluctuations of the I. Q. of Normal and Superior Children at 
Successive Examinations. BIRD T. BALDWIN and LORLE I. 
STECHER, University of Iowa. 

Examinations of normal and superior children in the Observation 



100 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

School of the State University of Iowa under standardized conditions 
by the Stanford Binet scale annually since 1917 show considerable 
fluctuation in the I.Q. of the same individual on successive tests. 
This difference in I.Q. is very rarely sufficient to take a child from 
one mental class to the next higher or lower, i.e., average children 
remain average and superior children, superior. 

An analysis of each child's deviation on successive examinations 
from his average in all examinations shows superior children to be 
more variable and average children to be more even in their mental 
development. Children who are older chronologically also are 
more variable than are younger children. 

Taking the sexes separately, children who are physically superior 
average higher in mental age at a given chronological age than do 
children who are not so well developed. 

There is a general tendency for the I.Q. to increase at later 
examinations especially in the case of older children and of children 
of superior mentality. The Pearson coefficients of correlation for 
each examination with every other examination are high, with a 
small P.E. The correlation between the first and second I.Q. was 
+.85, between the first and third +.746, between the first and 
fourth +.780. 

COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY 

An Experimental Study of Equilibration in the White Rat. COLE- 
MAN R. GRIFFITH, University of Illinois. 

Although the general facts of organic equilibration have long 
been known, more attention has been directed to the problem of 
relating these facts to the semicircular canals than to a faithful 
description of the facts themselves. It may now be safely assumed 
that acceleration in bodily rotation constitutes the usual condition 
for inciting the end-organs in the semicircular canals. Such a 
disturbance is followed by the general equilibratory or compensatory 
events frequently noted. The events themselves, however, need 
experimental analysis and specific description. 

In the white rat these events include a to-and-fro movement 
of the eyes known as "ocular nystagmus," a to-and-fro movement of 
the head of the same nature, a pupillary reflex, innervation of almost 
all, if not all, of the gross musculature leading to violent, spasmodic 
contraction of various types, and finally, organic or visceral disturb- 
ances resulting in defecation and micturition or delivery in case 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION IOI 

the subject is a pregnant female of two weeks or more. All of 
these events appear to be of vestibular origin and the ocular nystag- 
mus is representative of them all. 

The experimental problem, then, is to determine the effects, 
immediate and remote, of short, moderate and prolonged rotation, 
of slow, moderate and fast rotation and of constantly changing 
acceleration of rotation, on rats of various ages and of both sexes. 
By way of solution, a large number of such subjects have been 
rotated at various speeds and for different periods of time with the 
following results : 

(a) A description of the behavior of rats under all conditions of 
rotation. 

() The average time of nystagmus for age and sex differences 
and for rate and length of rotation. 

(c) The effect of repeated rotation. 

(d) The results of nine months of unbroken rotation. 

The Influence of the Time Interval upon the Rate of Learning in the 
White Rat. Jos. U. YARBROUGH, Southern Methodist University. 
Treatises on general psychology indicate that simultaneous or 
successive presentation is the essential condition in the formation 
of an effective association, meaning by "successive" that the two 
experiences must be in temporal contact with each other. The 
purpose of these experiments was to enter certain definite time 
intervals between the terms and observe their influence upon the 
rate of learning the association. Two terms, X and Y t were 
separated by certain time intervals, and the influence of these 
varying intervals upon the rate of learning the association was 
observed when the terms were presented in the forward (X F) 
and in the reverse (Y X} order. 

Our data warrant the following conclusions: (i) The difficulty 
in learning the association does not increase proportionately with 
the increase of the time interval between the two terms to be asso- 
ciated. (2) The point of disproportionate increase in difficulty is 
between I and 2 sees. It appears but little more difficult to learn 
the association when the two factors are separated by I sec. than 
when they are in temporal contact; likewise, no marked difference 
is manifest between the intervals immediately above 2 sees. (3) 
The sense materials used are an important factor in determining 
the rate at which the association is learned. And (4) association 
in the backward direction is very little, if any, more difficult than 



102 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

in the forward direction when the continuous mode of presentation 
is used. If, however, the terms to be associated are separated by a 
time interval of I sec. or more, the association is perhaps impossible. 

A Pursuit Meter. W. R. MILES, Carnegie Nutrition Laboratory, 

Boston. 

This is a new apparatus for measuring the adequacy of eye-hand 
coordination which is probably one of the most important forms of 
human behavior to measure in connection with nutritional factors, 
fatigue, industrial conditions and the like. The subject under 
test observes a wattmeter with zero center scale and by the manipu- 
lation of a rheostat tries to continually maintain a balance between 
two opposing electrical circuits. The task is fairly uniform in 
nature but so varied as to the direction, amplitude, rapidity of 
fluctuations, and rate of change in the current strength of one circuit 
as to require constant attention from the reactor. The "disturber 
mechanism" can be regulated to provide tasks of varying difficulty. 
The errors of compensation are integrated in two meters from which 
the score may be directly read at the end of a test. Obviously the 
score combines both quickness and accuracy and the smaller the 
meter reading the better the performance. Test results with chil- 
dren and adults may be directly compared. The use of the apparatus 
is illustrated by some data on the influence of small amounts of 
alcohol. 

A Satisfactory Control in Tobacco-Smoking Experimentation. CLARK 

L. HULL, University of Wisconsin. 

Since the work of Rivers and Hollingworth, everyone recognizes 
the necessity of a control dose in drug experimentation. In the 
case of smoking however, Rivers and others have considered a 
control impossible. While requiring some adroitness in administra- 
tion, the following method has proven very satisfactory in practice, 
with fifteen different subjects working eighteen days each. In no 
case were they given any suggestion that a control was to be used. 
On half of the experimental days the subjects smoked ordinary 
tobacco in an ordinary pipe, blindfolded. The experimenter handled 
the pipe exclusively. On the remaining days the ordinary pipe was 
replaced by a special experimental pipe. This was never seen or 
suspected by the subjects. It had installed in its bowl an aluminum 
capsule within which was some asbestos plaster and two asbestos 
insulating tubes. Within the tubes was a coil of twenty-five turns 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 103 

of a special electrical heating wire. A direct current of suitable pro- 
portions was led into the coil from a rheostat. Some hours before 
the experiment a few drops of water were placed on the plaster to be 
thoroughly absorbed. The air drawn through this system by the 
suction of the smoker became heated to any extent desired by the 
experimenter and furnished the basis of the illusion. In addition a 
sound was produced and a resistance offered to suction, resembling 
the real pipe. The similarity of the stems made the sense of contact 
the same. Unknown to the subject the experimenter himself some- 
times smoked a little on the ordinary pipe at the same time to 
produce an odor. Before the dose on the control days, the experi- 
menter without making any further suggestions, would clean out 
rather elaborately the real pipe in the presence of the subject. 
Numerous other psychological devices of a suggestive nature were 
utilized to the same end. Under these conditions, confirmed 
smokers would puff the warm air with evident satisfaction and even 
go serenely through the motions of blowing smoke rings. In the 
few cases where the attempt was made, it was found difficult to 
persuade subjects verbally that they had not smoked on every 
one of the eighteen days. 

Measurement of Psychological Differences between Advertising Me- 
diums. HARRY DEXTER KITSON, Indiana University. 
This investigation represents an attempt to devise a method 
for the determination of the intellectual status of advertising me- 
diums. The advertiser desires to know which mediums are best 
suited for the announcement of his wares; and what differences exist 
among the various appropriate mediums, so that he may adapt his 
message intelligently to each one. It is generally agreed that there 
are psychological differences between periodicals which carry 
advertisements. One passes currently as "highbrow," another as 
"lowbrow"; one as the organ of the "labor" vote, another as the 
organ of the "wet" element. If such differences exist we ought to 
be able to demonstrate them and evaluate them mathematically. 
To devise a technique for this is the aim of this investigation. 

The method employed was to choose one newspaper and one 
magazine of alleged elevated intellectual standing; and one news- 
paper and one magazine alleged to have less pretensions intellec- 
tually; to compare them with respect to frequency of "long" 
and "short" words; "long" and "short" sentences; and the 
frequency of occurrence of "difficult" words from Ayres' list of 
1,000 most common words. 



104 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

Results show marked differences in the respects mentioned; 
the greater number of "long" words, "long" sentences and "diffi- 
cult" words occurring in the periodicals of reputed higher intellec- 
tual standing. 

This investigation, though undertaken in the interests of the 
advertiser who desires guidance in the selection of appropriate 
advertising mediums and the adaptation of his message thereto, is 
of interest to general psychology. It shows the possibility of 
investigation of that form of group mind known as the "public," 
and thus points suggestively toward the much needed experimental 
foundation for social psychology. 

Choice and Preference in Occupations. C. S. YOAKUM & B. V. 

MOORE, Carnegie Institute of Technology. 

A list of occupations was presented to one hundred and eighty- 
four life insurance salesmen, sales engineers and design engineers. 
This list contained two groups of occupations equal in number. 
One group was judged to be similar to salesmanship; the other 
contained occupations more closely related to engineering. All 
the occupations related to engineering were from lower level occu- 
pations than engineering itself. The sales and design engineers 
had been engaged in their chosen field not less than one year nor 
more than five. Only a few of the life insurance men had had 
more than a few months' experience. Thus all of these men had 
made an occupational choice. They were asked to consider only 
their interest and satisfaction in doing each of the occupations listed; 
then to mark plus those they would most prefer to do and to mark 
minus those they would dislike doing. 

The total of pluses and minuses for the life insurance men 
indicating preference for "sales" occupations and against "engi- 
neering" occupations was seventy-seven per cent of all marks. 
For sales engineers, this total was 67.7 per cent, of all marks. 
The design engineers showed a preference per cent favoring sales 
of 30.3. If we continue the assumption that the "occupations" 
are properly related to "sales" and "engineering," 78 per cent, of 
the engineers showed sales preferences, and 82 per cent, of the 
design engineers exhibited preference for engineering occupations. 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 105 

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

A Study of the Methods of Revivalists. W. T. SHEPHERD, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

This paper is a report of a study conducted to ascertain the 
various methods employed by ministers and professional revivalists 
in conducting revivals. The study included ten ministers who 
conducted their own revivals, ten professional evangelists, and 
five additional evangelists whose methods were observed by the 
writer. In the cases of the ten ministers and ten evangelists, 
the questionaire method was employed. 

1. A strong emphasis was placed by them on a plain, earnest 
presentation of the Scriptures. This should be accompanied by 
the Holy Spirit, believing prayer, and Cottage Prayer Meetings 
preceding the revival. 

2. Many ministers and evangelists do things without knowing 
just why. 

3. All believe in advertising to more or less degree. 

4. Music plays a great part in revivals, and should be as attrac- 
tive as possible. 

5. All appeal to the fear of death and Hell. Some do this 
unconsciously. 

6. Hope of reward is appealed to. But they minimize its 
importance. 

7. Other feelings, as shame, love, self-respect, conscience, are 
appealed to. 

8. The answers showed a poor knowledge of psychology. 
However, suggestion is used, especially by evangelists. 

9. In every great revival, organized effort is important. 

10. Results are attributed by them to faithful presentation of 
"The Gospel," influence of the Holy Spirit, prayers, personal work, 
service. 

11. Preaching the Scriptures ("The Gospel"), the Holy Spirit, 
personal work are most relied upon by them. 

12. Many evangelists and ministers are not students of their 
work. 

13. Their agreement was nearly unanimous that converts 
remain in the church. 

14. The average age of conversion given by they was seventeen 
years. No distinction was made by them in that regard as to sex. 

15. They say men (and women) seldom tell their real objections 
to uniting with the church. Those they give are mostly evasions. 



106 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

A Comparison of Oriental and American Student Intelligence. KARL 

T. WAUGH, Berea College. 

A series of mental tests were given to the First Year college 
students of three institutions in India and one institution in China. 

The tests selected for this work were the same as those given 
for a series of years to American college freshmen, the results of 
which were reported at the meeting of this association, held in 
Chicago, December, 1915. 

The investigation forms a study in comparative racial psy- 
chology, and, taken in connection with the previous work on Mental 
Tests of American College students, makes a contribution to the 
solution of the problem of the relative mental effects of heredity 
and environment. The Indian and American subjects represent 
the same racial stock, viz., the Aryan, but differ from one another 
by all the environmental features that distinguish the Orient from 
the Occident. The Chinese and American subjects, on the other 
hand, are compared as representatives of different racial stocks. 

The tests given were for (i) concentration of attention, (2) 
learning speed, (3) association time, (4) memory immediate, 
(5) memory deferred, (6) range of information. 

The cancellation, substitution, opposites and logical memory 
tests, in the exact form given to American students, were given to 
students of equivalent grade and age of the Lucknow Christian 
College, the Isabella Thoburn College, Lucknow, and the Forman 
Christian College, Lahore, India. 

The tests, with the exception of those for memory, were given 
in the usual form, to the college students of the Canton Christian 
College, Canton, China. 

Percentile curves and frequency curves are presented giving 
the group attainments in the several tests, the curves for the 
American, Indian, and Chinese students being shown on the same 
plot for comparison. 

The following is the order of attainment of the racial groups, 
the median being used in each case: Attention; American 75, Chinese 
64, Indian 62. Learning; American 66, Chinese 62, Indian 45. 
Association; Indian 58, American 46, Chinese 38. Memory- 
Immediate; American 58, Indian 54. Memory-Retention; Indian 88, 
American 80. Information; Indian 24, American 23, Chinese 15. 



AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 107 

Standpoint of Social Psychology. ROBERT H. GAULT, Northwestern 

University. 

Psychology is the indispensable basis for the study of social 
life: i.e., of life in as far as it is characterized by an interaction 
and interstimulation among persons. 

Social psychology is but a convenient term applied to the general 
science when its methods are employed in analyzing and describing 
the development and present status of these interactions and inter- 
stimulations. They are not necessarily conscious relations that 
are connoted by this phrase. Such relations may be purely 
matter-of-course when we meet them in our daily experience, 
though in their early history they may have been in distinct con- 
sciousness. 

The student of psychology in its bearings upon social problems 
need make no more and no fewer assumptions than the student of 
the same science makes in any other of its relations. 

It is wholly unnecessary to assume the existence of a group 
mind, social mind, or crowd mind in the sense in which these 
phrases are usually employed. They are ordinarily invoked to 
account for the sense of "social unity" and for what is termed 
"progress." The writer attempts to account for each of these 
phenomena, using such equipment of the individual as is familiar to 
the student of functional psychology as a starting point. 

Preliminary Re-port on a Gifted Juvenile Author. LEWIS M. TERMAN, 

Stanford University. 

Betty F., born January 22, 1912, has written enough poems 
and stories to fill a fairly large volume. She began composing jingles 
at the age of 33 months, but most of her recorded work dates from 
her seventh birthday. She composes with astonishing facility, 
ordinarily requiring only five or ten minutes to dictate a poem or 
story of 200 to 600 words. Stories and poetical plays of 1,500 to 
2,500 words are dictated in from one to two hours. Betty frequently 
improvises poems and stories on themes selected by others. A poem 
so composed in two minutes and fifty seconds was compared with 
21 other poems on the same theme improvised in fifteen minutes 
by advanced students of English poetry at Stanford University. 
When these were typed and rated by 35 judges, Betty's production 
ranked slightly above the median. Similar comparisons of her 
best work with the work of recognized authors indicate that Betty 
has very promising ability. Analysis of 72 poems and 69 prose 



108 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

compositions shows a large predominance of nature themes in 
both groups. The range of subjects, however, is very wide and 
includes the reflective, the whimsical, the humorous, love poems, 
poetical plays, blank verse, free verse, prose poems, fairy stories 
and detective stories. 

Shortly before her eighth birthday Betty's I.Q. by the Stanford- 
Binet was 188, and by the Army Beta 175. In year XIV she 
passed vocabulary, problems of fact, and induction; in XVI vocabu- 
lary, fables, and 6 digits reversed; in XVIII, paper cutting and 7 
digits reversed. Numerous other intelligence tests have been given 
her, with similar results. Taking the memory for digits test 
(group method) with a class of 21 Stanford graduate students she 
excelled 10, tied 4, and was beaten by 7. Her vocabulary score 
at 8 years was 73, or about that of average university freshmen. 
On the other hand, in the Kelley Construction Test and in arith- 
metical computation she is only slightly above age. Physical 
development averages about two years advanced. Health record 
has been exceptionally clear. Is kinetic and emotional. Parents 
first knew she could read when they discovered her, at the age of 
4 1/2 years, reading Heidi. By eight she had read 750 books, many 
of them two or more times. Has not attended school and has had 
only a small amount of private instruction. Parents are intelligent 
but not particularly exceptional. 

Belief as a Derived Emotion. W. McDouGALL, Harvard University. 

(Introduced by H. S. Langfeld.) 

The difficulty of classifying "belief" as a mode of experience. 
I propose to class it (with confidence, hope, anxiety, despondency 
and despair) as one of the derived emotions. The propriety of 
classing all these as emotions may be questioned; but, unless we deny 
that hope and despair can be properly called emotions, we cannot 
deny it of belief and confidence for they are of a similar nature; 
they are all alike conditioned by the influence of cognitive on cona- 
tive process. "Confidence" is one extreme term of the series of 
emotional experiences connected with, or grounded in, the working 
of desire. "Belief" is "Confidence" upon the intellectual plane 
of mental life. No "belief" without desire. "Faith" is "belief" 
on the plane of volition. 



BOOKS RECEIVED 

HOLLINGWORTH, H. L. The Psychology of Functional Neuroses. 

New York: Appleton, 1920. Pp. xiii + 259. $2.00. 
EDWARDS, A. S. The Fundamental Principles of Learning and 

Study. Baltimore: Warwick & York, 1920. Pp. 239. $1.80. 
MARTIN, L. J. Mental Hygiene. Two Years' Experience of a 

Clinical Psychologist. Baltimore: Warwick & York, 1920. 

Pp. 89. $1.40. 
THOMPSON, C. B. Mental Disorders, Briefly Described and Classified. 

Baltimore: Warwick & York, 1920. Pp. 48. $.75. 
MONROE, W. S. & BUCKINGHAM, B. R. Illinois Examination. 

General Intelligence, Silent Reading and Operations of Arithmetic. 

Urbana: University of Illinois. 1920. Pp. 31. 
WILLIAMS, J. H. A Survey of Pupils in the Schools of Bakersfield, 

California. Publ. of the Whittier State School, Whittier. Calif., 

Butt. No. 9, June, 1920. Pp. 43. 

TISSERAND, P. Memoire sur les Perceptions Obscures de Maine de 

Biran. Paris: Colin, 1920. Pp. xii + 66. 
RENOUVIER, C. Les Principes de la Connaissance humaine de 

Berkeley. Paris: Colin, 1920. Pp. xii + 107. 

HERMANN, O. Dr. Klages* Entwurf einer Charakterkunde. Leip- 
zig: Barth, 1920. Pp. 63. 15 M. 
ERDMANN, B. Grundzuge der Reproduktionspsychologie. Berlin & 

Leipzig: De Gruyter, 1920. Pp. viii + 186. $1.40. 
JAENSCH, E. R. Einige allgemeinere Fragen der Psychologie und 

Biologie des Denkens, erldutert an der Lehre vom Vergleich. 

Leipzig: Barth, 1920. Pp. 31. 4 M. 
HEINIT?, W. Wie Lassen sich Experimental-phonetische Methoden 

auf die Psychologische Zergliedreung Gesprochener Sdtze anwenden? 

Kiel: J. J. Augustin, 1920. Pp. 35. 
CARPITA, E. Educazione e Religione in Maurice Blondel. Firenze: 

Vallechi, 1920. Pp. 80. 

DAINOW, M., & MASON-THOMPSON, E. R. (i) A Classification of 
Association Categories and their Use in Testing General Intelli- 
gence. (2) A Test for the Quick Grading of General Intelligence 
by Groups. London: Pelman Laboratory, 1920. Pp. 23. 

109 



110 NOTES AND NEWS 

TANS LEY, A. G. The New Psychology and its Relation to Life. 

New York: Dodd, Mead, 1920. Pp. 283. 
BERGSON, H. Mind Energy. (Trans, by H. W. Carr.) New York: 

Holt, 1920. Pp. x + 262. 
LAY, W. Man's Unconscious Passion. New York: Dodd, Mead, 

1920. Pp. vii + 246. 
MAGNUSSEN, J. God's Smile. New York: Appleton, 1920. 

Pp. ix + 185. $1.75. 
WATT, H. J. The Foundations of Music. Cambridge, Eng.: 

Univ. Press, 1919. Pp. xvi + 239. 18 s. 
ENO, H. L. Activism. Princeton: Univ. Press, 1920. Pp. iv + 

203. $1.50. 
BAGG, H. J. Individual Differences and Family Resemblances in 

Behavior. Arch, of Psychol., 1920, No. 43. Pp. v + 58. 

70 cts. 

PAYNTER, R. H., Jr. A Psychological Study of Trade-Mark Infringe- 
ment. Arch, of Psychol., 1920, No. 42. Pp. 72. 85 cts. 
LINK, H. C. Employment Psycholgoy. New York: Macmillan, 

1919. Pp. xii -f- 440. 

NOTES AND NEWS 

DR. SAMUEL W. FERNBERGER, of Clark University, has been 
appointed assistant professor of psychology at the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

THE last number of volume 10 of the Psychologische Studien 
under date of 1918 but only recently received, has the announce- 
ment that the publication will be discontinued. The Studien was 
founded in 1906 by the late Professor Wundt, who was also its 
editor. 

WITH the opening of its thirty-second volume the responsible 
editorship of the American Journal of Psychology passes from Presi- 
dent G. Stanley Hall, of Clark University, to Professor Titchener, 
of Cornell University. Under Professor Titchener's direction the 
Journal will be restored to its pre-war size of 600 pages. Professor 
Titchener will be assisted in the editorial conduct of the Journal 
by the following staff of associated editors: G. Stanley Hall, Edmund 
C. Sanford, Edwin G. Boring, of Clark University; H. P. Weld, 
Karl M. Dallenbach (business editor), of Cornell University; 



NOTES AND NEWS III 

Madison Bentley, of the University of Illinois; W. B. Pillsbury, 
of the University of Michigan; Frank Angell, of Stanford University 
and Margaret F. Washburn, of Vassar College. 

THE following have been taken from the press: 
ARRANGEMENTS have been made by the faculty and trustees of 
the University of Chicago for the painting of the official portrait of 
James Rowland Angell, formerly dean of the faculties and head of 
the department of psychology at the university, who is now head 
of the Carnegie corporation of New York. 

PROFESSOR E. J. SWIFT, of Washington University, has been 
invited by the administrative officers of the post-graduate school 
of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis to repeat the 
lectures which he gave before the officers and students last spring 
on "Thinking and Acting" and "The Psychology of Managing 
Men." 

THE Technical High School at Briinn, Czechoslovakia, desires 
to raise a fund in honor of Ernest Mach, who was born in that 
neighborhood. The purpose of the fund is to award a prize for an 
essay, dealing with the subjects of his interest. Subscriptions may 
be sent directly to Dr. Emil Waelsch at the address given. 

THE council of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science has agreed to the formation of a separate section of psy- 
chology, as recommended by the sections of physiology and educa- 
tional science at Cardiff, and approved by the general committee. 

MR. J. W. BARTON, recently fellow in psychology at the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota and formerly a member of the faculty of the 
University of Utah, has been elected associate professor of psy- 
chology in the school of education of the University of Wyoming. 

AT a recent meeting of the New York Academy of Sciences, 
Dr. Edward L. Thorndike was elected president and Dr. Robert S. 
Woodworth one of the vice-presidents for 1921. 

THE Aldred lecture was delivered at the Royal Society of Arts 
on January 12, by Dr. C. S. Myers, of the University of Cambridge 
the subject being "Industrial Fatigue." 

AT the Chicago meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, the Committee on Grants made the fol- 
lowing distribution for the year 1921 : 



112 NOTES AND NEWS 

ONE hundred and fifty dollars to Professor T. R. Garth, of the 
University of Texas, for a psychological study of Indian children in 
the United States Indian schools at Chilocco, Oklahoma, and 
Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

ONE hundred and fifty dollars to Professor E. G. Boring, Clark 
University, for the preparation of a set of steel acoustic cylinders to 
be used in determining the nature of sensory response under con- 
ditions of normal psychometric situation. 



r 

Vol. 1 8, No. 3. March, 1921 

THE 

PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN 



i. GENERAL 

no. BAADE, W., Zur Lehre von den psychischen Eigenschaften. 
Z./. Psychol., 1920, 85, 245-296. 

Though it is nowhere even alluded to, the author seems to be 
attempting to salvage whatever was useful in the "faculty" psy- 
chology. No other English term, at least, so well translates 
Eigenschajt as Baade uses it. To be sure, the word is to be given 
a "functional rather than a morphological" interpretation. An 
Eigenschajt is a relatively permanent determination (Bestimmtheit) 
of the psychophysical organism. It is the "basis" of experiences, 
behavior and conduct. 

There are two kinds of "characteristics" or faculties general 
and circumscribed. General faculties underlie a group of con- 
scious processes constituting a continuous manifold. Thus we 
have a general faculty or ability to see yellow; between two neigh- 
boring yellows a third can be interposed and so on indefinitely 
until we can no longer distinguish differences. (It must follow 
that we have a general "ability" to see, since visual qualities as 
a whole form a continuous manifold.) Other general abilities 
are the disposition to lively gesticulation, or to lively images, in- 
telligence, energy, sentimentality. 

Circumscribed faculties are those which exhaust their function 
in engendering either a single stereotyped experience or a very 
narrow group of experiences though it may of course engender 
these over and over, so far as we can speak of identical experiences; 
though circumscribed, the faculties are none the less "relatively 
permanent." The best examples of circumscribed faculties are in 
the realm of ideation, where under the various names of Traces, 
Residua, and Dispositions, the doctrine of Eigenschaften has lately 
found a place (Or has held its own?). For terminological reasons, 
however, all these appellations are rejected. Both kinds of faculty 
may be complex or elementary, and the complex of one kind may 



114 GENERAL 

have, as factors, faculties of either sort. Thus one factor in a com- 
plex circumscribed idea-faculty may be the general faculty of 
having visual images. 

The distinction between innate and acquired faculties nearly 
coincides with that of general and circumscribed, but until the 
relations are firmly established, we should maintain both sets of 
terms. Possible relations of circumscribed faculties to associa- 
tion are indicated. The tasks of Eigenschaftslehre are given a 
schematic but thoroughgoing treatment. 

Baade believes that a complete psychology can be written 
without more than passing reference to somatic conditions. But 
where Watt, who is valiantly maintaining the same thesis, (i.e., of 
"pure" psychology; not Eigenschaftslehre, save possibly by im- 
plication) puts this to the test by writing such psychology com- 
pare, e.g., his Psychology of Sound, Baade develops at length 
what are literally the "empty" theoretic possibilities of such a 
psychology. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

Hi. ROBACK, A. A., The Scope and Genesis of Comparative Psy- 
chology. /. Phil., Psychol., etc., 1920, 17, 654-662. 
The present state of affairs with reference to a definition of Com- 
parative Psychology is a hopeful sign as it denotes a higher stage 
of development for it. Animal Psychology, being merely a part of 
the field, should not be mistaken for the whole of it. The designa- 
tion Comparative Psychology, was in vogue, apparently, over fifty 
years ago. The tendency to apply it to the study of mind in other 
organisms than man seems to have come about more by accident 
than by "deliberate intent" (Yerkes). The cause of this is probably 
interest in evolutionistic doctrine though the transition may be 
hard to trace. Since the term method is too colorless a denomina- 
tion comparative Psychology should not be so termed any more than 
experimental psychology, lest it lose its identity. The distinctive 
feature of this division of psychology is "comprehensiveness," it is 
the "entire province of psychology" covered in a special way. 

GARTH (Texas) 

112. BUERMEYER, L., Professor Dewey's Analysis of Thought. /. 

Phil., Psychol., etc., 1920, 17, 673-681. 

Psychology and logic are so closely interdependent that if one 
progresses the other should also. The purpose of the article is to 



GENERAL US 

show how by some alteration of statements in "How We Think" 
there might be a more .fruitful interaction between the two made 
possible. 

GARTH (Texas) 

113. SABIN, E. E., Giving Up the Ghost. /. Phil., PsychoL, etc., 

1920, 17, 701-708. 

There are still ghosts among us which almost pass without a 
challenge. The one enjoying immunity among psychologists is 
mind. It has "ways of knowing and ranges" which are wider than 
consciousness. However, men are beginning to declare that this 
ghost must make room for a description of consciousness as being 
a relationship maintained between a living organism and its world. 

GARTH (Texas) 

114. DUNLAP, K., The Social Need for Scientific Psychology. 

Sci. Monthly, 1920, n, 502-517. 

Truly scientific psychology which is empirical, logically con- 
sistent, and based on working hypotheses experimentally tested 
is called upon to defend itself against applied psychology of the 
rash sort, philosophical mysticism, occultism, behaviorism, and 
psychoanalytic mysticism. It has a responsibility to society in 
the scientific development of social psychology. 

DASHIELL (North Carolina) 

115. CATTELL, J. M., Practical Psychology. Science, 1921, 53, 

30-35- 

Those who believe in applied psychology still have to face and 
solve the problem of applying psychology to secure the support and 
advancement of psychology and of psychologists. The principles 
and methods which are being applied by psychologists in the de- 
velopment of business and industry should be similarly applied to 
psychological work. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

116. YERKES, R. M., The Relations of Psychology to Medicine. 

Science, 1921, 53, io6-in. 

Although the object of a physician's concern, his patient, is both 
active and conscious, the sciences basic to medicine have failed to 
take account of the phenomena in human life which are designated 



Il6 GENERAL 

by the terms behavior, experience, and mind. Recent develop- 
ments in the practical applications of psychology have demonstrated 
to the medical profession the need of systematic knowledge of 
human behavior and experience. The diverse developments of 
psychology should not mask the existence of a genuinely reliable 
and progressive science of behavior and experience, any more than 
do the numerous medical sects disguise the existence of a reliable 
body of knowledge concerning human form, function, and disease. 
There are five principal aspects of modern psychology: philosophical 
psychology, psychical reasearch, introspective psychology, genetic 
psychology, and behaviorism. The general science of psychology 
is inclusive of what is valuable in all its branches. For psychology 
in its medical aspects, the term psychobiology is proposed. The 
lack of knowledge of psychobiology by medical men has resulted 
in retarded development of the treatment of mental diseases and 
the growth of numerous one-sided sects. Psychobiology should be 
taught in the medical school by means of a general course to ac- 
quaint students with its principal facts and laws, special advanced 
work for interested students, special work in abnormal and patho- 
logical behavior and experience, and research in mental hygiene. 
Psychopathology instead of the more inclusive psychobiology will 
not meet the general needs of medicine. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

117. DENTON, G. B., Early Psychological Theories of Herbert 

Spencer. Amer. J. of Psychol., 1921, 32, 5-15. .' 
Spencer's early psychological theories, elaborated in The Phil- 
osophy of Style (1852), which is a revision of his essay Force of 
Expression (1844), were brought forth under the influence of the 
phrenologists, of whom he was at that time an heretical follower. 
He assumed the existence of minute and numerous faculties, which 
he apparently regarded as physiological entities as well as sub- 
jective entities and operations of the mind. These faculties 
corresponded very closely to those of phrenology. Each of these 
faculties became less capable as its activity was continued until 
fatigue or exhaustion set in. Attention was thought of by Spencer 
as a reservoir of physical energy at the service of mental life. Al- 
though the concept of attention played a dominant part in The 
Philosophy of Style, it does not appear in an important position in 
Spencer's later works. The concepts of fatigue and attention 
appear to have come from the phrenologists. In spite of the in- 



GENERAL 117 

fluence of phrenology, the assumptions of sensationalism and 
associationism, derived from British psychology, also appear in 
The Philosophy of Style. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

118. TITCHENER, E. B., Brentano and Wundt: Empirical and 

Experimental Psychology. Amer. J. of Psychol., 1921, 32, 

108-120. 

Brentano and Wundt published in 1874 two books which were of 
first rate importance for the development of modern psychology, 
but which showed the greatest divergence. Brentano came to 
his task from a study of theology and the history of philosophy; 
Wundt from the physiological laboratory. Yet psychology domi- 
nated all their further thinking. There is resemblance between the 
two systems in the position ascribed to psychology and the subject- 
matter of psychology, but a striking difference in emphasis. Bren- 
tano's method of procedure is to discuss arguments and opinions, 
until by a comparison of pros and cons a reasonable conclusion 
reached, rarely appealing to the facts of observation, and making 
his own doctrine follow of necessity from the discussion. Wundt's 
book, on the contrary, abounds in facts of observation, argument 
appearing where the facts are scanty and must be eked out by 
generous interpretation and hypothesis. Looking at the two 
systems from the inside, one finds that Brentano accepts from the 
past whatever will stand the test of his criticism, and organizes 
old truth and new into a system meant to last as long as psychology 
shall be studied; Wundt turns away from the past and plunges 
into the work of the laboratories, producing a psychology as much 
encyclopedic as a system, and that bears on its face the need for 
continual revision. Brentano has all the advantage that comes 
with historical continuity. But Wundt holds out the promise of an 
experimental method. The real significance of the Physiological 
Psychology is that it speaks the language of science, in the rigorous 
sense of that word, and it promises us in this sense a science of 
psychology. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

119. HENRI, V., Analyse psychologique du principe de relativite. 

/. de psychol., 1920, 17, 743-762, 

A paper read at a meeting of the Societe de Psychologic held on 
April 29, 1920. The paper contains an exposition of the principle of 



U8 GENERAL 

relativity and other principles of modern physics. Our notions of 
time and space as absolute are ingrained in our thought and lan- 
guage. Our notions of causation are interwoven with these con- 
cepts of time and space. The modern physicist tells us that the 
properties of space may vary, that the value of ir is not a constant 
independent of other phenomena, that space is non-Euclidean, 
that the measure of time depends on the position of the observer, 
etc. The results of modern physics occasion a complete subver- 
sion of all our ideas and habits of language. Psychologists must 
analyze the different words used to express these notions, and re- 
vise language in such a way that the new principles may be more 
readily comprehended. In this way psychologists may aid in 
establishing the principles of knowledge of the universe. 

BRIGHAM (Princeton) 

1 20. GREGORY, J. C, "Do We Know Other Minds Mediately or 

Immediately." Mind, 1920, N.S., 29, 446-457. 
Mr. Gregory, in answer to Mrs. Duddington's "Our Knowledge 
of Other Minds" advances the usual arguments for physical medi- 
ation of our knowledge, and then takes up the criticisms of that 
view. He says that throughout Mrs. Duddington mistakes simple 
association phenomena for elaborate analogical inference. Further- 
more, because the idea of other self comes first is no reason to de- 
duce that the priority of its explicit affirmation intimates a priority 
of implicit apprehension. In knowing other minds we discover 
what is in ourselves, and our certainty in the inference to other 
minds is justified by our certainty that we do love, hate, think, and 
reason. There is nothing miraculous in a child's distinction between 
living and non-living beings, and it is not necessary to suppose 
that it perceives from the start the life which sets off the mother 
from the perambulator. Mrs. Duddington is very near quibbling 
when she says that no introspection will detect the slightest time- 
interval between our perception of a person's tears . . . and our 
awareness of his grief. "The mind has no apparent organs for 
direct apprehension of other minds. Minds do communicate via 
bodily actions. Community of nature provides a basis for cer- 
tainty of inference when one mind knows another. Criticism can- 
not discover an incompetency in consciousness to realize from 
association between its own processes and . . . actions that be- 
hind other actions there are consciousnesses like unto itself." 

ORNDORFF (Wellesley) 



GENERAL 119 

121. SELLARS, R. W., Evolutionary Naturalism and the Mind 

Body Problem. Monist, 1920, 30, 567-598. 

The mind-body problem not being specific in the experimental 
sense is a philosophical adventure. Traditional solutions are com- 
promises between old metaphysical systems and empirical facts. 
Dualistic theories, including both interactionism and parallelism, 
have prospered for epistemological, logical, and methodological 
reasons, viz., (i) The assumption that the empirical contrast be- 
tween consciousness and objects is ontological; (2) The difference 
between the categories of consciousness and the physical world; 
(3) The evolution of a pragmatic dualism from the data of the 
sciences (pp. 576-7). 

Recent tendencies in science, viz., (i) Critical limitation of 
the laws of mechanics; (2) Recognition of the autonomy of the 
several sciences; (3) The conception of creative synthesis in nature; 
and (4) Behaviorism, modify our view of genetic continuity so as to 
emphasize novelty as well as sameness. Mechanism and vitalism 
thus become inappropriate solutions. We are led to an evolutionary 
naturalism for which "the living organism when properly and ad- 
equately conceived includes consciousness and is the sole source of 
that differential behavior which distinguishes it from less integrated 
bodies" (p. 578). Mind becomes a physical category. It is the 
brain in its integrative capacity (p. 581). The mind-body problem 
is eliminated while the nature and origin of non-mechanical be- 
havior become a specific problem susceptible of scientific approach. 
The epistemological situation is clarified. Consciousness is not 
energy, but performs a function, since it is at once the expression 
and the instrument of cerebral coordination, although it is not the 
whole of mind. Psychical entities need not be objects of awareness 
in order to exist, so that unconscious consciousness is no con- 
tradiction. 

DISERENS (Cincinnati) 

122. Moss, S., A Mechanic on the Mechanism of the Brain. Monist, 

1921, 31, 58-103. 

Mr. Moss presents a radically mechanistic interpretation of the 
nature of the brain and of mental processes. Differences in scale 
or degree of natural phenomena do not necessarily mean differences 
in kind, so that a consistent mechanistic explanation of nature, 
life and mind is possible. Such a view is acceptable in proportion 
to one's acquaintance with machines. On this basis the author 
describes the psychological categories in strictly mechanical terms. 



120 NERVOUS SYSTEM 

Consciousness is defined as a mechanical or physiochemical 
reaction of brain cells while the nature of mental processes as well 
as overt forms of behavior is illustrated by striking analogies from 
modern mechanical devices. Thus the conditions of memory are 
analogous to a phonographic record or photographic plate. Asso- 
ciation has its analogue in a type-setting machine, while that of 
impulse is a player-piano or relay. Reasoning is said to be always 
inductive. Beliefs and truths are mechanical adjustments between 
organism and environment. A diagram at the close of the article 
epitomizes the author's conceptions. 

DISERENS (Cincinnati) 

123. WIRTH, W., Unserem grossen Lehrer Wilhelm Wundt in un- 

ausloschlicher Dankbarkeit zum Gedachtnis! Arch. f. d. 
ges. Psycho., 40, 1920, pp. i-xvi. 

Wirth writes a sincere tribute to the great teacher. Two pic- 
tures are included. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

2. NERVOUS SYSTEM 

124. HERRICK, C. J., A Sketch of the Origin of the Cerebral Hemi- 

spheres. 17 figures. /. Comp. Neurol., 1921, 32, 429- 

454- 

This article contains a sketch of the evolutionary development of 
the cerebral hemispheres, written from a functional viewpoint and 
from a study of extinct as well as living types, graded in their com- 
plexity. The author concludes that the terminal portion of the 
neural tube early in vertebrate evolution gave rise to two pairs of 
lateral evaginations the one correlated with smell and the other 
with sight. Increasingly complex correlations of other receptors 
with smell involved the elaboration of separate centers in the fore- 
brain for each of these correlated reflex patterns, different in each 
species of animal according to its mode of life. Thus there then 
appeared solid cerebral masses in the lateral walls of the hemi- 
spheres and these masses were identified with the predominance 
in animal behavior of stable, heritable reflex and instinctive be- 
havior patterns. Further brain specialization in the direction of 
solid masses of adjacent ganglia precluded the possibility of more 
labile and individually modifiable sorts of behavior, such as were 
demanded by conditions of life on land, and such as are charac- 



NERVOUS SYSTEM 121 

terized by rapid learning through individual experience and by 
intelligence in general. To provide sufficient correlations there 
developed widely evaginated thin-walled hemispheres capable of 
indefinite expansion without undue thickening of the walls, in which 
numerous functionally distinct fields were well separated in space 
and in free intercummunication by means of almost unlimited 
systems of association fibers. Hence the development of the 
cerebral cortex is correlated with a development from more or less 
stereotyped patterns of response to highly modifiable and complex 
patterns. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

125. BISHOP, M., The Nervous System of a Two-headed Pig 
Embryo. 20 figures. /. Comp. Neurol., 1921, 32, 379- 
428. 

After a brief and only a general discussion of the anatomical and 
behavior studies in the field of teratology the author describes in 
great detail the gross and minute nerve structures in a 22 mm. pig 
embryo. Below the level of the shoulders the embryo appeared 
externally as a single individual but the head region was partly 
double. The cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon and mesen- 
cephalon were normal for each of the two heads, diverging rostrally 
from the rhombencephalon. Conjoined structures consisted of 
the rhombencephalon, fourth ventricle, several basal ganglia and 
median cranial nerves together with certain non-nervous structures 
such as the median submaxillary and sublingual glands, the carti- 
lages of the external, middle and internal ears of the median head 
region, and some of the cheek muscles. The nervous anatomy 
throughout the conjoined regions clearly indicated that normal 
morphological and neurological patterns had developed where- 
ever cramped spacial relations rendered normality or near-normality 
possible. The spinal cord was incompletely double, giving off 
laterally paired spinal nerves in normal manner but along the 
ventral surface in the cervical region was a neural ridge which gave 
off short series of conjoined spinal nerves, unganglionated and un- 
branched. Bilaterality was strikingly apparent in all of the 
structures of the doubled region; this and all anatomical evidence 
pointed to a merely regulatory adjustment in a healthy and orderly 
developed though teratological specimen. Included are several 
elaborate drawings and a bibliography of about 75 titles. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 



122 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

3. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

126. KAT?, D., Psychologische Versuche mit Amputierten. Z. /. 
Psychol., 1920, 85, 83-117. 

The illusions or better hallucinations of the missing member 
are described from a careful study of over 100 cases of one-arm 
amputation. In most respects, Katz's findings agree with those 
of previous students. The diminution in size of the phan om- 
member experienced by practically all of his cases, he ascribes 
to the loss of peripheral excitation. For our normal perception 
of the size of a member (when vision is ruled out, and all of the 
subjects "felt" rather than "saw" the missing limb) is due to 
a sort of sensory "tension" built up through experience out of all 
our tactile and kinaesthetic sensations from that member. In 
general, Katz considers that a study of the illusions justifies the 
conclusion that they depend in every case for their existence upon 
peripheral excitation, but that the form and distinctive character 
of the illusions is due to some central factor. In the case of the 
illusions of movement, he thus takes a sort of middle ground be- 
tween Wundt's sensations of innervation and some of his opponents 
(e.g., Miiller and Schumann) who attempt to explain them en- 
tirely upon peripheral grounds. 

An area on the side of the stump (not on the end) was compared 
with a corresponding area on the uninjured arm. The limen for 
touch and for two-point discrimination was lower on the stump. 
Localization was poorer, the constant error being towards the 
shoulder. Articles placed on the stump were more readily recog- 
nized than on the normal arm. All of these are considered phe- 
nomena of attention. 

The most interesting experiments are with lifted weights. 
Fechner, and more especially von Frey had ascribed certain de- 
partures from Weber's law to the weight of the arm itself, which 
must be reckoned with just as if it were a foreign body. Katz finds 
that though there are differences in discrimination, they are not 
nearly large enough to meet the demands of this theory. (The 
approximate weight of the missing arm is ingeniously calculated.) 
On the other hand, the entire set of facts seem to be satisfactorily 
accounted for as phenomena of adjustment (Einstellung) . 

The Sauerbruch preparation of the stump makes possible the 
attachment of the muscles directly to artificial hands for voluntary 
movements. A consequence of this operation is that muscles 



SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 123 

hitherto anatomically bound together are rendered independent. 
It turns out that patients can innervate antagonistic muscles in 
complete independence of each other. Sensory discrimination 
of weights lifted by one of these sets of muscles directly say by 
the biceps or triceps is practically the same as for the uninjured 
arm and roughly follows Weber's law. As the experiments were 
generally made on the occasion of the patients' first use of their 
muscles after the operation, we have discrimination uninfluenced 
by experience in any direct and immediate sense. Yet the sub- 
jects found the discrimination wholly like the normal process. 
Katz concludes that the estimation of weights depends upon the 
weight that reaches the muscles and tendons of the upper arm, 
as transmitted by the bony lever-system. This seems to be con- 
firmed when it appears that there is a very noticeable under- 
estimation of weights lifted by the biceps directly compared with 
weights lifted by the hand. Sharply in contrast to the underestima- 
tion of weights by the free biceps is the much lowered strength- or 
lifting efficiency A typical subject cannot lift above 15 kg. yet 
this seems equal to a weight of 2.4 kg. on the hand. In other words, 
the weakening of the muscles does not affect the sensory discrimina- 
tion. Finally the lifting of the 15 kg. was accompanied by all 
objective signs and by intense subjective feeling of effort. But 
there was of course no appreciable effort in lifting the equal ap- 
pearing 2.4 kg. We must conclude, therefore, that the experience 
of effort plays no decisive part in our estimation of lifted weights. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

127. SCHUMANN, F., Die Representation des leeren Raumes im 
Bewusstsein. Eine neue Empfindung. (Untersuchungen 
iiber die psychologischen Grundproblem der Tiefenwahr- 
nehmung.) Z. /. Psycho!., 1920, 85, 224-244. 
In addition to the colors and to the black-grey-white series, 
Schumann believes we must recognize a new visual sensation or 
series of visual sensations. He calls it the glass-sensation, but it is 
variously described by the subjects as like "clear mountain water," 
"perfectly clear and transparent ice," "frozen air," or "colorless 
between-medium." The new sensation is held to be qualitatively 
distinct from the grey series. It may mix with it, to be sure, just 
as the true colors may. The glass sensation also mixes with the 
true colors. As with the familiar visual qualities, the transitions 
form an uninterrupted continuity. The different kinds of glass- 
sensation differ in "compactness." 



124 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

These sensations are most readily seen in the stereoscope lying 
between objects. But under favorable conditions they may be seen 
in everyday vision. That the observers themselves unanimously 
and spontaneously used the expression "a glassy impression" in- 
dicates that the sensation is to be found in looking at glass. But 
with very clear glass (or a very good mirror) we are not aware of the 
glass until we see little particles of dust or the like upon the surface. 
Immediately upon the perception of these, however, we are conscious 
of a definite transparent surface. This is not a judgment; but a 
direct sensory datum. Similar conditions favor the same sort of 
impression in the observation of empty space. Indeed, it is the 
sensing of this glass-sensation in its least compact form that con- 
ditions our perception of empty space. Like the absolute sensory 
impression of size, which underlies so many of our judgments and 
percepts, but is usually in the margin of consciousness, so with 
glass-sensation. Ordinary we are simply aware of empty space, 
but under certain conditions, this impression moves from the 
margin to the focus and we have the glass-sensation as such. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

128. REVES?, G., Priifung der Musikalitat. Z. /. Psychol., 1920, 

85, 163-209. 

Nine tests were tried with sixty partially selected school children 
(average age 10.6 years, limits not stated) as follows: (i) Mono- 
tonic Rhythm; (2) Melodic Rhythm; (3) Absolute Pitch; (4) Oc- 
tave Recognition (or Transposition); (5) Relative Pitch; (6) 
Analysis of a Dichord; (7) Analysis of other Chords; (8) Com- 
prehension and Vocal Repetition of Melody; (9) Piano playing by 
Ear. Octave Transposition proved too easy, since all but the 
absolutely unmusical succeeded at once. Selecting the eighth 
test "on methodical grounds" as the most characteristic of music- 
ality, the author calculates the Spearman coefficients of correla- 
tion with the remaining tests. As might have been anticipated, 
the correlations were quite high except in the case of rhythm, and 
in the case of the analysis of chords of more than two tones. The 
four tests best adapted to the determination of musicality are: 
absolute ear for tone height, vocal transposition of an interval 
(i.e., absolute and relative pitch), playing by ear a well-known 
melody, and repetition of a new melody. Musical instruction 
apparently influences the test results little. Age does influence 
results but probably only as a result of increasing maturity. There 



SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 125 

were no sex differences. Revesz concludes that musicality is an 
innate ability, wide-spread, but by no means universal. It exists 
in various degrees. The relation of musicality to the various tests is 
analogous to that between general intelligence and its tests, i.e., it cannot 
be directly measured but may be estimated by means of tests having 
a high correlation with it. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

129. KLEMM, O., Untersuchungen iiber die Lokalisation von 
Schallreizen. 4. Mitteilung. Uber den Einflufs des bi- 
naural Zeitunterschiedes auf die Lokalisation. Arch. f. d. 
ges. Psychol., 1920, 40, 117-146. 

A long and careful series of experiments (Would that one could 
say that they are at all points carefully described!) are presented 
to support the thesis that the basis of the localization of a sound 
is the difference in the time of stimulation of the two ears. Klemm 
abundantly proves that the fused sound resulting from nearly 
simultaneous stimuli of double source is localized towards the 
first side even when the interval is as small as l/ioo a. That such 
a minute interval can be effective for perception, he well calls 
erstaunlich, and points out the necessity in other fields of control 
of such minute time differences. Ingenious experiments and calcu- 
lations show that the angular deviation from the median plane, 
necessary to asymmetrical localization of a sound from a single 
source, produces just the difference in time of stimulation of the 
two ears which, with a given subject, is effective for localization 
under artificial conditions with two sources. 

The minuteness of the differences leads one to suspect that they 
are not directly the basis of the localization consciousness but 
have associated with them some effect which constitutes such a 
basis. Differences of intensity are known to condition localiza- 
tion; may it not be that the time differences, by interference of 
phase of the sound waves transmitted through the skull, should 
set up differences of intensity? Such is actually the case, but 
the intensive differences are even more inconceivably minute than 
those of time. Klemm believes that the interval directly condi- 
tions the localization consciousness. He does not suggest the 
normal relation of differences of intensity to localization. 

We need not assume any single "position" in the brain or else- 
where that is differentially affected by simultaneous and successive 
excitations. The sound stimulus affects two different "positions" 



126 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

of the psychophysical organism, to wit, the two ears. Localiza- 
tion is a sort of frozen movement. The analog of Talbot's Law 
is to be found; just as the intensity of two quickly succeeding 
stimuli is their mean intensity, so the localization is a sort of mean 
of the two positions given in the two ears. 

With a psychologist of Klemm's standing, it is certainly to be 
assumed that all the cautions customary in exact experimenting 
should be observed. Hence one is not inclined at first to criticize 
the lack detailed description of the Fersuchsanordnung, though the 
apparatus and some of the procedure are described very carefully. 
But we learn, with some surprise, from a casual reference that the 
observers worked with their eyes open all the time; the abstractor 
had supposed that at least in experiments where the two sources of 
sound telephone receivers were at varying distances, the O 
would work with closed eyes. Exact tables are given which show 
the data used in determining certain thresholds. But in some 
of the later experiments, we are given only summary results. 
When we learn that many hundreds of results were rejected, we 
cannot wholly suppress curiosity about them. 

The abstractor would explicitly deny any idea that Prof. 
Klemm has in any way "doctored" his results. And there is ample 
evidence that the experiments were on the whole very carefully 
performed. But what is definitely implied is that in places, and 
even at some critical places, the experiments are not described in 
sufficient detail. If as Klemm points out, his results show that 
we must hereafter be more careful about minute time factors, 
it is equally true that we must be more careful about other factors 
such as suggestion. One does not set one's results above suspicion 
unless one describes the results in such detail as to show how such 
conditions are controlled. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

130. SCHERRER, E., Das Problem der anschaulichen Gestaltung 

in der Lyrik. Arch.f. d. ges. Psychol., 1920, 40, 147-192. 
Poets and literary critics are agreed that a lyric poet must not 
preach but must depict anschaulich. What is this Anschaulich- 
keit? It is not conditioned by the choice of words according to 
their meanings. One may avoid preachment by sticking close to 
concrete situations and may use vividly picturesque words, with- 
out in the least writing poetry. Nor is it any part of the poet's 
duty to arouse in his readers visual images. This is the function 
of description for which prose is the proper medium. 



SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 127 

Although one does not write poetry by using "poetic" words, 
the proper choice of words is the core of the matter. Read an 
anschaulich passage and change the words for their nearest syno- 
nyms; the Anschaulichkeit vanishes. But read a bit of poetry 
prosaically and the same result follows. Or inhibit all internal 
speech or motor-verbal imagery. The most bejeweled passage be- 
comes prose. 

There are two sources of this Anschaulichkeit, working in the 
closest cooperation. The rhythm (including both accent and 
length of syllable) and melody of the verse arouses in us a kinsesthe- 
tic-organic perception of movement which must conform to the 
mood the poet desires to project. Combined with this is the effect 
of the sound-form: there is a sound-form in words analogous to 
that of music. Various sounds have associations which are prac- 
tically universal in any cultural group: certains sounds are bright 
or dark, thin or voluminous, light or massive, etc. (Incidentally, 
he asserts that to ask how much more voluminous one tone is 
than another would be absurd; but Watt and Ogden have asked that 
question lately and Gilbert Rich has returned an experimental an- 
swer; shall we never learn to beware the general negative?) These 
sound effects combine with the rhythm in effecting the feeling of 
movement. The details of this relation are worked out interestingly 
in some detail. The Anschaulichkeit of lyric poetry is due to the 
kinaesthetic-organic perception aroused by the acoustic-motor 
speech-form. The last is thus a sort of mirror of consciousness. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

131. LIPS, J. E., Die gleichzeitige Vergleichung zweier Strecken 
mit einer dritten nach dem Augenmass. Arch. f. d. ges. 
PsychoL, 1920, 40, 193-267. 

The principal experiments consisted in the comparison of two 
simultaneously presented lines with a third following. The two 
standard stimulus lines ranged from 1 60 to 170 mm. in different 
series. The third line was used as a comparison stimulus ac- 
cording to the method of constant stimuli. The lines were parallel 
and vertical, the third coming in between the spaces just occupied 
by the first two. 

If the two standard stimuli differ from each other by 2 mm. or 
more, false judgments as to their relationship to each other are not 
implied in the judgments comparing them to the third stimulus. 
True such "false" judgments would be infrequent in direct com- 



128 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

parisons of r\ r% and rz r$, but their complete exclusion points 
to the influence of the third relation, r\ r 2 , upon the other two. 

The double judgment is on the average slightly more accurate 
than the single judgment. This is probably due to the stimulation 
afforded by a more complex task, which yet can be attended to in 
a unitary way. Where single judgments are required, the scatter 
is less, but the region within which judgments of equality and 
uncertainty prevail is slightly larger. (There seems to be some 
influence unfavorably affecting the number of judgments of equality 
in the double task experiments.) 

Keeping conditions as comparable as possible, the difference 
limen of the single judgment of lines successively presented was 
found to coincide with that of previous experiments. But when 
the two standard lines were used as standard and comparison stimuli 
the limen for simultaneous comparison was greatly lower than 
any hitherto reported. The author suggests that in the other 
experiments, comparison had really been made of the endpoints of 
the lines, not of lengths, while in his own experiments the con- 
ditions assured genuine comparison of magnitudes. 

Objective equality between the two standard stimuli facilitated 
comparison with the third, especially lessening the scatter, in pro- 
cedure without knowledge only; the reverse was the case if the subject 
worked with knowledge of this equality. 

Both of the standard stimuli were underestimated, but by a sort 
of contrast, the smaller suffered more. The author believes that 
this is due to the succession of SR and CR as well as to the side by 
side position of the SR in comparison with the intermediate position 
of the CR. 

In cases where the CR was judged to lie between the two SR 
in length, there was slight negative tendency. Thus the mean 
limen lies somewhat nearer the lower than the upper limiting 
limen. 

The theoretical discussion is based on Wirth's psychophysical 
position. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

132. CAMPBELL, I. G., Some Problems in Regard to Alimentary 

Sensitivity. Amer. J. of PsychoL, 1921, 32, 26-37. 
The writer reports a number of observations which she made 
during two weeks of duodenal feeding. Hunger was found to occur 
only before feedings, even though the stomach was continuously 



FEELING AND EMOTION 129 

empty except for small doses of medicine. When experienced, 
hunger included a feeling of "emptiness" and at times a conscious- 
ness of weakness. Appetite came only with the sight of food. 
Feedings always resulted in a feeling of "fulness" localized high up 
in the abdomen. It was similar to the consciousness of gas in the 
intestines, and was often akin to nausea. Rough observations of 
thermal sensitivity verified the fact that the esophagus and stomach 
are sensitive to thermal stimuli and indicated that the duodenum 
is sensitive to cold and perhaps to warmth. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

4. FEELING AND EMOTION 

133. PATON, S., The Emotional Unrest, Its Causes and Treatment. 

Med. Rec., 1919 (Nov. 15), pp. n. 

Much of the present emotional world unrest appears due to two 
causes. First, an exaggeration of previously existing and well- 
recognized types of emotional instability; second, a definite psychosis 
with specific symptoms, markedly epidemic, affecting persons 
possessing intellectual ability. In the advance of civilization, 
means have been supplied not only for the diffusion of useful knowl- 
edge but also for permitting rapid extension of information apt to 
cause in an unstable person a serious dissociation of the personality. 
"Signs of sanity" are enumerated as follows: Joy in living; pleasure 
in work; no desire "to varnish the fair face of truth with the pestilent 
cosmetic rhetoric"; temperate in wishful-thinking; no apologies 
for self-insufficiency; prompt action in emergency; behavior con- 
trolled by normal and not supernormal ideals. The personality 
of the psychoneurotic intellectual is characterized as follows: self- 
insufficiency; mental depression or unusual exhilaration; dodges 
critical situations; artificially reenforced ego; substitution of plati- 
tude for concrete terms; transfer interest to affairs of other people; 
prefers discussion of class problems to personal problems; culti- 
vates two distinct personalities, one for friends the other for enemies; 
believes in selective class salvation; superidealism. Temporary 
relief from personal inadequacy is found by reiterating such phrases 
as "internationalism," "social uplift" and others that are equally 
unsuggestive of the sting of personal defeat. There again appears 
the medieval doctrine of selective salvation; first it is the upper, 
then the lower and now the middle class that is especially appointed 
to be saved. The balance beam in the personality is to a very 



130 FEELING AND EMOTION 

large extent the normal feeling of sufficiency and unless it is present 
the integration of various tendencies and interests is not longer 
effective and reason cannot operate except at a great disadvantage. 

MURPHY (Boston Psychopathic) 

134. TROLAND, L. T., A System For Explaining Affective Phe- 
nomena. /. of Abnor. PsychoL, 1920, 14, 376-387. 

The subject of this abstract is a most concentrated outline of a 
speculative psychophysiological view of affective phenomena. In it 
there is a vast amount of suggestive material so compressed that the 
author's methods of obtaining his hypotheses are sometimes difficult 
to follow. Affective intensity is defined as an "algebraic quantity, 
positive magnitudes of which are to be identified with the degrees 
of pleasantness of conscious states," while negative magnitudes 
represent the degrees of unpleasantness of such states. The funda- 
mental hypothesis, formed in accordance with the theory of psycho- 
physical parallelism, is, that affective intensity is proportional to the 
average rate of change of conductance in the synapses. Increasing 
conductance implies pleasantness, while decreasing conductance 
involves unpleasantness. Simple exercise usually tends to open 
up the synapses, due to the action of afferent nerve currents upon 
the cortex. Not all afferent currents, however, act in the same 
manner. The activity of nociceptors brings about a decrease in 
cortical conductance, whereas the stimulation of beneceptors in- 
creases it. The activity of these two kinds of receptors is desig- 
nated as retroflex action. Primitively, all lines of conduction were 
of equal conductance, but the effect of past pleasure and pain alters 
the conductance of certain lines during the life of the individual. 
The author defines "happiness" as the total amount of affection 
experienced during a given period of time, minus the amount of 
negative affection experienced during this time; or, the increments 
of conductance minus the decrements. 

The record left in the cortex by retroflex action involves its per- 
manent association with the causative retroflex mechanism. Then, 
according to Pavlov's Law, "if a certain form of response is once in- 
hibited because of the fact that it causes stimulation of the pain 
nerves, when the original stimulus to this reaction again appears it 
will re-arouse the retroflex process which was originally aroused only 
by pain stimulation." This is a conditioned retroflex. Such associ- 
ations of stimuli and retroflex mechanisms correspond on the 
physiological side with the Freudian "complexes." But they need 



FEELING AND EMOTION 13 I 

not be founded only on sex, but on any primitive retroflex tendency. 
Gustatory, hunger, olfactory and temperature complexes are pos- 
sible. When a single stimulus becomes conditional simultaneously 
to both a positive and negative tendency, conflict results. If one 
wins ascendency the other is repressed. 

Turning to instincts, he states that the completely hereditary 
modes of response are carried through the synapses in the spinal 
cord, or other nerve centers below the cerebrum. The more com- 
plicated modes of response, which are commonly called instinctive, 
he believes to be complexes developed by experience in connection 
with the retroflex functions. The experience accompanying a 
sufficiently powerful arousal of a retroflex function is an emotion; 
the unconditioned retroflexes are primary emotions, and those 
with conditional arousals, which include nearly all those of the 
adult, are secondary or derived. 

HINCKS (Radcliffe) 

135. YOUNG, P. T., Pleasantness and Unpleasantness in Relation to 

Organic Response. Amer. J. of Psychol., 1921, 32, 38-53. 
The subjects in this experiment were given simple, single stimuli 
of a nature calculated to evoke feelings, and were instructed to re- 
port all muscular tendencies and organic sensations as well as the 
affective side of the experience. In 38 per cent, of the cases in 
which the stimulus was reported as either pleasant or unpleasant, 
no organic response was noted, showing that there is no organic- 
kinsesthetic sine qua non of affection. When organic or kinsesthetic 
processes were reported, they bore no fixed relationship to the af- 
fections. A general correlation tendency between muscular strain 
and unpleasantness and muscular relaxation and pleasantness was, 
however, noted. Unpleasantness was associated with a positive 
bodily response, while in pleasantness the bodily response was 
relatively slight. The traditional relation between pleasantness 
and seeking movements found little support, while that between 
unpleasantness and withdrawal was confirmed. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

136. YOKOYAMA, M., Affective Tendency as Conditioned by Color 

and Form. Amer, J. of Psychol., 1921, 32, 81-107. 
Three series of stimuli, colored squares, black forms, and 
colored forms, were presented by the method of paired comparisons. 
The observers were instructed to judge passively the affective value 



132 FEELING AND EMOTION 

of, first, the color of the colored squares and the form of the black 
forms; second, the color of the colored forms; third, the form of the 
colored forms; fourth, the color-form of the colored forms; and fifth, 
as a check, the color of the colored squares and the form of the 
black forms. The affective judgments showed considerable vari- 
ability of attitude. The preferential orders of colors and forms 
were relatively permanent during a period extending over five 
months. When the colored forms were presented in some particular 
form for the affective comparison of colors only, the form had prac- 
tically no influence upon the preferential orders of the colors, and 
vice-versa. As far as relative pleasantness is concerned, color and 
form were, in the main, mutually independenj>m conditioning the 
affective tendency of color-form, even though simultaneously 
operative, but the dominance of color or form in determining this 
tendency depended directly upon the intensity of its pleasantness or 
unpleasantness, indicating that the affective tendency of color- 
form varies approximately with the algebraic sum of the affective 
tendencies of color and form. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

137. KAISER, I. R., The Psychology of the Thrill. Ped. Sem., 

1920, 27, 243-280. 

The fundamental motivation of human behavior is expressed 
in terms of "thrill craving" the most ancient and fundamental 
of all instincts; and this in turn as being an expression of bodily 
tone, a seeking to attain a sense of physiological well-being. Thrills 
are divided descriptively into four types. The varieties of instinc- 
tive action and of emotional states of mind, as also the functions 
of attention, interest, habit, and will, are all only different mani- 
festations of thrill. 

DASHIELL (North Carolina) 

138. LINK, H. C., Emotions and Instincts. Amer. J. of PsychoL, 

1921, 32, 134-144- 

Instincts have for a long time been identified with emotions, 
giving rise to the question as to the character of this identity. The 
James-Lange theory insisted upon the priority of the instinctive 
response, but later experimental works point to the concomitant 
occurrence of bodily changes and emotion. McDougall identified 
instincts and emotions by making them both dependent upon the 
same bodily mechanism. Objective studies with animals have 



FEELING AND EMOTION 133 

failed to yield conclusive results because of the confusion that 
results from attempts to interpret into the bodily actions the emo- 
tions which introspection has named. The attempt to define and 
classify emotions through introspection can never become other 
than purely arbitrary and conjectural. The attempt to pick out 
primary instincts and emotions upon which to base the super- 
structure of social actions is likewise purely arbitrary. If the 
emotions are assumed to be fundamental fixed in the organism, it is 
not logically possible to explain the process by which these con- 
flicting forces are unified, nor how the emotions are organized into 
sentiments stronger than the emotions themselves, which shall 
henceforth determine the manner in which those emotions shall 
express themselves. Pleasure and unpleasantness in a sense unify 
the various emotions by giving them a common character. But 
pleasure and unpleasantness must be regarded as being equally as 
dynamic as the emotions. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

139. WASHBURN, M. F., HAIGHT, D., and REGENSBURG, J., The 

Relation of the Pleasantness of Color Combinations to that 
of the Colors Seen Singly. (Studies from the Psychological 
Laboratory of Vassar College. XLI.) Amer. J. of PsychoL, 
1921, 32, 145-146. 

Colors were presented both singly and in pairs to observers who 
judged them on an affective scale of 7 steps. The total affective 
value of the individual colors making up the combinations corre- 
lated plus .74 with the affective value of the combinations. This 
fact can hardly be taken for a manifestation of the simple summa- 
tion of feelings. In 30 per cent, of the cases where both component 
colors were agreeable the combinations were disagreeable; and in 
15 per cent, of the combinations of two disagreeable colors were 
judged as agreeable. The unpleasantness or pleasantness of a 
color combination is derived not merely from the summation of the 
affective tones of its components, but from another factor dependent 
on the combination itself. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

140. SHAND, A. F., Of Impulse, Emotion and Instinct. Proc. 

Arist. Soc.j 1920, 20, 79-88. 

Impulses and emotions, though composed of the same elements 
(conative, affective and cognitive), the writer maintains, are dif- 



134 MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

ferent "facts of mind." Specifically, emotions are more compre- 
hensive than impulses and contain them. Impulses are also parts 
of the systems of instincts and condition their operation. From 
the standpoint of function the ends of emotion and impulse are 
different: that of the former being more general and conditioning 
a variability of behavior, while that of the latter is specific and in- 
variable. An emotion tends to be aroused when an instinct with 
its impulse is not working successfully. Part of human instinctive 
behavior is inherited and part acquired. It is the inherited part 
which is invariable. The writer rejects McDougall's theory that 
the principal instincts, when in operation, elicit an emotion more 
or less distinctive of them. This theory, he claims, seems to be 
based on a confusion between emotions and impulses. 

SINCLAIR (Smith) 



5. MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

141. FOUCALT, M., Extension de la loi de 1'exercice dans le travail 

mental. /. de psychol., 1920, 17, 673-683. 

This article is an extension of experimental work previously 
reported (Etudes sur 1'exercice dans le travail mental specialement 
dans le travail d'addition, L'Annee Psychol., 1914, 20, 97-125). 
The experiments consisted of (i) short periods (two minutes) of 
mental work in addition (Kraepelin tables); (2) periods of mental 
work in memorizing 12 French words, with rest periods intervening; 
(3) periods of mental work in reading lists of 30 French words and 
lists of 30 nonsense words, with rest periods intervening. The 
author assumes that the factor of fatigue has been eliminated by 
the rest periods. The author assumes that other variable factors are 
eliminated by combining the results of all subjects. The results 
obtained are compared with those calculated from the formula 

ax + by + c xy. 

On the basis of these experiments and those previously reported, 
the author concludes that the law of exercise in all forms of mental 
work may be expressed by an hyperbola. 

BRIGHAM (Princeton) 



135 



6. ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 

142. RUSSELL, B., The Meaning of "Meaning." (Symposium) 

Mind, 1920, N.S. 29, 398-404. 

This constitutes chiefly a reply to some of Schiller's criticisms 
of an earlier article by Russell on the same topic. But the doc- 
trine of meaning is restated, or in the opinion of another critic 
at the symposium, changed. Meaning (in this article at least) is 
a characteristic of signs. A sign is a sensation or image which 
causes action appropriate, not to itself, but to something else with 
which they are associated. We may or may not be conscious of 
the operation of the sign. As we are here essentially in the domain 
of habit, the intervention of consciousness marks an imperfectly 
established habit. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

143. JOACHIM, H. H., The Meaning of "Meaning." (Symposium) 

Mind, 1920, N.S. 29, 404-414. 

This contribution to the symposium is purely a criticism of 
the view (or views) of Bertrand Russell. Mr. Joachim evidently 
has a good time in pointing out the numerous verbal inconsistencies 
in Russell's statements of his position. As an exercise in dia- 
lectics, it is excellent, and (on p. 412) it achieves one really good 
joke. The psychologically trained reader, however, cannot help 
wondering what difference it makes whether Russell has committed 
various enormities in his statement. He has at least outlined a 
position, a theory. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

144. SCHILLER, F. C. S., The Meaning of "Meaning." (Sym- 

posium) Mind, 1920, N.S. 29, 385-397. 

Schiller's contribution is a combination of logic and psychology 
not to be wholly ignored by psychologists even though his reflec- 
tions may seem to originate from a professorial armchair. Tradi- 
tional psychology (or philosophy), he says, is helpless in the face of 
such a problem as meaning, because it has followed Plato's lead 
in considering as real only what can be contemplated. It is thus 
unable to study the self and "the all-pervasive realities which 
condition all objects, and form, as it were, the atmosphere which 
renders them visible and the light which illumines them." 



136 ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 

Meaning is one of these realities conditioning all objects. It 
is neither an inherent part of objects, not a static relation between 
objects, but essentially an activity or attitude taken up towards 
objects by a subject. When once we grasp this voluntaristic con- 
ception of meaning, we shall cease to relegate it to the psychic 
'fringe'; meaning is progressive, not transitory. Indeed it is 
meaning which is stable, the "stage on which the various sorts of 
'objects' make their brief appearances." Meaning is essentially 
personal and so must cause endless trouble to those psychologists 
who insist on abstracting from personality. 

The stable meanings of words, images, or things are secondary 
and derivative. Habitual use is the explanation of the apparent 
inherence of meaning and the key to understanding. No one doubts 
that words change their meanings thus. Images carry meaning in 
the same way. Mental images, however, are even more fluid than 
words. They are "very obliging; you can mean with them pretty 
nearly what you like." What you cannot do with the image is to 
make it pivotal for a theory of meaning. Having no intrinsic mean- 
ing, no amount of associating and compounding can result in mean- 
ing. Schiller particularly attacks Russell's reduction of the mean- 
ing of words to images. This presupposes that all have imagery, 
whereas many get along very well without it. It "incites to the 
inference" that the more vivid the imagery the more vivid the mean- 
ing, when the opposite is more often the case. It would justify 
the inference that the meaning is influenced by the nature of the 
imagery, which is not true. Any kind of meaning is conveyed by 
any sort of imagery. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

145. SULLIVAN, A. H., An Experimental Study of Kinaesthetic 

Imagery. Amer. J. of Psyckol., 1921, 32, 54-80. 
In the first part of the experiment, the observers were told, 
at different times, to perform a series of simple acts and to think of 
performing these acts, reporting in each case upon the kinaesthetic 
processes involved. To observe all phases, it was necessary to 
fractionate the experiences and ask for reports upon not more than 
three attributes or perceptive characteristics at a time. The 
kinaesthetic images of memory were distinguished from kinaesthetic 
sensations by uniformity, simplicity, and lack of "body." The 
images were uniform in that they were tiny bits of pressure ab- 
solutely lacking in brightness, simple in their approximation to 



ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 137 

single process and lack of perceptive character, and lacked "body" 
in that they were low in all intensive attributes save vividness. In 
the second part of the experiment, the observers were told to "feel" 
(i.f., to "realize kinsesthetically") simple acts which they could 
themselves perform and kinaesthetic situations beyond their direct 
experience. The latter resulted in a "projected" kinaesthesis, as 
opposed to the "resident" kinaesthesis of the memory-images. 
The resident images were ordinarily referred to oneself, while the 
projected images were referred to someone or something else. 
While resident kinaesthetic images showed a psychological picture 
very different from that of kinaesthetic sensations in sensory com- 
plexes, the projected images in an imaginal complex showed a 
picture very like that of kinaesthetic sensations in a sensory com- 
plex. The difference between resident and projected kinsesthesis 
does not reflect merely the functional distinction of self and other; 
it is correlated with a specific difference of attitude on the part of 
the observer. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

146. FERNBERGER, S. W., A Preliminary Study of the Range of 
Visual Apprehension. Amer. ]. of PsychoL, 1921, 32, 121- 
133- 

An examination of the measures used for the so-called range of 
attention shows that the concepts involved are neither clear nor 
exact. Although 100 per cent, correct judgments is used as a 
measure, the data often fail to reach this value. The statistical 
limen or threshold offers a more reliable and more readily deter- 
mined value. Using a psychophysical procedure, one can de- 
termine the number of objects, the correct apprehension of which 
has a probability of 0.5. In the experimental work, the subjects 
were shown tachistoscopically groups of from four to twelve dots, 
and reported the number which they apprehended. The frequen- 
cies of correct judgments for each number of dots are given in tables, 
together with the limens and measures of precision computed for 
the method of constant stimuli. The curves of the judgments 
resemble the phi-gamma function, but are slightly asymmetrical. 
The thresholds vary between subjects from 6 to II dots. Intro- 
spective reports indicate that the judgments are of range of visual 
apprehension rather than of range of attention. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 



138 ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 

147. CROSLAND, H. R., A Qualitative Analysis of the Process of 
Forgetting. Psychological Monographs, 1921, 29 (Whole 
No. 130), pp. 159. 

In perhaps the most significant research in the field of memory 
made since Kuhlmann's contributions more than a decade ago, 
Crosland attempts to determine what qualitative changes of 
memorial content take place with the lapse of time. The pro- 
cedure consisted in making a series of cross-sections through the 
remembrance of selected experiences displayed by ten trained 
laboratory psychologists; examining the contents of these various 
cross-sections to discover what changes are revealed. Quantitative 
relations of the forgetting process are purposely ignored. 

Seven series of meaningful learning materials were employed, 
these being presented either in a visual or tactual-kinsesthetic 
manner for an exposure period of thirty seconds. Delayed re- 
calls were taken after time intervals varying from thirty minutes 
to over three hundred days. No attempt was made to standardize 
the learning procedure; to control the recalling function during a 
time interval; to stimulate recall by questions or cues; to estimate 
quantitative or qualitative findings procurable by varying the 
length of the learning period. The main avenue of approach was 
the method of careful, detailed introspective analysis of the memory 
consciousness, the experimenter being true to the spirit of the 
Clark laboratory. 

"Mechanisms belonging peculiarly to the process of forgetting 
are stressed typification and analysis; condensation, displacement 
or transposition, dramatization, and secondary elaboration. The 
first pair are kin and become responsible for a great many subjective 
interpolations and are open roads for much subjective alteration in 
and addition to the original contents" (p. 134). The group of four 
mechanisms are the familiar ones of Freudian fame, the experi- 
menter coming to the significant conclusion that these are "found 
to be present in ordinary, everyday acts of recalling learning 
materials after various degrees of forgetting have taken place" 
(p. 71) and are far from either being characteristic solely for the 
dream-making process or bearing sexual implications. 

The phenomena of forgetting result from two reciprocal pro- 
cesses, namely: dissociation and assimilation, these apparently 
not to be understood apart from the mechanisms mentioned above. 
Further mechanisms involved are certainty and uncertainty ac- 
ceptance and rejection. 



ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 139 

The relation of attention to the process of forgetting is dis- 
cussed, this giving an opportunity to bring in the question of the 
teleology of the forgetting function and promptly to waive its dis- 
cussion. The author found no discoverable relation between the 
presence of affection in learning and perceiving and accuracy and 
correctness of recalling; he dissents from the views of Thorndike 
et al, and Abramowski regarding a stamping-in valence of pleasant- 
ness, etc. As may be expected, the respective roles of visual, 
auditory-vocal-motor, and kinaesthetic images are fully discussed. 

The monograph contains an elaborate bibliography and secured 
a thorough, yet needlessly lengthy, historical review of the pro- 
cess of forgetting. It abounds in concrete introspective material 
and, although inclining to a fullness not always essential (especially 
in the summary), makes interesting and valuable reading. 

PECHSTEIN (Rochester) 

148. PARKHURST, H. H., The Obsolescence of Consciousness. /. 

Phil., Psychol. etc., 1920, 17, 596-606. 

Awareness is so deeply rooted in racial experience yet it is in- 
explicable and likewise precarious. After all our investigation what 
will our awareness turn out to be? It loses color as habit formation 
advances, as perceptions become more stereotyped, judgments 
largely given to us second-hand by society deal likewise with con- 
sciousness as do the first two processes. However, a first-hand ex- 
perience whereby man tastes the world for himself results in a 
real state of awareness. The sybarite and esthete are types in- 
sisting on much consciousness; at the other extreme are the pedant 
and the Puritan though to these there may be awarenesses per- 
mitted. It is a question as to how one shall exploit his rich re- 
sources for intensified living. 

GARTH (Texas) 

149. EDGELL, B., Memory and Conation. Proc. Arist. Soc., 1920, 

20, 191-214. 

The writer's problem in this paper is to find an answer to the 
question "Does the faculty of memory imply the existence of cona- 
tion as a specific mental function?" by comparing the different 
points of view represented by Ward (philosophical psychology), 
Semon (biology) and Freud (psychiatry). The discussion is largely 
philosophical. 

SINCLAIR (Smith) 



140 ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 

150. WHEELER, R. H., and CUTSFORTH, T. D., The Number Forms 

of a Blind Subject. Amer. /. of PsychoL, 1921, 32, 21-25. 
The number form of an adventitiously blind subject is reported, 
two reports being made two years apart and carefully compared. 
The subject has a simple digit form, a tens form, a hundreds form, 
and so on, as well as a week form, an alphabet form, a month form, 
and a date form. All his forms are colored. He carries numbers 
as properly localized colors, translating them as needed into the 
appropriate figures. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

151. MOORE, H. T., The Comparative Influence of Majority and 

Expert Opinion. Amer. J. of PsychoL, 1921, 32, 16-20. 
The experiments reported attempted to show the influence of 
the group upon judgments of language, morals, and music. Pairs of 
linguistic expressions, ethical judgments, and musical chords were 
presented to the subjects for choice, and the normal variability 
from day to day determined. This was compared with the changes 
in judgment produced by telling the subjects the majority preference 
for each pair, and also with the changes produced by telling them 
the preferences of experts in each one of the fields. Majority 
opinion was more effective in producing a change of judgment than 
was expert opinion. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

152. RUBIN, E., Vorteile der Zweckbetrachtung fur die Erkenntnis. 

Z./. PsychoL, 1920, 85, 210-223. 

The author records his conscious processes while studying the 
details of the operation of a camera shutter. The outstanding 
result is the similarity of consciousness dominated by a considera- 
tion of function or purpose to the consciousness dominated by 
Aufgabe in the studies of thought processes. Rubin finds a number 
of ways in which the Zweckbetrachtung favorably influences his 
mastery of the intricacies of the apparatus. These all reduce 
to the arousal of a useful constellation of associations, and to the 
effect of pleasure; the mechanism by which the latter influences 
the result is not stated. The third stage in the reception of Auf- 
gaben, etc., is evidently reached in Denmark for the constant atti- 
tude is "of course it is true, but we always knew it." While using 
most of the Wiirzburgers' concepts, the author tends to belittle 
their importance. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 



ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 14* 

153. KROH, O., Eidetiker unter deutschen Dichtern. (Ein Bei- 

trag zum Problem des dichterischen Schaffens.) Z. /. 
Psychol., 1920, 85, 118-162. 

The author discusses the evidence that certain well-known 
German poets have Anschauungsbilder i.e., images of hallucina- 
tory vividness, but distinguished from abnormal phenomena 
because they are recognized as images and are more or less under 
control; at least they do not constitute "imperative ideas." The 
images may be either of fancy or of memory. For the most part, 
they are lively; a whole scene plays itself before the subjective 
vision of the poet and is then described. Though they are not 
obsessions, the clearness of the images absorbs attention, demands 
consideration and constitutes a powerful stimulus to artistic pro- 
duction. Not only are such images the typical material (stoffliches) 
element of poetic creation; the individual differences in the origin, 
clearness, structure, flexibility, stability, artistic relations, and so 
on, of these images influence and largely account for the individual 
characteristics of the poets. It is not the author's thesis, of course, 
that such images alone make the poet, or artist in any medium, 
though almost indispensable. 

The study is based on the direct evidence of the poets them- 
selves, and on a critical study of their works, special attention 
being given to those parts where the poet is supposed to have pic- 
tured himself. 

The abstractor is impressed in this connection by the influence 
of vocabulary upon theory. Kroh declares that no one would be 
inclined to speak of a "process of such intense vividness, pro- 
nounced individuality, and plastic immediacy as Vorstellen in the 
usual sense." But if we translate Forstellen here as imagining, 
that is just what Galton did call such a process in his Inquiry. 
Whether the Germans (apparently under the lead of Jsensch) are 
right in separating Forstellen and Anschauungsbildete or whether we 
are right in regarding the latter as a special case of the former, 
only further study will reveal. 

ENGLISH (Wellesley) 

154. WEBER, P. H., Behaviorism and Indirect Responses,/. Phil., 

Psychol. , etc., 1920, 17, 663-667. 

This newest type of psychology comes forward destitute of con- 
sciousness. Watson claiming that thought is implicit behavior 
only, cannot explain reactions to objects not present, according to 



142 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

the writer, without such a thing as an image. He has abbreviated 
what is essentially conscious thus getting it out of sight and fancying 
he is rid of it. 

GARTH (Texas) 



7. SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 
155. BOAS, F., The Methods of Ethnology. Amer. Anthrop., 1920, 

22, 3II-32I. 

The author discusses recent changes in the methods of ethnology. 
Formerly the basic conception of the science was that of a general 
uniform evolution of culture affecting all mankind. This is an un- 
proved hypothesis. Recent ethnological research in England and 
Germany is based on the concept of migration and diffusion, in its 
turn an inadequate explanation. Both methods are "forms of 
classification of the static phenomena of culture" pragmatically 
applied in the interest of historical consistency. A third method 
is that of American anthropologists who are interested in the dyna- 
mics of culture and try to explain cultural history by applying the 
results of their study of present social changes; meanwhile they 
postpone questions of ultimate explanation. 

General conclusions based on this method are that: 

(1) The theory of psychological determinism in cultural evolu- 
tion seems doubtful. The history of any particular people can- 
not be explained on the basis of a single evolutionary scheme. 

(2) The assumption of long-continued stability is unfounded. 
Periods of stability and instability alternate rapidly. 

(3) Cultural parallelisms occur but are due to dynamic condi- 
tions of social and psychological origin leading to similarity. 

In conclusion Boas criticizes the psycho-analytic method in 
ethnology. While certain psycho-analytic concepts may be fruit- 
fully applied, the method has serious limitations. Suppressed de- 
sires are less important than many other factors, e.g., language, in 
explaining social behavior. The applicability of the psycho-analytic 
theory of symbolism is also questionable since it is but one of many 
possible types of symbolic interpretation the comparative values 
of which have to be determined. The application of psycho-analysis 
cannot therefore be regarded as an advance in ethnological method. 

DISERENS (Cincinnati) 



SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 143 

156. FRACHTENBERG, L. J., Eschatology of the Quilute Indians. 

Amer. Anthrop., 1920, 22, 330-341. 

This is an account of the animistic psychology of an Oregon 
tribe of Indians. The individual is supposed to possess a plurality 
of souls, which, departing separately at death, travel a spirit-path 
to reunite in a country of ghosts, a duplicate of earth-life accessible 
only to Medicine men. Separate ghost countries are thought to 
exist for children and animals, the latter supplying the needs of the 
dead which resemble those of the living. 

DISERENS (Cincinnati) 

157. THORBURN, J. M., Mysticism in Art. Monist, 1920, 30, 

599-617. 

This is a defence of aesthetic mysticism and a speculative in- 
quiry into the emotional conditions of artistic creation. 

DISERENS (Cincinnati) 

158. MARSHALL, H. R., Some Modern ^Estheticians. Mind, 1920, 

N.S. 29, 458-471. 

Any study of aesthetics must be based upon the psychological 
study of the experience involved in the appreciation of beauty. 
The metaphysical problems raised by the philosophers, such as 
Bosanquet, Coce and his follower Carrit, can never be solved until 
thought upon them is based on firm psychological ground. 

ORNDORFF (Wellesley) 

159. ANDERSON, V. V. Education of Mental Defectives in State 

and Private Institutions and in Special Classes in Public 
Schools in the United States. Ment. Hyg., 1921, 5, 85-122. 
Various tables, graphs, maps and photographs show the extent to 
which the feebleminded are housed, trained in vocational work, and 
educated in general, both in institutions and in special classes 
throughout the country. While in many states the mere custodial 
and poor-house atmosphere is being replaced by the atmosphere of 
hospital and training school, there are still many states which are 
yet unaware of this change. Nevada, Utah, Arizona, West Virginia 
and New Mexico have no special state institutions for the feeble- 
minded. On the basis of army figures it is estimated that there 
are about 700,000 mental defectives in this country, including 
both sexes, only 40,000 or 6 per cent, of which are being cared for in 



144 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

state institutions. Only 19 institutions have developed parole as 
one phase of their activities and of this number only 5 have at- 
tributed to it much importance in the past. The mental examina- 
tion, by properly equipped experts, of defective children in the 
public schools and special-class provisions for defective public 
school children and follow-up work are phases of the general problem 
which have been attempted or which are properly provided for in 
but few states and cities in the country. Commendable progress 
is being made throughout but with the lack of coordination which 
often characterizes new movements. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

1 60. SOUTHARD, E. E. Grail or Dragon. Notes on the Prime 

Task of Humanity. Ment. Hyg., 1921, 5, 71-84. 
This paper was found after the author's death but was written 
probably sometime in 1919. It is a philosophical comment upon 
what the author conceived to be the prime task of society that of 
destroying evil. Since pains are sharper than pleasures; since dis- 
comforts perturb us more than comfort pleases; since there are 
evidently more kinds of evil than there are kinds of good, does it 
not follow that evil is easier to perceive than good is even to con- 
ceive and that evils get more clearly into our minds than goods do? 
And does it not follow that a destruction of definite evils is a better 
technique to begin with than the construction of indefinite good? 
Get the Grail, then, but first slay the Dragon! Accordingly, the 
author classifies evils into their major groups (Regum Malorum) 
each in turn within the grasp of medicine, pedagogy, ethics, juris- 
prudence and economics. But inasmuch as so many economic, 
legal, moral, and educational "evils" are traceable to physical and 
mental conditions or operate through the latter, we need not go 
far to seek a most practical course by which to analyze and combat 
this Regum Malorum the psychopathic hospital with its medico- 
social work. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

161. HAMILTON, M. J. Mental Hygiene and the Parasite. Ment. 

Hyg., 1921, 5, 46-70. 

By "parasite" the author means a person who, because of 
faulty direction of motives and emotional tendencies early in life, 
has developed repressions for which he tries to compensate by 
methods of sham, pretense, false promises, a professed willingness 



SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 145 

to make contributions but never carrying out this profession in 
reality. Potential parasites are made of children when they are 
not taught to remain about their own business; when they are 
allowed to early sense in a vague way too much lack of sincerity, 
too much social superficiality, frigidity, hostility and the like; when 
they begin to learn that a pretense of performing a task the best 
it can leads to an excuse or compliment; and with attempts on the 
part of parents to shield the child too much from facing his little 
problems with honest courage. On the other hand when parents 
show attitudes of distrust or lack of sympathy toward the behavior 
of the child, there may develop perversions or repressions which 
drive the individual, later on in life, to uncritically accept the ad- 
vances of the aggressive and adult parasite as sincere. In this 
fashion an unconscious "host" may come to find himself destroyed 
by a ruthless "parasite." The remedy for this dilemma is largely to 
be found in properly understanding and in educating the emotional 
life of the person when yet a child. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

162. BURNHAM, W. H. A Survey of the Teaching of Mental 
Hygiene in the Normal Schools. Ment. Hyg., 1921, 5, 
I9-4S- 

This paper summarizes the results obtained from a questionnaire 
sent by the National Committee for Mental Hygiene to public and 
private normal schools throughout the country. Replies were 
received from 175 schools. Relatively few schools offered regular 
courses in mental hygiene; few reported courses which were especi- 
ally planned to prepare teachers for ungraded or mentally defective 
classes in the public schools; the old idea still prevailed that mental 
hygiene has to do with the abnormal. From these results the 
author derives the practical needs of the normal schools with respect 
to their interest in the subject and preparedness to teach it. He 
also offers suggestions for a possible course, pointing out its ad- 
vantages in enabling the teacher to better understand her own 
personal behavior, in enabling her to judge the health and possible 
defects in her pupils, in revealing the real constructive aim of dis- 
cipline, in aiding the teacher to perform her social function in the 
community, and the like. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 



146 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

163. WHITE, W. A. The Behavioristic Attitude. Ment. Hyg., 

1921, 5, 1-18. 

In a simple exposition of a behavioristic psychology applicable 
to problems of social service work the author brings together the 
facts of conduct and of consciousness and relates them by denning 
such processes as perceiving, thinking and feeling as but actions in 
their respective processes of becoming. The psyche consists of the 
final groupings of action patterns, integrated to serve the organism 
in its functions as a unity. The author does not define the un- 
conscious in behavioristic language, except in indirect fashion, as 
tendencies which attempt to appropriate the means of expression. 
All action implies tendencies and countertendencies and before 
behavior can be understood one must analyze these tendencies. 
Internal evidence of these tendencies is found in the individual's 
unconscious and from a clinical examination of the bodily organs. 
Throughout the paper are included practical suggestions for the 
social worker. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

164. BERRY, C. S., Some Problems of Americanization as seen by an 

Army Psychologist. Sch. & Soc., 1921, 13, 97-104. 
Army psychologists graded the intelligence of the officers and 
men in all the camps and cantonments of the United States by means 
of standardized tests. From a comparison of the results with the 
men's occupations it was found that the lowest grade of intelligence 
as well as the smallest amount of education exists among the 
laborers. The United States Occupational census shows that 20 
per cent, of the males engaged in gainful operations are laborers. 
This means that practically all of our unskilled and partly skilled 
workers are illiterate, not because of lack of educational opportuni- 
ties, but because of lack of intelligence. Being both ignorant and 
unintelligent, this laboring class is easily swayed by labor agitators 
and anarchists. Three suggestions are made for the Americaniza- 
tion of these workers. The first is to give lectures on the elementary 
facts of social and industrial organization at their labor meetings, 
the speakers being of the same class or nationality as those whom 
they address. The second proposal is the teaching in elementary 
schools of the principles of social and industrial life and their 
practical applications to the problems of the day. The third sug- 
gestion is that teachers be instructed in normal schools and colleges 
in political history, economics and sociology. With this background 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 147 

they can teach their particular subject in the light of the practical 
problems of government and industry, which will confront their 
pupils in later years. 

A fairly complete account of the results of the Army tests is 
given at the beginning of the article and different arguments against 
socialism drawn from economic and sociological principles, are sug- 
gested as appropriate for teaching children. 

KENNEDY (Radcliffe) 



8. SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

165. FINLEY, C. S., Endocrine Stimulation as Affecting Dream 
Content. Arch, of Neurol. and Psychiat., 1921, 5, 177-181. 

The case reported is that of a single woman aged 45, who suf- 
fered from extreme lassitude following an attack of influenza, al- 
though her health previously had been remarkably good. As her 
occupation required long hours of steady application, it was neces- 
sary to restore her strength quickly, and consequently a course of 
endocrine therapy was decided upon as the best and shortest means 
of raising her blood pressure and increasing capacity for work. 

Until this time the patient had not been conscious of dreaming a 
dozen times a year, but after ten days of administration of pituitary 
extract, she began to have very vivid dreams each night. These 
dreams were characterized by sensations of light and color of ac- 
tion, going somewhere and of pleasure in anticipating happiness to 
come. The patient recalled events as series of pictures, and her 
recall of dreams was as of a succession of vivid pictures with the 
predominant emotion, hope. 

After three weeks of pituitary extract, the patient developed a 
rather coarse intention tremor of hands, and thumbs were occasion- 
ally sharply adducted. Hence pituitary extract was discontinued 
and suprarenal substituted. Although the dreams continued after 
the pituitary was discontinued, their character changed a few days 
after the beginning of the administration of the suprarenal. They 
were less vivid, with no color, and were without exception un- 
pleasant. Recall was not so easy. 

After ten days of suprarenal extract, the patient who had always 
menstruated regularly, had slight flow half way between periods. 
As the patient was feeling entirely well, medication was stopped. 
Within two or three days the dreams became less frightful and within 



148 SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

ten days had ceased altogether. During normal menstruation, 
dreams recurred but were all pleasant as were those occuring during 
the taking of the pituitary. 

During the following three months, abnormal menstrual dis- 
charge occurred but was never accompanied by dreams. Gradu- 
ally dreams accompanying normal menstruation became less vivid 
and fewer until they ceased entirely. 

Thus the cause of dreams in this case was not psychic trauma, 
but the result of too great pituitary activity which stimulated the 
ovaries and raised to the surface of dream consciousness, some of the 
many unfulfilled desires. The unpleasant dreams are explained as 
the result of the action of the suprarenal gland, the physical basis of 
fear. Thus we find pathologic overactivity of the various endocrine 
glands, producing emotions without or disproportionate to, any 
foreign stimulus. That dreams and emotion behind them may have 
purely physical origin, is an aspect of the subject somewhat lost 
sight of in Freudian interpretation. 

LOWDEN (Boston Psychopathic Hospital) 

166. FREUD, S., One of the Difficulties of Psycho-Analysis. /. 
Ment. Sa., 1921, 67, 34-39. 

The author states that the difficulty of psycho-analysis which he 
is to discuss is not an intellectual one but an affective one, which 
estranges the feelings of those to whom it is introduced and makes 
them less inclined to accept or be interested in it. 

He explains his "Libido Theory," dwelling particularly upon 
narcissism, which he calls "mankind's self-love." He says that 
three times this narcissism has been badly wounded by the results 
of scientific research. First, cosmologically, when in the i6th 
century Copernicus established his theory that mankind's world 
was not the stationary center of the universe. The second blow 
was a biological one delivered by Charles Darwin when he ad- 
vanced his theory that mankind is not different from or better 
than the animals but only the outcome of an animal series. The 
third blow, says the author, is most painful. It is the psychological 
one. Man feels himself to be sovereign in his own soul and the 
author has proved that he is not. 

Psycho-analysis has wanted to teach the ego that it is "not 
master in its own house." No wonder, therefore, that the ego does 
not favor psycho-analysis, and obstinately refuses to believe in it. 

Schopenhauer with his "unconscious will" may be cited as a pre- 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 149 

decessor of psycho-analysis. This psychology which proves, by 
means of a material that touches every individual personally, the 
psychical significance of sexuality and the unconsciousness of mental 
life "brings on itself the aversion and opposition which still spare 
diffidently the names of the great philosophers." 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

167. VAN LOON, F. H., and WEINBERG, A. A. A Method of In- 

vestigation into Though t-Transference. /. Soc.for Psychical 

Res., 1921, 20, 34-49. 

Resuming the discussion on the same subject begun in the Janu- 
ary issue of the Journal. Drawings of figures are given as illustra- 
tions and the results are treated statistically. The following are 
a few of the conclusions brought out by the investigation: (i) An 
extra-sensorial perception of contents of consciousness is possible. 
(2) Emotional processes of consciousness are more easily trans- 
mitted than others, consequently sensations making the strongest 
impressions are most easily transferred. (3) Because of this, the 
impressions received by the best developed organs of sense are very 
likely transmitted most easily and it is necessary for the transference 
of thoughts that the consciousness, of the one who perceives, be as 
diffuse as possible. 

BROOKE (Pennsylvania) 

168. MENDICINI, A., La respiration dans la melancolie pendant le 

sommeil. /. de psychol., 1920, 17, 806-810. 
This article contains a preliminary report of an experimental 
investigation which will appear in full in VArchivo Generals di 
Neurologia e Psichiatria. The respiration curves of one normal sub- 
ject and two pathological subjects suffering from melancholia were 
studied. Melancholic subjects show diminished respiration while 
awake and asleep, equally in both states. The amplitude of 
respiration in both states is greater than the normal, although the 
breathing is slightly weaker in sleep. With these subjects the time 
of inspiration is longer than the time of expiration both in sleep and 
waking, and the relation between these times does not change as it 
does with normal subjects. Sleep is marked by sighs having a 
psychic origin. Dreams modify the curve of respiration. In- 
spiration and expiration show pauses in melancholic patients not 
shown by normal individuals. Pauses and tremors are caused by 
psychic factors. 

BRIGHAM (Princeton 



150 SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

169. STODDART, W. H. B., A Brief Resume of Freud's Psychology. 
/. of Ment. Sci., 1921, 67, 1-8. 

The meaning of the following terms as used by Freud are ex- 
plained, "depression," "complexes," "the unconscious," "the 
conscious," "desire" and "reaction." He speaks of the modes of 
gratifying unconscious wishes and illustrates with examples. He 
emphasizes the importance and significance of dream interpretations. 

Taking up the main items of Freud's psychology he first dis- 
cusses "psychical determinism." He says, "According to the 
Freudian school, every thought, action, memory or psychical event 
of any kind is rigorously determined by the circumstances of the 
moment plus the whole of the individual's previous experience of 
life. There is no such thing as 'chance' in mentation. If you 
forget an appointment, misplace something, say or write the wrong 
word, break some treasure which consciously you value, cut a 
friend or fall downstairs, there are reasons usually unconscious 
for such occurrences." 

The second item of importance in Freud's psychology, according 
to Dr. Stoddart, is his contention that "forgotten infantile desires 
and interests remain permanent throughout the whole of life, and 
that many adult activities owe their energy to primitive infantile 
impulses which lurk hidden behind them." 

The third outstanding feature of this new psychology is the 
important discovery of Freud concerning the affective processes. 
"An emotion or affect arises in association with some particular 
situation, incident or thing: but it appears that it is possible for 
the affect to be divorced from the original situation, incident or 
thing, and to become attached to another somewhat similar situa- 
tion, incident or thing, or even to float free, as it were, for a time, 
waiting for some situation, incident or thing." 

The last item which he discusses is the part of Freud's psychology 
which he states has aroused the liveliest opposition, viz., the im- 
portance he attaches to the sexual instincts as etiological factors 
in the development of the neuroses and psychoses. He says that 
the chief reason for opposition is the fact that the topic of sex is 
taboo. He continues by saying that Freud has concluded that 
"nobody is quite normal sexually; and since very few people would 
be willing to acknowledge any abnormality, sexual matters in 
general become taboo to such a degree that repression achieves the 
force of an inborn instinct." 

He defends the technique of psycho-analysis against the arraign- 



NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS , 151 

ment of Sir Clifford Allbutt, who charges it with being contami- 
nated with militarism and ecclesiasticism by which he implies a 
method of dominating the patient by suggestion and a method of 
relieving his mind by getting him to confess his past misdeeds. 

In conclusion Dr. Stoddart takes up psycho-analysis and its 
relation to the psychoses. His feeling on this matter is that psycho- 
analysis with the psychoses is effective in very few cases and then 
almost entirely in the very early stages of the condition. He 
points out that the great difficulty here lies in the impossibility of 
securing the cooperation of the patient when the mental condition 
is further advanced. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

170. BROWN, W., Criticism of Present-day Psycho-analysis. /. 
Ment. Sci., 1921, 67, 17-26. 

A discussion of the importance of Freud's psycho-analysis from 
the point of view of modern psychology. 

The author differentiates between the Greek philosophers' 
psychology of thought or cognition and the modern psychology of 
emotion and feeling and says that the tendency in modern times is 
to replace the rational by the irrational. 

He gives briefly the historical origin and development of psycho- 
analysis and shows how Freud has turned from the "emotion" 
theory which he and Breuer sponsored back in 1893 and 1895, to 
his present "libido" theory. He points out the great difference 
between Freud's complicated "libido" as a theory and psycho- 
analysis as a method. 

He discusses re-association, psycho-catharsis or abreaction, 
autognosis and suggestion as relatively independent and effective 
factors in psycho-therapy. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 



9. NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

171. HEALY, W., Nervous Signs & Symptoms As Related to Certain 
Causations of Conduct Disorder. Arch, of N enrol. & Psychi- 
atry, 1920, 4, 680-690. 

From the fifteen cases of conduct disorder (principally stealing), 
which Dr. Healy discusses in this paper, he shows that the cause 
of the delinquency is the mental conflict resulting from the associa- 



152 NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

tion between ideas of stealing and repressed ideas of a sexual nature. 
The origin of this association he usually traces to the fact that a 
companion initiated the patient into ideas of sex and stealing at 
approximately the same period. 

These sexual ideas are very unpleasant, and the children re- 
port that they not only make them feel like stealing, but give 
them "queer feelings," such as dizziness, violent headaches and 
sometimes nausea. Dr. Healy also observes in them many nervous 
habits, for example, tics, nail-biting, shivering, sweating, stuttering 
and extreme irritability. These habits, he often finds to be rem- 
iniscent of the patient's behavior during the original experience. 

In most cases where the child has been able to tell to the ex- 
aminer the story of his inner turmoil, the delinquency and nervous- 
ness have disappeared. Dr. Healy estimates from his wide ex- 
perience in the field that 10 per cent, of young delinquents are 
suffering from mental conflict. 

HINCKS (Radcliffe) 

172. POLLOCK, H. M., & FORBUSH, E. M. Patients with Mental 
Disease, Mental Defect, Epilepsy, Alcoholism and Drug 
Addiction in Institutions in the United States, January I, 
1920. Ment. Hyg., 1921, 5, 139-169. 

The above article contains the third census of patients with the 
mental diseases named, made by the National Committee for 
Mental Hygiene. The total number of institutional patients on 
January I, 1920, was 232,680, 8,723 more than in 1918. Of these, 
40,519 were mental defectives, 14,937 epileptics, 1,163 alcoholics 
(not included under other classifications) and 808 drug addicts. 
Figures show that a constantly increasing proportion of the in- 
sane is being cared for in institutions. The rate of mental patients 
per 100,000 of general population increased from 204.2 in 1910 
to 220.2 in 1920. Noteworthy changes in the care of mental diseases 
include the development of United States Public Health Service 
hospitals of which there are six which are devoted specially to 
neuropsychiatric cases; the extension of institutions in the Southern 
States; and the discontinuance of the last four existing hospitals 
for inebriates. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 



NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 153 

173. DRAKE, R. B., An Experiment in Library Work in a Hospital 

for Mental Disease. Ment. Hyg., 1921, 5, 130-138. 
The author describes her work as A. L. A. librarian at the St. 
Elizabeth's Hospital, Washington, D. C., and points out the recrea- 
tive, therapeutic and educational value of a hospital library. While 
her limited experience in hospitals specializing in mental and nervous 
diseases did not warrant conclusions concerning the best type of 
reading material for such patients it is clear that such libraries 
should either be provided with or have access to non-fiction as well 
as fiction. Biographies, vocational works, histories, books on 
foreign languages, art and science were frequently desired. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

174. POLLOCK, H. M., Decline of Alcohol and Drugs as Causes of 

Mental Disease. Ment. Hyg., 1921, 5, 123-129. 
In New York State the per cent, of alcoholic and drug cases 
among first admissions to the civil state hospitals for the insane has 
gradually declined, in general, from 1909 to 1920, but since 1917 the 
decrease has been relatively faster than in the previous years. In 
1909 the per cent, of alcoholic cases was 10.8; in 1917 it was 8.6 
(a rapid gain over the two previous years) but in 1920 it had dropped 
to 1.9. Drug cases have decreased from .5 per cent, in 1909 to 
.2 per cent, in 1920. The annual rate of incidence of mental disease 
has decreased from 69.0 per 100,000 in 1917 to 63.3 in 1920, a figure 
the lowest since 1912 when the rate was 61.5. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

175. VINCHON, J., Anxiete et paludisme. /. de psychol., 1920, 17, 

711-720. 

In the psychiatric service of the French army operating in 
Algeria, the author had an excellent opportunity to observe the 
mental symptoms associated with malarial fever. Other writers in 
describing these symptoms have attached more importance to the 
condition of mental confusion than to anxiety states. Anxiety may 
exist independently, although it is more often associated with con- 
fusion. The anxiety itself in severe cases causes the mental con- 
fusion. The clinical picture is marked by labored breathing, 
tremors, vertigo, extreme motor incoordination, fear of death, etc. 
The delirium is impoverished, being circumscribed by the con- 
ditions of military life. The reactions are violent, the patients 
frequently being suicidal and hostile toward the attendants. Severe 



154 NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

disorders are preceded by a period of uneasiness, and after the 
fever has subsided the patients are frequently nervous and restless. 
The author recognizes the importance of certain predisposing causes 
such as the severity of the climate, fatigue due to lack of sleep, 
faulty diet, infections, etc., and certain psychogenic factors such 
as length of exile from civilization, scarcity of leaves, the irregu- 
larity of the mail service, the hostility of the native population, etc., 
but is inclined to attach more importance to certain organic dis- 
turbances of the liver, spleen, and, secondarily, of the heart. He 
finds the hypothesis of the malfunctioning of the visceral reflexes 
more satisfactory than Lange's hypothesis of peripheral vaso- 
motor disturbances, although he admits that little is known con- 
cerning the physiology of these processes. 

BRIGHAM (Princeton) 

176. FERNALD, W. E., An Out-Patient Clinic in Connection with a 
State Institution for the Feebleminded. Amer. J. of In- 
sanity, 1920, 77, 227-235. 

This is a report on the writer's experiences with an out-patient 
clinic established in 1891 for the purpose of giving expert advice 
on juvenile mental and personality problems. Over 6000 patients 
have been referred. In 1919 advice was given concerning 377 
patients, whose chronological ages were as follows: Under I year, i; 
1-2 years, 14; 3-4 years, 29; 5-9 years, 83; 10-14 years, 105; 15- 
19 years, 65; 20-24 years, 23 25 years and over, 19; Not stated, 38. 

A thorough examination is given by a group composed of a 
psychiatrist, teacher, psychologist, and social worker, and the 
results are grouped under various headings. The chief of the clinic 
then independently examines the patient before he has read the 
findings of the others. After diagnosis each case is reviewed by 
the whole staff. The diagnosis for the 377 cases in 1919 varied con- 
siderably. Some of the primary groupings were as follows: Feeble- 
minded, 93; Feebleminded and delinquent, 101; Inferior normal, 
maladjusted, or with character defect, 14; Normally-minded, 
maladjusted, 19; Normally-minded, delinquent, 9; Psychotic, 20; 
Developing psychosis, 8; Psychopathic, 6; Epileptic, 7. 

The advice given varies from institution care, to home care, 
special class, private school or teacher, change of school or teacher, 
travel, treat as delinquent, go to work, modify home environment, 
etc. Especially is it stressed that the patient is capable of only 
partial efficiency in any field. Institutional care for the feeble- 



NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 1 55 

minded is often supplemented by a change in environmental con- 
ditions. A special public school clinic, informal and sympathetic, 
should be established and boys and girls encouraged to talk over 
their problems of adjustment and adaptation, but it should have 
no connotation of the diagnosis of actual mental disease or defect. 

COOK (Taunton) 

177. READ, C. S., Homosexuality. /. Ment. So., 1921, 67, 8-12. 
Homosexuality has been regarded as a disgusting perversion 

which merits no further interest or investigation. The author 
states that this disgust and revolt is explained by Freud as due in 
great part to the existence in the ordinary mind of a homosexual 
component of the sex instinct, which finds indirect expression 
in the condemnation of homosexuality in others. 

He differentiates the passive homosexual from the active type 
and says that the psycho-analytic theory is that homosexuals are 
only more strongly fixed than other people in the narcissistic or 
self-love stage. 

He speaks of the work of Freud, Ferenczi, Jung, Bleuler and 
Maeder in tracing the connection between paranoia and latent 
homosexuality. He states that during the late war paranoid 
states were very common among the mental disorders manifested. 
He has put forward the etiological hypothesis that the herding of 
vast numbers of men together may have aroused a latent homo- 
sexuality in many. 

The intimate relation existing between alcohol and the paranoid 
states is patent to every psychiatrist. Alcoholism is not really the 
basic cause of a paranoiac state, but in the insoluble conflict be- 
tween a conscious heterosexual and a repressed unconscious homo- 
sexual desire the individual flies to alcohol as a refuge. Observant 
psychiatrists, says Dr. Stanford, must have been struck by the 
common sexual contents of the hallucinations in paranoiacs and 
those of so-called alcoholic hallucinosis. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

178. REES-THOMAS, W., Sadism and Masochism. /. Ment. So., 

1921, 67, 12-17. 

The author gives definitions and numerous illustrations of 
sadism and masochism. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 



156 INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

179. BAYNES, H. G., Psycho-analysis and the Psychoses. /. Ment. 

ScL, 1921, 67, 27-33. 

The author defends a classification of the psychoses as primarily 
functional. He upholds his position by stating that prolonged dis- 
turbances of function may produce the structural changes observed 
post-mortem in many of the psychoses. 

He discusses Jung's "collective unconscious" and says that there 
is no essential difference between the phantasy-world of the insane 
and the dream-world of the normal person. 

He states that as yet the knowledge of the unconscious element 
is so fragmentary that the analyst in attempting a cure may plunge 
his patient deeper into his psychosis and destroy his tenuous hold 
upon reality. He pleads for a sympathetic comprehension of the 
task of the analyst. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

1 80. ROBINSON, W., Future of Service Patients in Mental Hospitals. 

/. Ment. Sci., 1921, 67, 40-48. 

The author discusses the etiology, types of mental alienation, 
and prognosis in 140 service patients under detention in a certain 
mental hospital, and concludes that the outlook with regard to 
recovery and ultimate discharge from mental hospitals of the greater 
majority of the patients included in the service class can only be 
regarded as extremely bad. He states that the public is disposed to 
regard the service patient as one who is curable and ought to be 
cured, therefore the statement that cases are incurable is likely to 
lead to accusations of pre-judgment and unwillingness to resort to 
recently advocated methods of treatment when old ones are in- 
effective. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 



10. INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

181. DEVLIN, F. E., Occupational Therapy In a Mental Hospital. 

Canadian J . of Ment. Hygiene, 1920, 2, 219-227. 
The gratifying results obtained through the effects of Occupa- 
tional Therapy in the treatment of the soldiers suffering from the 
horrors and hardships of war have acted as a great stimulus to 
all those immediately interested in the problem of mental disease to 
apply this form of treatment at least as a partial solution of its 
many difficulties. 



INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 157 

To give practical bearing to his remarks, Dr. F. E. Devlin, 
Medical Superintendent, St. Jean de Dieu Hospital, Montreal, 
suggests as a tentative program of Occupational Therapy for the 
Insane: 

1. The training of a certain number of nurses, religious or lay, 
in each hospital for the insane to be known as nursing therapists, 
under the direction of one of their number to be known as Chief 
Therapist. 

2. That their entire time and energy be given to this problem 
under the direction and in conference with the medical superin- 
tendent and his staff. 

3. The creation of an index-card system of Occupational Therapy 
for every patient which will note the effects and progress, or other- 
wise, in each individual case. 

4. The training of patients in groups of twenty, to which each 
patient will be assigned as soon as any special treatment he may 
require is finished. This group treatment being necessary to de- 
velop social tendencies. 

Such a system, or one of similar character worked out in detail, 
should be adopted if one would accurately collect, note, and record 
all the facts and data necessary for the evolution of this branch in 
the treatment of the insane. 

"In conclusion, I am of the opinion that the time has arrived 
when we should endeavor to seek out the good effects of Occupa- 
tional Therapy and apply them not alone in our demented cases but 
as far as possible to all stages of mental disease. Its results may 
prove of incalculable benefit to our patients and of joy to their 
families. To the State the great saving in the cost of their main- 
tenance, in preventing or uprooting habit disorganization, in the 
creation of much by their labor, that is also useful to themselves, 
in the enormously increased number of cases fit for parole and that 
for considerable periods of time and last but not least, the greater 
probability of the restoration to health, mental and physical, of 
many of these persons who will thus be enabled to lead lives of 
usefulness to themselves and to society." 

GALLAGHER (Pennsylvania) 

182. CLARKE, C. K., Juvenile Delinquency and Mental Defect. 

Canadian J. of Ment. Hygiene, 1920, 2, 228-232. 
In order to trace the connection between mental defect, juvenile 
delinquency, and industrial incompetence, a careful survey of 



158 INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

conditions surrounding these problems is being carried on by the 
Canadian National Committee for Mental Hygiene, as it is felt 
that by studying the life histories of the individuals involved great 
light may be thrown on several problems which are by no means 
clearly understood at the present moment. 

The Juvenile Court in Toronto has furnished the clinic with 
1,419 delinquents in a short period, and as practically all these 
children were of school age, it is at once realized that there is a serious 
failure in Public School methods. Dr. C. K. Clarke, Medical 
Director, Canadian National Committee for Mental Hygiene, be- 
lieves that with the installation of special classes, where the weak- 
lings may be interested along lines that appeal to them, truancy 
will practically disappear. 

Theft was the most common charge against the juvenile delin- 
quents brought before Dr. Clarke for examination. He holds that 
the early detection of the mental defect and careful development in 
special classes or in a Boys' Village would have prevented these 
children from becoming anti-social and incorrigible. 

It was found out in the investigation that bad environment 
undoubtedly plays an important role in the production of juvenile 
delinquents. 

This is an outline of a few of the things found out in Dr. Clarke's 
clinic "things which prove beyond argument that if we are to 
secure the lessening of vice, we must begin our work by a careful 
study of the individual in schools with the idea of controlling and 
treating the defective and diseased at the earliest moment possible." 

GALLAGHER (Pennsylvania) 

183. MUNDIE, G. S., The Role of The Psychiatric Clinic in the 
Community. Canadian J. of Ment. Hygiene, 1920, 2, 237- 

245- 

In the field of preventive medicine, during the last few years, 
the Psychiatric Outdoor Clinic has taken an important place. As 
a result of the knowledge that the proper approach to the solution of 
the problems relating to general medicine, criminality, delinquency, 
venereal diseases, prostitution, illigitemacy is through the correc- 
tion of the abnormal mental make-up, mental or psychiatric out- 
door clinics have been established in connection with the general 
hospital, or as separate units in many cities of the United States and 
Canada. 

Dr. Gordon S. Mundie, Associate in Neurology, Royal Vic- 



INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 159 

toria Hospital, Montreal; Lecturer in Psychiatry, McGill Uni- 
versity; Associate Medical Director, Canadian National Com- 
mittee for Mental Hygiene, discusses the role of the psychiatric 
clinic in the community in its relations to eight different agencies: 

1. Relation to the General Hospital. 

2. Relation to the General Practitioner. 

3. Relation to the Provincial Asylums. 

4. Relation to the Public Schools. 

5. Relation to the Courts. 

6. Relation to the Charitable organizations in the community. 

7. Relation to the General Public. 

8. Relation to the Social Worker. 

Dr. Mundie draws the conclusions that the community, until 
recently, has laid too much stress on the physical disease. We must 
pay more attention to the mental side of our people, in order to make 
our country a bigger and better country to live in. In this regard 
the work of the psychiatric clinic is valuable. Its purpose is to 
prevent and preserve the mental health of persons, to diagnose and 
estimate the number of feeble minded and mentally abnormal 
persons in the community, and lastly to try and solve the problem 
of those persons who physically well, are not feeble-minded or 
insane, but are misfits in the community. 

GALLAGHER (Pennsylvania) 

184. DOHERTY, C. E., The Care of the Mentally Defective. Cana- 
dian J . of Ment. Hygiene, 1920, 2, 207-218. 

Dr. Charles E. Doherty, Medical Superintendent of Hospitals 
for Insane, British Columbia, in his article on "The Care of the 
Mentally Defective," outlines the program for dealing with the 
mentally defective that has been entered upon by nearly every 
province in the Dominion of Canada and nearly every state in the 
Union to "our South." Laudable steps have been taken in that 
the matter has been studied thoroughly, with the result that the 
following definite recommendations concerning the feeble minded 
have been made: 

i. Facilities for Diagnosis. Arrangements should be made 
for the diagnosis of the mental status of school children, juvenile 
and adult delinquents, prostitutes, and unmarried mothers. This 
work could best be carried out through the agency of mental clinics. 
Particular reference is made to how the work can best be carried on 
in the Province. 



l6o INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

2. Facilities for Training. There is an urgent need for the 
establishment of a Training School for Mental Defectives in British 
Columbia because the present survey has demonstrated that there 
are a large number of feeble-minded in the Province requiring pro- 
longed treatment in such an institution. The type of training 
school suggested is along the lines of the institution at Waverly, 
Mass., where provision is made for the segregation of defectives 
according to sex, intellectual development and behavior. 

3. Extension of Special Classes. The advisability of pro- 
viding more special classes for the backward and defectives in the 
schools of the Province cannot be too strongly urged. The pro- 
vision of these classes would materially diminish the number of 
feeble-minded who would otherwise require prolonged institutional 
care. 

As a result of this report, the Government has made a definite 
start; necessary legislation has been enacted; a bill, "An Act to 
Establish a Subnormal Boys' School," has passed this session of the 
Legislature, under which the very vital question of the mental 
defective of the Province will be dealt with along proper lines. 

Dr. Doherty appeals: "Gentlemen, a conclusion I cannot help 
reaching is that the problem is not as large as it is sometimes made 
out to be, and that great progress can be made in the Province 
along lines that are reasonable and not too costly . . . Gentlemen, 
it is not so much a question of whether or not a system of super- 
vision of the feeble-minded will be simple or cheap. It is a fact 
that we are going to begin to do this thing which has to be done 
before we can get any farther with the problem of feeble-mindedness, 
the only question being how long we are going to flatter ourselves 
that the money for ungraded classes is well spent, which super- 
vision ceases when the greatest need for it begins. There is no 
use training children for the scrap-heap. If supervision is too 
expensive then, Gentlemen, ungraded classes are rank extrav- 
agance." 

GALLAGHER (Pennsylvania) 

185. HALL, G. S., Psychology and Industry. Fed. Sem., 1920, 

27, 281-293. 

Emphasis is put upon the importance in the present industrial 
situation of the human needs for nutrition, sex, self-advancement, 
curiosity, determination of individual aptitudes, and gregarious 
life. 

DASHIELL (North Carolina) 



INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY l6l 

1 86. ADLER, H. M., The Criminologist and the Courts. /. of 

Crim. Law and Criminal., 1920, n, 419-425. 
Paranoid or egocentric personalities, defective delinquents, and 
psychopathic criminals have proved of unusual importance in 
criminological study. Paranoid personalities, who are often in- 
tellectually superior, are selfish, treacherous, cruel and markedly, 
egocentric. Nevertheless they are able to realize the viewpoint of 
others, and are given to elaborate promises of improvement, with 
which their subsequent conduct does not correspond. There is 
little real improvement in these cases, and "the only thing that 
can be hoped for is an adjustment to the environment which will 
enable the individual to avoid trouble in spite of his personality." 
By the term "defective delinquent" is meant a class of individuals 
who show both mental defectiveness and consistently bad be- 
havior. Since the problem is one of behavior primarily, however, 
some psychopathic and psychotic individuals, and some individuals 
who are not feebleminded are grouped with the defective delin- 
quents. Under "psychopathic personality" is included the liar, 
swindler, the individual who is markedly eccentric or impulsive, 
and many other types who are not feebleminded, insane or epileptic. 
Recommendations are made as follows: (i) criminals and delin- 
quents, as state wards, should be under the direction of trained 
criminologists; (2) duration of treatment should depend on "prog- 
ress towards normality;" (3) criminals, feebleminded and insane 
should be legally minors until they prove themselves capable of 
managing their own affairs. 

GAW (Boston Psychopathic Hospital) 

187. FERNALD, G. G., Character versus Intelligence in Personality 

Studies. /. of Abnor. Psycho!., 1920, 25, i-io. 
"It is herein attempted to indicate that personality studies 
should recognize character as an integral field of inquiry; since an 
evaluation of personality based on investigation of intelligence only 
or of intelligence plus such consideration of characterial traits as is 
incidental thereto is incomplete and misleading." Morton Prince 
classifies personality as the sum total of all the biological innate and 
acquired dispositions and character (included in personality) is the 
sum total of the predominating tendencies or dispositions both innate 
and acquired. Those dispositions which are predominant tend to 
determine the modes of thought and they characterize the quality 
of the intelligence rather than the degree of intelligence. Character 



162 INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

is the resultant of the dominating acquired dispositions of the in- 
dividual and is manifested in his intellectual traits. But both the 
innate and the acquired traits become organized by experience into 
a functioning whole. The study of personality resolves itself into 
a study of behavior, for only by behavior can we recognize the 
dispositions and other traits of a person. From the point of view 
of behavior, character comprises the characteristic modes of the 
reactions of an individual to the environment under given con- 
ditions. Intelligence and character are inextricably blended and 
interdependent in each person, though the manifestations of in- 
telligence (thought) are distinct from the manifestations of char- 
acter (behavior). Intelligence tests which neglect an investiga- 
tion of behavior may fail to demonstrate not only character, but 
fail of a complete demonstration of intelligence since its quality is 
omitted. Personality is other and more than the part of mentality 
which can be expressed in terms of mental age level. Character 
traits should be recognized as such and not regarded as parts of 
mentality. Functionally, the capacity for thinking is related to 
the degree of intelligence rather than to character, whereas quality 
of thinking or behavior is related to character rather than intelli- 
gence as is shown by the fact that the responsibility for behavior is 
referred not to the degree of intelligence, but to the extent of know- 
ing right and wrong. Ill-chosen behavior not ill-chosen thinking 
is what is punished. Character develops far beyond the close 
of the formative period of the normal intellectual development and 
its modifications continue to be reflected in behavior after in- 
tellectual development ceases. In the early formative period in- 
telligence progresses faster than character, but in the latter period 
character progresses faster than intelligence. Adolescents are 
not considered responsible because their character has not yet 
formed, but adults are considered responsible unless their in- 
tellect is defective. All personality studies undertaken to deter- 
mine the responsibility and method of behavior modifications are 
more concerned with character and its deviations, than with in- 
telligence and its measurement of efficiency. The only way to 
restore psychopathic or parasitic individuals to usefulness, is through 
the modifications of behavior and behavior may be modified most 
effectively by educating, redirecting, and fortifying the character 
while plasticity remains. 

JONES (Radcliffe) 



INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 163 

1 88. GODDARD, H. H., In the Light of Recent Developments: 
What Should be our Policy in Dealing with the Delinquents 
Juvenile and Adults. /. of Crim. Law and Criminol., 
1920, u, 426-432. 

The idea that the treatment of the offender should be for pur- 
poses of reforming him seems not only impracticable but also im- 
possible, in view of the fact that many criminals are of weak men- 
tality and consequently unable to correct such criminal habits 
as may have been formed. Among such offenders, must be con- 
sidered first the feeble-minded, who because of low mentality are 
not fully responsible for the crimes they commit. It is apparent 
that the chances of reforming them are small. There is also in 
the criminal group a large per cent, of the so-called psychopathic 
personalities individuals showing abnormal functioning of mind 
together with consistently bad behavior. Whatever his intelligence 
level such an individual cannot be considered responsible as his 
mind is diseased. So far as reformability is concerned, there is 
again serious question. No doubt some may recover from diseased 
condition. Others remain the same, and still others deteriorate 
into some form of insanity. 

Assuming then that many criminals are both irresponsible and 
unreformable, what should be our policy in treatment? We have 
become accustomed to the idea that the feeble-minded should be 
segregated. Should the same policy be followed in the case of the 
psychopathic personalities who, although they constitute as large 
a group as the feeble-minded, differ from them in that they may be 
of normal or even superior mental level? If segregation be the 
policy, then there is the problem of supplying necessary institu- 
tions. Should they be sentenced for a time to an institution and 
then be allowed at large? If we do not know of a certainty that 
the diseased condition has been cured there will be but a repetition 
of the crimes for which the individual was originally sentenced. 
In the case of capital offenses, should capital punishment be given? 
So far as the criminal is concerned, the electric chair might be the 
kindest treatment, but to what extent should family and relatives 
(of the criminal) be considered? As a deterrent from crime, capital 
punishment is no doubt of value. 

"Is it possible in view of all the facts that the wisest policy is 
to have a thorough examination into the question of responsibility, 
to segregate and control the feeble-minded and psychopathic 
offenders, but upon those who are not clearly irresponsible to visit 
the severest penalty?" 

LOWDEN (Boston Psychopathic Hospital) 



1 64 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

ii. MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

189. MADSEN, I. N., The Army Intelligence Test as a Means of 

Prognosis in High School. Sch. & Soc., 1920, II, 625-627. 
Application of the Alpha test to pupils in three Omaha high 
schools shows that the schools rank in the same order as the per- 
centage of American-born parents. Sex differences appear in all 
three schools, to the advantage of the boys, though this may be due 
to the test being primarily a "man's test." The girls, however, 
had better grades, their advantage being largest in Freshman year, 
and gradually vanishing. Correlations of intelligence with grades 
for the four years of high school (in the South Omaha High School) 

are: 

Freshman year 20 

Sophomore " 48 

Junior " 37 

Senior " 24 

Comparing the upper quartile with the lower quartile in the 
South Omaha High School on the basis of subjects chosen, "there 
appears to be a marked tendency for the superior group to select 
the subjects usually considered 'hard' and for the inferior group to 
select vocational or pre-vocational subjects . . . Intelligence test- 
ing points a practical way of vocational guidance and prognosis in 
high school. This belief is confirmed ... by a close study of 
individual cases." 

MURPHY (Boston Psychopathic) - 

190. MAY, M. A., Standardized Examinations in Psychology and 

Logic. Sch. & Soc., 1920, II, 533-540. 

The standardization of examinations, already applied success- 
fully to many school subjects, can advantageously be applied to 
college subjects. Excerpts from examinations in Psychology and 
Logic at Syracuse are offered. The structure of these examinations 
is the same as that of the ordinary intelligence tests. The pre- 
liminary forms were made by substituting subject-matter from 
Psychology and Logic in some of the tests of the army alpha and 
Otis tests. In the Psychology examination the tests were: Prac- 
tical Judgment (question with three answers), True and False 
Statements, Information, Analogies, and Similarities. These 
five were also used for the Logic examination, plus four others 
made to fit the subject-matter of Logic. The Thurstone rotation 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 165 

method of presentation was used. All pupils started together; the 
times recorded for the Psychology examination ranged from 18 
to 100 minutes, for 150 items. All were allowed to finish, but 
pupils knew that credit was to be given for short time. In scoring, 
the formula S = R -f- KT was used, R being the number right, K 
a constant, and T the time. K was so chosen as to give maximum 
correlation with instructors' estimates; this gave a value of minus i. 
The formula becomes S = R T (in minutes). The correlation 
thus obtained is plus .62. Using army alpha instead of instructors* 
estimates, the same formula still gives the highest obtainable corre- 
lation with S, namely plus .52. P.E's were not computed, but over 
200 students were scored, so that results are fairly reliable. The 
optimum formula for correlating scores with old fashioned ex- 
aminations consisting of general questions is S = R .6 T. t which 
gives a correlation of plus .75. The assumption of linear relation- 
ship seems justified for practical purposes, the regression line being 
fairly straight. To translate scores into college grades, the median 
score is arbitrarily set at a given value, and the variations from the 
median are spread over the grade scale so that the percentage of 
pupils reaching a certain grade, or falling below a certain grade, is 
the percentage ordinarily found in grade distribution. The median 
chosen, and the percentage falling within certain grade groups de- 
pend simply on the figures actually found in current grading. As 
soon as 1000 pupils have been so tested at Syracuse, the writer will 
construct standard tables which will render separate computation 
of medians and distributions for each class unnecessary. 

This method has the following advantages: (i) it saves time; 
(2) it is free from subjective errors in scoring; (3) it is coach-proof; 
(4) it involves more recognition than recall; (5) it tests general as 
well as specific knowledge; (6) it serves to mark off clearly the ques- 
tions failed by many pupils, and the correct answers are driven home 
when these questions are brought up for discussion later; (7) to a 
limited degree it tests general intelligence. The method needs 
further study, and the writer intends to continue its use in psychol- 
ogy with a view to perfecting it. 

MURPHY (Boston Psychopathic) 

191. HELLER, W. S., Analysis of Package Labels. Univ. of Calif. 

Pub. in Psychol., 1919, 3, pp. 72. 

The material consisted of twelve brands of canned peaches put 
up in 2]/2 lb. tins. The subjects for the experiment were shown the 



166 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

12 cans bearing their labels and asked to make an arrangement 
according to preference. The same subjects were also to arrange 
the contents of the cans, the peaches and juice being placed in 
saucers, by appearance only, without tasting. In this latter pro- 
cedure there is marked difference in appearance between the various 
qualities and the observers unfamiliar with the material could not be 
deceived, as was not the case with the labels. When the product 
is graded according to labels the correlation with the actual qualities 
is .48, showing some relationship between label and contents but 
much less than in judgment of the fruit itself. The range of posi- 
tion value in the women is a little greater than in the men, the former 
being more alike or more positive in their selection. There is 
however high correlation in the results from the two sexes. At- 
tempt is made to analyze certain factors in the judgment namely, 
familiarity, color scheme, simplicity, richness, appropriateness, 
pleasingness. The intercorrelations of judgments according to 
these factors are all quite high. It is suggested that either these 
incentives are not wholly exhaustive of uncontrolled judgment, 
or that uncontrolled judgment may rest upon some single incentive. 
In a third portion of the experiment, price was made the principal 
factor. The observer was given to understand that he had $1.20 to 
spend in purchasing one of the four brands of canned peaches shown 
him. Each in turn was assigned a value of 30 cents, 20 cents, 15 
cents or 10 cents. All possible combinations were presented to 
the subjects an equal number of times, no subject having more 
than one arrangement. There appears more demand for a poor 
brand at 30 and 20 cents than at lower figures, showing that raising 
the price tends to increase the demand for a very poor brand as 
well as for other brands. In monetary return the highest price 
seems to be preferable. There are not quite so many actual sales 
but the total returns are greater. It is concluded that other con- 
ditions being equal more subjects at the time of the experiment will 
pay 20 cents than 30, 15 or 10 cents; all brands sell better at 20 
cents. The familiar brand has more sales at higher prices than an 
unknown brand that is in fact of superior quality. As price is 
increased until it becomes exorbitant the number of sales does not 
decrease in proportion so that returns to a dealer at higher prices 
are greater than at a moderate price. 

MURPHY (Boston Psychopathic) 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 167 

192. CODY, S., Enlarging the Scope of Mental Measurement. 
/. Phil., PsychoL, etc., 1920, 17, 572-579. 

While not a psychologist, the writer sees possibilities for prac- 
tical measuring devices; general intelligence being a fiction, should 
not engage the attention of the applied psychologist. Attention 
is called to tests devised by the writer; results obtained by their 
use are cited as their recommendation. The Army Tests have their 
value but we need instead of general, individual mental measure- 
ment. 

GARTH (Texas) 

193. WELLS, W. R., Natural Checks on Human Progress. Monist, 

1921, 31, 121-132. 

Evolutionary optimism in social theory is unscientific in its 
neglect of the intrinsic limitations of human nature, as well as 
those due to the environment. Extensive social progress is possible 
in certain directions, but definite limitations exist, viz: (i) "The 
failure of civilization to maintain itself through hereditary trans- 
mission," necessitating recapitulatory education, (2) The persistence 
of primitive traits and instincts incapable of complete sublimation 
into social and moral values, and (3) The indifference of an inanimate 
impersonal Nature. 

DISERENS (Cincinnati) 

194. GREGORY, J. C., The Conception of Thought as a Cyclic 

Process. Monist, 1920, 30, 503-520. 

The observable cycles of nature suggest that the universe, as a 
whole, is but one vast cyclic process. This conception itself ap- 
pears to be of cyclic recurrence, alternating with the theory of 
irreversible linear evolution which characterizes modern biology. 
Cyclic recurrence in human thought is seemingly illustrated by 
certain modern spiritualists, mystic poets and Neo-realists, who 
have returned in various ways to the old Greek view of the com- 
munity of nature between thoughts and things. Nevertheless the 
mental life of individual, group or race rightly impresses us as ir- 
reversible, although partial repetitions occur as a result of perma- 
nent habits of thought. 

DISERENS (Cincinnati) 



168 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

195. MYERS, G. C., Intelligence of Troops Infected with Hook- 

worm vs. Those not Infected. Fed. Sem., 1920, 27, 211-242. 
6,639 troops having hookworm were paired with an equal number 
of cases with home addresses from the same counties respectively. 
612 cases in each group were colored. The groups (of whites) 
were subdivided into those troops coming from heavy (heavily 
infected) territory and those from light territory. The intelligence 
ratings of all were compared in terms of grades A, B, C, etc., in 
the Alpha, Beta, and Common scales. By comparing the number 
within each of the groups (all white, white from heavy territory, 
white from light territory, and colored) falling into each of the 
letter ratings, it appears that the intelligence of hookworm troops is 
lower than that of the non-hookworm troops. Comparisons of 
chronological age and of years of schooling show the hookworm 
troops to be younger and with less schooling. All these differences 
are greater for white troops from light territory than for those from 
heavy territory, and greater for white than for colored. By com- 
paring average scores of successive 10 per cent, steps from highest 
to lowest in each group, it appears that the lower the intelligence 
scale, the less the relative inferiority of the hookworm troops. 
Alternative interpretations of the correlations between mental 
inferiority, limited schooling, and age, on the one hand, and hook- 
worm infection, on the other, are admitted; but the social menace 
of the disease remains the same. Critical evaluations are made of 
the earlier work by Strong, Kelly, Waite, and Kofoid and Pittenger. 

DASHIELL (North Carolina) 

196. PAYNE, A. F., The Scientific Selection of Men. Sa. Monthly, 

1920, ii, 544-547. 

DASHIELL (North Carolina) 

197. SCHIOTZ, C., The Development of Children Between the 

Ages of Two and Six Years. Ped. Sem., 1920, 27, 371- 
397. (Translation of article in Norsk Magasin for Laegevi- 
denskaben, May, 1920.) 

Data collected on 264 boys and 249 girls, ages 2 to 6^ in Kristi- 
ania, yield results on height and weight comparable with other re- 
ports. The method of measuring in terms of absolute units is 
criticized in favor of two others: that of expressing "growth- 
energy" as a per cent, ratio between increase during a given period 
and amount originally attained; and that of showing per cent. 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 169 

ratio of growth during a given year to total amount of growth from 
newborn to fullgrown. Two expressions of the weight-height 
relation are suggested, the "space-index" of Rohrer and the "pon- 
deral index" of Livi. Some practical suggestions follow. 

DASHIELL (North Carolina) 

198. EDMONDSON, M. B., A Mental Survey of First Grade School 

Pupils. Ped. Sem., 1920, 27, 354-370. 

183 first grade pupils of Eugene, Oregon, were given the Stanford 
Revision examination, with results including the following: dis- 
tribution of I.Q's was normal; variation was apparently as great 
as at other ages; variation was greater in mental than in chronologi- 
cal age, the former being distributed over seven years; the average 
I.Q. for girls exceeded that for boys by 3.4 points; retardation was 
found to be a definite factor even in the first grade. 

DASHIELL (North Carolina) 

199. AFFLECK, G. B., A Minimum Set of Tentative Physical Stand- 

ards for Children of School Age. Ped. Sem., 1920, 27, 324- 

353- 

Chronological age as a basis for grading of children should 
be supplemented not only by mental age but also by physical 
development. Tables of age norms from many sources are here 
assembled, showing central tendencies, and in most cases, normal 
limits of variability. Traits covered are: height, weight, weight- 
height ratio, teeth eruptions, motor development (tapping), lung 
capacity, forearm strength, and pubescence. 

DASHIELL (North Carolina) 

200. BURNHAM, W. H., Metabolism in Childhood. Ped. Sem., 

1920, 27, 303-323- 

The theory that the greater metabolism in the young is due 
to the relatively greater skin (heat radiating) surface of the body 
is rejected. More adequate explanatory factors are: the process 
of growing; the relatively greater ratio of protoplasm to metaplasm; 
the relatively larger skin surface as involving more numerous blood 
vessels and muscle fibers; shorter reflex arcs producing more rapid 
organic reactions; and greater muscle tonus and intensity of motor 
responses. Additional possible factors are: the amount of surface on 
internal organs; greater amount of voluntary activity; and greater 
intensity of emotional responses. 

DASHIELL (North Carolina) 



1 70 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

201. UHRBROCK, R. S., The Retarded Girl in the Fifth Grade. 

Sch. y Soc., 1920, 12, 563-564. 

This study was made in the General George A. McCall School, 
Philadelphia. A survey was made of the girls in the 5th grade 
classes and 36 who were over age for the grade were selected for 
study. All of the girls were tested by the Stanford Revision of the 
Binet-Simon Scale, and the Healy Form Board, Knox Cube, Feature 
Profile, and Manikin were used in some cases. The chronological 
ages ranged from twelve years and six months to sixteen years, the 
mental ages ranged from eight years and eight months to fourteen 
years. The average retardation was three years and eleven months, 
and the extent of retardation varied from one year and seven months 
to six years and three months. An individual case is reviewed as 
an example of the need for psychological examinations which show 
the differences between the feebleminded and those malingerers who 
do not want to work at school though they are perfectly capable of so 
doing. The writer suggests that before a child is allowed to re- 
peat a grade he should be carefully examined by a social worker and 
by a psychologist in order to ascertain whether it would not be 
more profitable to put him at work at some mechanical trade where 
only simple motor habits are required rather than allowing him to 
continue in work for which he is not adapted. This would prevent 
him from drifting from job to job after he left school. 

JONES (Radcliffe) 

202. YATES, D. H., A Study of Twenty High School Seniors of 

Superior Intelligence. /. of Educ. Psychol., 1920, n, 264- 

274. 

The aim of this investigation was to study a group of high school 
seniors of superior intelligence. The Otis group test (Oakland 
edition) was given to five hundred and forty-three high school 
seniors of Oakland, California. The twenty pupils who scored 
the highest were selected for study. For comparison, another 
group of twenty, whose score lay at, or next to, the median score, 
was chosen. School records, teachers' estimate of the pupils' 
intelligence, were recorded. Visits were made to the homes of the 
twenty superior seniors where information as to the family and 
personal history was secured. A questionnaire dealing with their 
interests was filled out by the forty students. The mental test 
ratings of the superior group ranged 165-149 (possible score 172). 
The median for all the seniors was 118. There were 14 boys and 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN I?! 

6 girls in the superior group and the girls were noticeably below the 
boys, both in the small superior group and in the senior class as a 
whole. The writer thinks this is due to the fact that the girls are 
more nervous in tests than the boys are. Comparisons were made 
of the high school marks with the mental test ratings. With I 
counting as highest and 5 as lowest, it was found that 75 per cent, 
of the superior group had scholarship records at or above 2 while 
only 50 per cent, of the median group are similarly graded. The 
home conditions of the superior group were unusually satisfactory; 
good, sensible, "American" homes. In conclusion, this study 
tends to show that: (i) Mentally superior high school pupils come 
from homes where conditions are favorable to right development. 

(2) They are generally precocious physically as well as mentally. 

(3) They are not below the average in general health. (4) They 
have less paid employment outside the home than their fellows, 
and spend more time in reading. (5) They have more intellectual 
interests, and seem to be somewhat better leaders and organizers 
than average young people. (6) Pupils of superior and average 
intelligence have very similar vocational aims. 

JONES (Radcliffe) 

203. DOEBLIN, M. I., Recreation versus Delinquency. Sch. & 

Soc., 1920, 12, 478-487. 

As leisure time increases, the problem of pleasure becomes more 
poignant (sic) with possibilities of evil and it is the duty of good 
citizens to provide proper play activities for the community in 
order that these evils may be averted and that this extra time may 
be turned into good channels. "The only real difference between 
work and play is the spirit in which it is done. In play, the com- 
petitive spirit is social; in work, when this spirit enters, it is fre- 
quently anti-social. ... It is in play that a child forms many 
of his habits, it is through play that he interprets most of his later 
acquisitions." Social conscience can be more readily awakened 
through recreational periods than through work. Therefore, it is 
important that recreation should be provided in a beneficial way. 
The recreational center should be the community center where chil- 
dren and adults are welcomed at any time and where playgrounds, 
movies, community plays, and socials are provided by the com- 
munity. There should be a periodical recreational survey of every 
community to learn the available facilities for the play of the 
people and the supplying of those facilities which are lacking. 



172 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

Recreation must be provided for the whole year by some existing 
city body, for there is bound to be a recreational center and the 
city should see that the bad centers are replaced by good centers, 
led by able and good leaders. The proper supervision of the play 
activities of children is a distinct aid in preventing delinquency, 
for it directs their energies into a normal direction. The problem 
of crime cannot be met by laws. For example, the usual result of 
the Sunday laws is a special day for carrying out mischief and law- 
breaking; the play motive is wrongly directed. The way to meet 
the problem of delinquency is to provide proper facilities for normal 
recreational activities. 

JONES (Radcliffe) 

204. LINCOLN, E. A., The Effects of Native Intelligence upon Scores 

in Standard Tests. Sch. 5? Soc., 1920, 12, 441-444. 
"It is the purpose of this study to present some evidence against 
a theory which has long prevailed in the field of educational meas- 
urement. It has been the practise of those who have reported the 
results of standard tests given in the ^course of school surveys to 
consider, when classes, schools, and school systems have been com- 
pared, that no allowance need be made for differences in nature 
abilities of the pupils taking the tests." The first striking proof 
of the fact that significant differences do exist in the native intelli- 
gence of various communities appeared when mental examinations 
were used on a large scale in the army. It is quite probable, then, 
that if such differences exist among adults they will exist among 
children also. The present study gives the results of a survey in 
which Intelligence Tests and Standard Tests were given, and it 
shows how the results of the latter were probably affected by the 
native abilities of the different classes. These tests were given in a 
Massachusetts town which is supposed to have an excellent school 
system. Two groups of classes were considered. The first group 
was made up of two fifth, three sixth, and four seventh grades in 
five different schools. The second group was composed of four 
classes of the eighth grade in the Junior High School, the pupils 
grouped according to the quality of work they had done in the past. 
The following Standard Tests were given to both groups: Courtis 
Arithmetic (Series B), Stone Reasoning Test, Spelling (ten words 
from the Ayres' Scale), Monroe Silent Reading Test, Dearborn- 
Westbrook Silent Reading Test. The first group was given the 
Dearborn General Intelligence Examination, and the second group 






MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 1/3 

was given the Army Alpha Intelligence Test. In the first group 
a correlation coefficient of .89 was obtained between the standing in 
the Standard Tests and the standing in the Intelligence Tests. 
The second group offers better material for the purpose of this 
study than does the first group, for in the former the four classes of 
the eighth grade were in the same school and each had the same 
teacher. Moreover, the tests were given at the end of the year when 
the pupils had been under the same teachers for three years. Dif- 
ferent instruction, programs, and teachers cannot, therefore, ac- 
count for the differences in the performances of the different classes; 
these differences must be accounted for on the basis of native 
ability. Differences in native ability do certainly exist, as the 
highest median in the Army Alpha Intelligence Test is 65 per cent, 
greater than the lowest. It seems reasonable to think that these 
differences affected the scores in the Standard Tests also. Further 
evidence that there are differences in native ability may be found 
in the study of the results of the Group Intelligence Tests which 
have been given in the last two years. They show considerable 
differences in the mental abilities of pupils of various school systems, 
schools, and even different rooms in the same school. It is only 
just to take these differences into account and to make all compari- 
sons with these differences in mind. 

JONES (Radcliffe) 

205. LUQUET, G. H., Les bonshommes tetards dans le dessin en- 

fantin. /. de psychol., 1920, 17, 683-710. 

A discussion of a type of children's drawings of the human figure 
in which they fail to give any representation of the trunk, the 
drawings consisting of a representation of the head, legs and arms, 
the arms, when drawn, being attached either to the head or legs. 
Most drawings of this type may be explained by the slight im- 
portance that the child attaches to the trunk. The child tries to 
make his drawing as complete as possible, and to include as many 
details as possible. The details included are those that have the 
greatest interest to the child anatomy is ignored. Buttons, orna- 
ments and even the contents of the stomach are drawn before the 
trunk itself is delineated. The trunk is actually represented to 
the child either by the head, or by the space included between the 
legs which are attached directly to the head. The trunk is drawn 
at a later stage, when the child sees the error of attaching the arms 
to the head or the legs and must find a convenient place to attach 



174 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

them. Many references are made to the literature on children's 
drawings, the literature in French being cited for the most part. 

BRIGHAM (Princeton) 

206. LUFKIN, H. M., Report of the Use of the Army Alpha Test in 

Rural Schools. Sch. & Soc., 1921, 13, 27-30. 
This is a report of an investigation conducted by the Department 
of Education of Cornell University in 1919-20, when the Army 
Alpha Test was given to 564 rural school children, 75 per cent, of 
whom lived on farms. The tests were given to all grades from the 
IVth to the fourth year High School. Tables and charts illustrate 
the records made in grade distributions and age distributions; 
also comparisons of these records with some obtained in the army, 
and with the results of Sylvester and Dobbs who covered only the 
four high school years; and a comparison of the median ages for 
the different grades with those found by Terman, and those in 
Rochester, N. Y., and South Dakota surveys. They found a 
gradual and almost regular increase in scores as they passed up the 
grades, there being seven times as many D's for Grade IV as for 
Grade V, and half as many A's for the third year High School as for 
the fourth. This latter condition does not agree with the results of 
Sylvester and Dobbs, who found the last two years about equal. 
This may be due to the fact that here there were many graduate 
students working with the fourth year pupils. Comparison with 
the Sylvester and Dobbs results tend to disprove the popular belief 
that rural pupils are more advanced mentally than pupils in the 
city. Considered as an Intelligence Test, the Alpha is supported 
by the age distribution which showed a steady increase in scores 
from 8 to 18, and above that a drop. The eight year olds, who by 
their very presence in the Grade IV group, must have been superior 
pupils, made as good a score as the nine year olds, and those High 
School pupils, over 18, whose presence there is probably indicative 
of retardation, showed a falling off in the intelligence rise. As 
might be expected, because they were more highly selected as re- 
gards mental attainment, the school children did better than the 
army group. The correlation between the chronological age and 
school grade was very close. It was found that the median ages 
for the different grades agreed almost exactly with those found by 
Terman and others. 

SCHWESINGER (Radcliffe) 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 175 

207. DOWNEY, J. E., Rating for Intelligence and for Will-Tempera- 
ment. Sch. ff Soc., 1920, 12, 292-294. 

The temperamental volitional traits utilized in the Will Exami- 
nation are: speed of movement; freedom from load, flexibility, speed 
of decision, motor impulsion, assurance, resistance to opposition, 
motor inhibition, interest in detail, coordination of impulses, voli- 
tional perseveration, and finality of judgment. Besides the Will- 
Profile the cases analyzed were given the Thorndike Intelligence 
Examination for High School Graduates, issued in the fall of 1919. 
The subjects were classified as follows: Group I, those who might be 
safely admitted into college in spite of gross deficiencies in prepara- 
tion; Group II, those able to do good academic work; Group III, 
those with enough intelligence to attain a college degree if they are 
earnest and industrious and Group IV, those who are unsuitable 
material for a college education. In this group the correlation 
between the intelligence and volitional ratings was plus point 47 
much higher than is usually the case with adult groups. 

The temperamental type which makes the best showing is the 
quick-reacting, adjustable type; the slow deliberate pondering mind 
being at a disadvantage. The mind that works with friction prob- 
ably does not do itself justice in an intelligence examination, par- 
ticularly of the group type. And yet this inhibited mind may have 
a source of originality in this very friction. 

Of the students who were given both the Intelligence and Voli- 
tional tests, only one in Group I failed to do satisfactory work. He 
had a high will score, but the pattern was suggestive, showing emo- 
tional blocking, inhibitory tendencies and lack of finality of judg- 
ment. He is probably the most original student in the group. He 
is pronounced "brilliant" by some teachers and "slow" by others, 
but described by all as "erratic." He shows unusual literary ability. 
Group II gives one case of unsatisfactory work. Not only is the 
will score low, but the pattern suggests lack of energy, lack of in- 
terest in detail, and little perseverance. Group III shows three 
who are failing, and three who are doing satisfactory work. The 
failures have a low score, the successes show a plodding, tenacious 
pattern. Only three students of Group IV are succeeding all 
have will scores above the median. Students with high intelligence 
scores but low will ratings usually succeed academically, but not 
as well as their intelligence warrants. With certain patterns they 
fail. Those with low will score, rated in either Group III or IV 
fail as students. Those with inferior intelligence, but strong voli- 
tional qualities may succeed in passing this work. 

HINCKS (Radcliffe) 



176 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

208. WALLIN, J. E. W., A Comparison of Three Methods for Making 
the Initial Selection of Presumptive Mental Defectives. 
Sch. y Soc., 1921, 13, 31-45. 

In September, 1917, a plan was adopted whereby the responsi- 
bility for the initiation of clinic examinations was divided between 
the schools and the St. Louis psycho-educational clinic instead of 
being entirely in the hands of the schools. The elementary schools 
were required to report twice annually the one per cent, of the 
pupils who were regarded as the most seriously deficient mentally. 
From these names the director of the clinic selected those who 
seemed from the facts presented to be most likely candidates for 
the special schools for mental defectives. To be sure that the selec- 
tion was the most effective, the Pressey Primer Scale was used in 
addition to the regular tests. These tests were given to from 19 to 
47 children in 13 schools. The principal selected for the tests the 
children whom they regarded as the most deficient in intelligence 
(not including any who could do satisfactory third grade work). 
Three hundred and eighty-two children were given the Pressey 
group tests. Seventy-seven of those making the lowest score in 
the four tests were selected for individual examination (physical, 
mental, developmental, pedagogical, and sociological), the Stan- 
ford-Binet being used for the general intelligence rating. Sixty- 
eight of these and seven others were examined. Before the group 
tests were given the regular preliminary reports from the schools 
on the pupils who were regarded by the teachers and principals as 
most defective intellectually were received and it was noted whether 
the same pupils were included in both lists. The general conclu- 
sions of this work were as follows: (i) "The Pressey Primer Scale 
is a simple, readily and quickly administered and comparatively 
cheap measuring scale of so-called general intelligence which gave 
a correlation of .73 with the Stanford-Binet." The correlation 
could never be perfect even if both tests were improved be- 
cause the factors which influence the subjects' responses cannot be 
rigidly controlled. (2) "As an aid in the selection of the pupils 
who are defective or the most backward mentally, the group test 
did not prove to be superior to the judgment of the school staff. In 
fact, it proved somewhat inferior." This is probably due to the fact 
that the St. Louis teachers are of high intelligence and have had 
years of experience in referring children to the clinic for examina- 
tion. The value of the group intelligence tests must not be over- 
estimated. If they "enable us to diagnose, classify and place in- 



MENTAL EVOLUTION 177 

dividuals somewhat better than we are able to do without them, 
they will serve a useful purpose, and will be worth the time and 
trouble involved in using them. But they must always be used with 
judgment and an appreciation of their inherent limitation." (3) 
"Group intelligence tests will not take the place of psycho-clinical 
examinations, for various reasons, among others the following: 
First, because an adequate picture even of the individual's intellec- 
tual peculiarities cannot be obtained from a group intelligence test. 
To get such a picture from a group intelligence scale would require 
the use of so many tests as to make the scale too cumbersome." 
"Second, the results from the group tests are occasionally quite 
unreliable and misleading." There is often a marked discrepancy 
between the Pressey score and the diagnosis made as a result of the 
clinical examination. "What, then, may we hope to get, at best, 
from standardized group tests or scales of intelligence? We can 
get (i) fairly accurate measures of central tendencies, (2) measures 
of variation from such tendencies, (3) measures of correlation be- 
tween various tests and various determinate factors, and (4) the 
location or classification of an individual with reference to the 
measure of central tendency, and of the measure of variability when 
the tests furnish a basis for such computation." Since, however, 
the measure of central tendency is largely a mathematical fiction 
representing no particular individual and no particular type, "the 
Tightness or wrongness of any particular method of instruction 
depends on its power to satisfy the psychological needs of the in- 
dividual concerned, rather than the hypothetical average." "Group 
intelligence tests and results can give us valuable points of ref- 
erence average or standard scores, or distribution curves but 
after the individual has been properly placed in the scale we must 
still try to discover the special variations found within his type 
i.e., in what respects he is exceptional for his own type the causes 
of such variations, and the differential treatment which will meet 
his particular needs. To ascertain, even imperfectly, such facts 
as these, requires an analytical or clinical study of each case." 

B. J. JONES (Radcliffe) 

12. MENTAL EVOLUTION 
209. BATESON, W. Genetic Segregation. Amer. Natural., 1921, 

55, 5-19- 

Evidence is found from various forms of plant and animal life 
that various unit traits may become segregated as individual traits 



178 MENTAL EVOLUTION 

or as units of complexes. Quantitative differences such as height of 
plants seldom, if ever, have perfectly simple inheritance. Thus the 
view that segregable characters are irreducible is still open to ques- 
tion. Certain evidence drawn from plant life indicates that segre- 
gation is not exclusively a property of cell "reduction-division" 
and that it may occur at any division in the life-cycle. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

210. WRIGHT, S. & LEWIS, P. A., Factors in the Resistance of 

Guinea Pigs to Tuberculosis, with Special Regard to In- 
breeding and Heredity. Amer. Natural., 1921, 55, 20-51. 

BRIDGES, C. B. Gametic and Observed Ratios in Drosophila. 

Amer. Natural., 1921, 55, 52-61. 
STOCKARD, C. R. A Probable Explanation of Polyembryony 

in the Armadillo. Amer. Natural., 1921, 55, 62-68. 
The development of the armadillo is interrupted on account of a 
failure to become promptly implanted on the uterus. Under con- 
ditions of arrest the egg presumably tends to form accessory em- 
bryonic buds just preceding the formation of the primitive streak. 
In the deer a similar period of arrest is also found but evidently 
because of different internal factors a single individual arises from 
the egg. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

211. DUBOIS, R., Recherches experimentales sur le role de la con- 

tractilite dans les mecanismes sensoriels chez les mollusques. 

/. de psychol., 1920, 17, 787-805. 

A summary of experimental results on two species of molluscs, 
Pholas dactylus (piddock) and Helix pomatia (edible snail). Most of 
the experiments were performed on Pholas dactylus, a marine mollusc 
having a long siphon, the contractions of which were recorded by 
means of a thread attached to a Marey tambour. This species has 
no special organs of vision, the whole superficial layer being sensitive 
to light stimuli. The author describes, and the curves show two dis- 
tinct contractions, the first a contraction of the outer (neuro-myo- 
epithelial) layer of the siphon, this phenomenon causing secondarily 
the contraction of the muscular segments of the siphon. The first 
reaction is comparable to the contraction of the rods and cones of 
the retina, the second to the contraction of the iris. 

In the experiments on vision, the Pholas dactylus was placed 



MENTAL EVOLUTION 1 79 

in a dark chamber which was maintained at a constant temperature. 
Stimuli were given at intervals of one hour to avoid fatigue. The 
amplitude and the latent period of the contraction were recorded. 
The latent period increases to twice its original amount, and the 
amplitude decreases to i/ioth of its original amount as the intensity 
of illumination is decreased to i/iooth of its original amount. 
Pholas dactylus reacts characteristically to different portions of the 
spectrum, the reactions being differentiated not by their amplitude 
but by their rapidity. 

Carrying these results over to human color vision, the intensity 
of visual sensation comes from the amplitude of the contractions of 
the rods and cones in the retina, the color sensations from the 
rapidity of the contraction of these retinal elements. Pholas dacty- 
lus reacts sluggishly to red and blue and reacts quickly to yellow and 
green. Complementary colors, or all colors mixed give rise to a 
median rate of contraction causing the sensation of white. The 
Young-Helmholtz theory is discarded for this physiological hypo- 
thesis which is substantiated by investigations of the action current 
of the eye, this electric phenomenon accompanying contraction. 

Characteristically different contractile phenomena were ob- 
served in reactions to bitter, alkaline, acid and salty substances, 
these substances being introduced directly into the aspirating canal 
of the siphon. Helix pomatia was studied in experiments on smell, 
actual fibrillary movements being observed under the microscope 
when volatile substances were introduced into the moist chamber. 
Pholas dactylus did not react to auditory stimuli. The otoliths con- 
trolling equilibrium are stimulated by the mechanical displacement 
of their liquid and solid contents. All sensations in human beings 
depend on actual internal movements which transform all external 
stimuli, whether chemical or mechanical, into mechanical excita- 
tions. All sensations become a form of touch. 

BRIGHAM (Princeton) 



COMMUNICATION 

To the Editor: 

The Secretary of the American Psychological Association begs 
to call attention to the fact that the chart showing the geographical 
distribution of psychologists in proportion to population (PsvcHOL. 
BULL., 1921, 18, 64), should have been labeled "Psychologists per 
10,000,000 Population." Dr. Rich has pointed out that the legend 
printed is in error. 

It has been objected that the average center of psychological 
population in western Ohio does not properly indicate the most 
convenient center for the meeting of psychologists for the reason 
that it is preferable for a large attendance to have two psychologists 
travel a given distance rather than one psychologist twice as far. 
As bearing upon the question, the Secretary has computed the 
median center for the psychological population of 1920 and finds 
it to be approximately at the geometrical center of the State of 
Pennsylvania, about fifteen miles southwest of Lockhaven and 
sixty-seven miles northwest of Harrisburg. 

The two centers for 1920 are: 

Average center: 84 15' W, 40 45' N (western Ohio). 
Median center: 77 45' W, 41 N (central Pennsylvania). 

EDWIN G. BORING 

THROUGH a mistake of the printer some defective copies of the 
Year Book of the American Psychological Association for 1921 have 
been sent out. These copies lack in general the middle pages, 
27-30 or 25-32. The Secretary can immediately replace a limited 
number of these defective copies if they are. returned to him; and 
the printer promises to make all good that the Secretary can not 
replace from his reserve. There will be some slight delay in re- 
placement if it is necessary to appeal to the printer. 



1 80 



c 



Vol. 1 8, No. 4. April, 1921 

THE 

PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN 



CUTANEOUS AND KINESTHETIC SENSES 

BY JOHN T. METCALF 

George Washington University 

The review which follows is undertaken with the purpose of 
bringing together the most important contributions that have been 
made to our knowledge of the cutaneous and kinesthetic senses 
within the last decade, 1911 to 1920, both inclusive. It is based 
chiefly upon the summaries which have appeared in this BULLETIN 
from year to year. These are listed by number at the end of this 
review, and numbers in parentheses following citations of literature 
refer usually to the reviews in which the original articles were 
summarized. The first of the yearly reviews included was written 
by Professor R. P. Angier, the others by the present reviewer. In 
addition, the references include the titles of the literature of the 
past year and also those of certain recent text-books. 

There are several outstanding features in the work that has been 
done on cutaneous and kinesthetic sensations during the last ten 
years. Of these perhaps the chief ones are the evaluation of the 
Head theory of cutaneous sensibility, investigation of the temper- 
ature senses, especially of the complex cutaneous quality called 
heat, some work of great significance for kinesthesia, and a quite 
recent awakening of interest in the hitherto somewhat neglected 
static sense. 

The Head theory, advanced during the latter part of the pre- 
ceding decade, received immediate recognition and widespread 
acceptance among psychologists. The significance of the line of 
work it initiated and the influence it still exerts perhaps justify a 
brief sketch of the principal features of the theory itself and an 
outline of the most important evidence for and against it. The 
f apts on which it was founded were derived from two chief sources : 

181 



1 82 JOHN T. METCALF 

investigations of pathological cases in which nerves were undergoing 
regeneration, and the experiment in nerve-division which Head 
carried out upon himself. 1 As a result of these two lines of inquiry 
Head was led to assume that the normal skin is supplied by two 
systems of sensory fibers. The two systems are generally found 
together, but dissociation may occur. They are assumed to have 
developed at different times in the process of evolution. To the 
genetically older system the term "protopathic" is applied, and the 
other supposedly more refined and more recently developed one is 
called "epicritic." In addition to these there is also, of course, the 
system of "deep" or subcutaneous sensibility. The fibers of the 
"protopathic" system are supposed to mediate sensations from the 
hairs, cutaneous pain, and more intense degrees of warmth and cold. 
Those of the "epicritic" system mediate sensations of pressure, 
warmth, and cold of less intensity. The "epicritic" system is 
supposed to exercise an inhibitory function over the "protopathic" 
and it is also supposed to make possible localization and tactual 
discrimination, functions which the "protopathic" system by 
itself cannot perform. 

This hypothesis was advanced to interpret all the facts of 
cutaneous sensibility, and more especially to account for the sensory 
peculiarities of skin areas supplied by regenerating nerves. Of 
these latter, the chief ones may be briefly designated as spatial and 
temporal dissociation of certain forms of sensibility, hyperesthesia, 
and remote reference. When a nerve has been severed, the skin 
areas affected for different forms of cutaneous sensibility are found 
not to be uniform. Insensibility to light touch and other "epicritic" 
stimuli is usually more widespread than sensory loss for the "proto- 
pathic" system, though Head finds evidence that the "epicritic" 
system may be functioning in areas where the "protopathic" is not 
active. Again, the return of the two different kinds of sensibility 
to the affected drea is found to occur at different times. "Proto- 
pathic" sensibility returns to the affected area first. When this 
has occurred the area is sensitive to stimuli of certain intensity, 
much above the normal threshold, but not to finer degrees of 
stimulation. At this stage the sensations aroused are found to be 
abnormally intense; also, stimuli to a given point are apt to be 
referred to a different point, often some distance away. The 
intensification of sensation Head attributes to the absence of the 
normal inhibitory effect which the "epicritic" system is supposed 

1 Brain, 1905, 28, 99 ff., 116 ff.; 1908, 31, 323 ff. 



CUTANEOUS AND KIN ESTHETIC SENSES 183 

to exercise over the "protopathic." Remote reference of the point 
of stimulation is interpreted as the imperfect performance of the 
"protopathic" system, which is supposed to be inadequate to the 
function of localization in the absence of the "epicritic." 

Even before the beginning of the period covered in general by 
this review Head's theory had been subjected to critical analysis. 
The most significant contribution from the point of view of psy- 
chology was that of Trotter and Davies which appeared in 1909.' 
These investigators extended Head's experiment by severing several 
sensory nerve-trunks in themselves and examining the character- 
istics of the affected areas as they gradually returned to normal 
sensibility. Their methods of exploration, while in some respects 
an improvement upon those of Head, were still hardly up to the 
standard required for exact psycho-physical investigation. Their 
results differ from Head's in several important respects. The 
boundaries for the areas of sensory loss of different kinds just about 
coincide. All kinds of cutaneous sensibility begin to return to- 
gether, except warmth which is somewhat delayed. This delay, 
however, they believe to be more apparent than real, and mainly 
due to the difficulty of exact demonstration. They find that all 
forms of sensibility begin to return in hypoesthetic form, that is, 
their thresholds are abnormally high. They believe that this 
hypoesthesia is the real reason why Head found fine sensibility 
absent at first. These experimenters also find the phenomena of 
intensification and remote or peripheral reference, but they interpret 
them very differently. The former, they think, is a hyperalgesia, 
due to an irritative change resulting from the process of recovery 
in the nerve-trunk. The latter they attribute to a supposed lack 
of connection between the regenerating fibers and the sense-organs 
of the skin. As long as imperfect localization persists, they think, 
the fibers are being directly stimulated. Power of localization is 
recovered when connection is reestablished between the regenera- 
ting axis-cylinders and the end-organs through which they are nor- 
mally stimulated. Although the result of this investigation is, in 
the main, negative, it constitutes an important experimental cri- 
tique of the Head theory. 

von Frey (4) regards the study of areas in which cutaneous 
sensibility has been permanently changed as at least a valuable 
supplement to the study of areas temporarily affected. He made 
an experimental study of a permanently hypoesthetic area on his 

1 /. of Physiol., 1909, 38, 134 if. 



1 84 JOHN T. METCALF 

own thigh. When this area was tested it was found that it had 
only about 10 per cent, of the number of sensitive spots normal to 
the region. These spots, however, were found to have normal 
thresholds, though the area as a whole was somewhat hyperalgesic. 
Single pain spots were found to have normal thresholds, though 
they reacted abnormally slowly and discrete stimuli were found to 
give rise to summating effects. Thus when a stimulus covering a 
number of spots is applied it is sensed as abnormally intense. This 
phenomenon is similar to the intensification found by Head and by 
Trotter and Davies. Accuracy of localization in the affected area 
is found to be relatively low. Stimuli are often remotely referred, 
and sometimes several points are related to each other in such a way 
that stimulation to any one may be referred to any of the others. 
Localization of temperature stimuli is very poor, and summation 
in the case of warmth or cold seldom occurs. This study of an area 
very sparsely supplied with normal sensitive spots suggests an 
interpretation of intensification without assuming Head's two 
systems, and indicates that remote reference is not due to the 
absence of the supposed "epicritic" system, since it occurs in the 
case of spots with normal thresholds. 

Hacker (4) extended Head's method in still another way. He 
produced an area of anesthesia by the injection of a solution of 
iodine. The shape of the area showed its anesthesia to be due not 
to the spread of the solution, but to the solution's effect upon the 
nerve-trunk. The area remained anesthetic for about two months. 
As it regained its normal sensibility the single points always re- 
appeared with normal thresholds. Trotter and Davies had found 
threshold values higher than normal in areas of returning sensibility. 
Hacker criticizes them on the ground that their stimuli were not 
fine enough to investigate single spots. With their stimuli, he 
holds, the result which they obtained was the natural one in an 
area with less than its normal number of sensitive spots. 

Head's conclusions were examined and criticized in the light of 
Head's own experimental results by Carr (6). The latter tabulated 
the results in a systematic way and pointed out that an impartial 
observer would have as much ground for concluding that there are 
seven variables as he would for concluding that there are two. He 
indicated also that the assuniption of seven systems is further 
supported by various characteristics of distribution of sensibility, 
certain parts of the body lacking one or more of the seven forms. 
He then raised the question of whether or not the seven forms might 



CUTANEOUS AND KINESTHETIC SENSES 185 

be reduced to the conventional four and concluded that such a 
reduction was possible. He thinks that the phenomena of dis- 
sociation may be better interpreted as due to two stages of recovery 
of the same mechanism than as the effects of the separate recovery 
of two. He does not offer an explanation for the phenomena of 
intensification and remote reference, but calls attention to the fact 
that in investigations of this sort the experimenters are dealing 
with cutaneous tissues which are in an extremely abnormal con- 
dition. 

From the point of view of experimental psychology the methods 
used to test the affected areas by von Frey and by Hacker are a great 
improvement upon those of Head and of Trotter and Davies, but 
their work is not strictly comparable with that of the other experi- 
menters because of the difference in neurological condition of the 
areas examined. Boring (6) repeated Head's experiment, bringing 
to the investigation a lo'ng experience in the introspective analysis 
of tactual sensations and using greatly improved methods. The 
nerve chosen for section was the anterior branch of the internal 
cutaneous of the investigator's left fore-arm. The result of the 
operation was the disappearance of sensibility in a small area on 
the volar surface close to the wrist. This area was systematically 
examined for about three years after the operation. All forms of 
sensibility tended to return gradually from anesthesia through 
decreasing degrees of hypoesthesia to normal; warmth and cold, 
however, passed through an intermediate stage of hyperesthesia. 
There was also hyperalgesia, as measured by the intensity of the 
sensation and not by the threshold which was normal. The areas 
of sensory loss were about the same for all forms of sensibility, 
though the distribution of returning sensibility within the area 
itself was always patchy. An intermediate zone between the inner 
anesthetic area and the normal skin also appeared. The. different 
forms of sensibility, except warmth which was very much delayed, 
returned to normal at about the same rate. Remote reference was 
frequently observed, and often a stimulus was perceived as double, 
localized correctly and remotely at the same time. 

These results confirm those of Trotter and Davies in many 
important respects. Boring makes a thorough and careful analysis 
of Head's theory and formulates his objections to it under four 
chief heads. First, he objects on a priori grounds to Head's assump- 
tion of two systems of different phylogenetic age. This is not 
borne out by analogy with the evolution of the other senses. Sec- 



1 86 JOHN T. METCALF 

ond, the theory, devised to account for a particular group of facts, 
is inadequate to account for all the facts of cutaneous sensibility, 
and cannot, therefore, replace the older hypotheses. Third, a 
great many features of the phenomena it was formulated to explain 
are left unaccounted for by the theory. For example, it assumes 
inhibition of one system by the other, yet gives very little indication 
of the nature of such inhibition. Fourth, it indicates a number of 
generalizations which are at best doubtful. For example, the 
characteristics and functions assigned by Head to one or another of 
the two supposed systems are often found to be dissociated. 

Boring himself makes a theoretical proposal designed to extend 
the older theories of cutaneous sensibility to account for the new 
facts. He first outlines Bernstein's theory to account for the facts 
of two-point discrimination. It is a theory of central projection. 
When two points are close together their central effects overlap and 
summate, the result being the perception of a single stimulus some- 
what more intense than either of those actually applied. When the 
points are more widely separated the central effects do not overlap, 
but they exercise an inhibition over each other. The conscious 
accompaniment of this is the perception of two separate stimuli 
each one less intense than is the case when it is applied alone. 
Boring's interpretation supposes that by the overlapping of sensory 
fibers of a single system each sensitive spot on the skin is supplied 
by more than one fiber, these fibers, however, playing roles of 
unequal importance in carrying impulses to the central areas. The 
fibers which supply a given spot may come from the same nerve or 
they may come from different nerves. In the latter case when one 
nerve is severed only one of the spot's innervating fibers is thrown 
out of function. In case the most important one is cut the spot 
will be supplied only by a fiber or fibers of relatively low functional 
importance. The result will be anesthesia or hypoesthesia. But 
now the still intact fibers will gradually take on vicariously the 
functions of the inactive principal one, and, in the absence of the 
other's inhibiting influence, will give effects more intense than 
normal (hyperesthesia), until with the regeneration of the principal 
fiber the sensibility of the spot is returned to normal. During the 
period of vicarious function, however, the impulses from the spot 
are being carried to a central point different from that to which 
primary impulses from that spot normally go. Remote reference 
is the result. Hyperesthesia without remote reference is the case 
when the principal fiber is intact and giving effects which 



CUTANEOUS AND KIN ESTHETIC SENSES 187 

are abnormally intense because of the absence of the inhibiting 
effect of a severed secondary fiber. In these and related ways all 
the peculiarities of the sensibility of skin areas supplied by re- 
generating nerves may be interpreted in terms of a single system of 
nerve-supply and inhibitory effects between its overlapping parts. 

Boring's hypothesis has the advantage of being in accord with 
the older accovtnts of cutaneous innervation. It accounts in a 
simple way for the facts which have been added by experiments on 
nerve division without postulating new systems as does the Head 
theory. Moreover it brings the new phenomena into relation with 
the facts of two-point discrimination and of summation and inhi- 
bition of pressure sensations in 'a more significant way than does 
the Head theory. The latter, in the reviewer's opinion, cannot 
stand, in view of more recent experimental work and the theoretical 
considerations which have been urged against it. Boring's hypoth- 
esis seems adequate to the facts, and if it strikes one as a rather 
bare account it should be borne in mind that our knowledge of the 
anatomy and physiology of the sense-organs of the skin is still very 
meager. The results of von Frey and of Hacker, who found normal 
thresholds for all single spots in the affected areas, seem to present 
a difficulty. It may be that this is more apparent than real, and 
due simply to the different neurological conditions of the areas on 
which they -worked. But at least it indicates the need of more 
knowledge of how single spots behave under all conditions. This 
does not imply a criticism of Boring's methods, which were adequate 
to his problem; it merely emphasizes his statement (p. 94) that 
" there still remain countless problems for the sense-physiologist who, 
with a still more refined technique, will undertake, one phase at a 
time, the problem of the sensibility of the skin after the division of 
a nerve." 

Within the last year Pollock (17) has published the results of a 
study of over five hundred cases of injury to peripheral nerves. 
He finds conclusive evidence that the early return of pain sensibility 
to a skin area supplied by a severed nerve is due not to the regener- 
ation of the nerve itself, but to the functioning of an adjacent nerve 
whose supply of fibers overlaps with that of the nerve affected. 
His conclusions are based chiefly upon the study of 132 cases in 
which examination of the sensibility of the affected areas was 
checked up with definite knowledge, obtained in operations, of the 
state of the affected nerves. The limits of loss of sensibility to 
light touch were determined with a wisp of cotton, the stimulation 



1 88 JOHN T. METCALF 

of hairs being guarded against by shaving the area. The areas of 
pain sensibility were determined by the use of weighted needles 
sliding in a bit of glass tubing. Pain sensibility was found, existing 
or returning, in areas in which, as shown by the operations, it could 
not have been due to regeneration of the fibers of the nerve which 
normally supplies the region. Such sensibility occupied the borders 
of areas supplied by adjacent uninjured nerves; and when these 
adjacent nerves were later sectioned, it disappeared. When two 
nerves supplying adjacent areas were both severed, no pain sensi- 
bility remained on the borders where it was always found when 
either nerve was divided alone. Sometimes the regenerating 
nerve supplying the anesthetic but partly algesic area was resected. 
It was found that this resection did not result in the loss of pain 
sensibility, as should have been th,e case if the return of pain sensi- 
bility had been due to the regeneration of this nerve. The author 
suggests that the assumption of function by adjacent nerves explains 
Head's finding a dissociated return of pain sensibility. He admits 
that such sensibility, even accounted for in this way, might still 
be regarded as Head's "protopathic"; but he calls attention to the 
fact that one of Head's strongest arguments in favor of two systems 
of fibers is based upon temporal dissociation. This support at 
least his own results seem effectually to remove. 

Of recent text-book accounts of cutaneous sensation some 
outline Head's theory with varying degrees of approval (20, 21, 
23, 24, 26), others omit references to it altogether (22, 27, 
29, 30). One finds the terms "protopathic" and "epicritic," 
however, used even by writers who omit reference to the theory 
or who treat it with reserve (25, 29). If these terms are used simply 
as convenient synonyms for subcutaneous and cutaneous sensi- 
bility, the only objection to their use would seem to be based on 
the law of parsimony. If, however, they still carry their original 
genetic connotation and imply the existence of two distinct forms 
of cutaneous sensibility, their use is open to the most serious ob- 
jections which have been urged against the theory itself. 

The results of work on areas supplied by defective or regener- 
ating nerves give special interest to several investigations of the 
effect upon each other of pressure sensations aroused by simul- 
taneously or successively applied stimuli, von Frey found that 
two pressures simultaneously applied resulted in mutually facili- 
tating effects. Other investigators, however, had found a tendency 
for simultaneous pressures to inhibit each other. The question 



CUTANEOUS AND KINESTHETIC SENSES 189 

gains added interest when it is later found by von Frey and by 
Hacker in the work already described that on skin areas with 
imperfect sensibility, although all single pressure spots may have 
normal thresholds, the stimulation of a number of them together 
results in intensification. Arps (2), in a study of the assimilative 
effect of one pressure stimulus upon another, found that the sen- 
sations aroused by a standard stimulus of constant intensity 
varied in intensity with the intensity of the comparative stimulus. 
Within certain limits the subjective intensity of the standard grew 
greater with increase in the intensity of the comparison stimulus. 
Schulte (7) made a careful quantitative study of the effect upon 
one (standard) pressure stimulus of another (inducing) stimulus ap- 
plied either a certain length of time before the standard or simulta- 
neously with it. A third (comparison) stimulus was used to measure 
the effect by being varied until it appeared equal to the standard. 
The effect of the inducing stimulus was found to be nearly always 
one of summation, and this effect was progressively greater with 
greater intensities of the inducing stimulus. The summation 
effect was greatest when the inducing stimulus was applied simul- 
taneously with the standard, and it decreased as the temporal 
separation grew greater. The points of application of the stimuli 
remained constant. They were applied to the backs of the index 
and middle fingers of the subject's right hand. It would be inter- 
esting to have the same method applied to a study of the spatial 
as well as temporal conditions of this process of summation. It 
is possible that much of the disagreement on the effects of simul- 
taneous pressure stimuli is due to the greater or less separation of 
the points to which they are applied. 

In the field of the temperature sensations very definite advance 
has been made recently. The qualitative distinctness of the 
warmth and cold senses was fairly well established some time ago, 
but the qualitative difference between warmth and heat, although 
observed and described by several writers, has been definitely 
demonstrated only recently. As recently as 1912 Goldscheider 
(2) maintained that heat is simply a more intense form of warmth, 
and not, as Alrutz had contended, a fusion of warmth and cold 
sensations. Since then the hypothesis of Alrutz has been con- 
clusively demonstrated, first by Alrutz himself (4), and later by 
Cutolo (7). Within the past year Alston (8) has published the 
results of a study of the spatial conditions of the fusion of warmth 
and cold in heat. Judged by published descriptions, the reviewer 



190 JOHN T. METCALF 

considers the "grill" devised by Cutolo to be the simplest and 
most convincing method so far devised to demonstrate this fusion. 
The grill consists of a series of fine glass tubes laid side by side and 
close together. By means of rubber tubes fitted to the ends of 
the glass ones, warm water can be made to flow through the even- 
numbered tubes and cold water through the others. The subject 
places the palm of his hand upon the grill, and by experiencing the 
effect of either system separately and the combined effect of the 
two, can clearly perceive that heat is a fusion of warmth and cold. 
Cutolo made a more detailed study of heat with the Zimmermann 
thermesthesiometer. A warm spot and a cold spot from 2 to 9.3 
mm. apart were stimulated simultaneously, each with its appropriate 
temperature stimulus. The resulting experience was found to be 
very complex, but heat was reported in the majority of observations. 
Alston extends this study by making a special analysis of the spatial 
conditions of the fusion. His three subjects had all had considerable 
experience in introspection. The apparatus and methods used 
are similar to those of Cutolo's study. It is found that the per- 
centage of cases in which warmth and cold fuse into heat becomes 
less as the distance between the spots stimulated becomes greater. 
However^ the fusion may take place when the spots stimulated 
are as much as 10 to 15 cm. apart, a separation over three times 
as great as the two-point threshold for the region investigated. 
The quality of heat is often experienced in addition to that of cold 
or that of warmth. Most often it followed an introductory exper- 
ience of cold. This is what one would expect in view of results 
of experiments on reaction-times for temperature stimuli. 

In connection with the results of Alston's study of heat the 
work of Ponzo (3) and of Dimmick (5) on the localization of tem- 
perature sensations is interesting. Both of these investigators 
used radiant forms of stimulation to do away with the effect of 
arousing concomitant sensations of pressure. Dimmick worked 
on warmth alone and found that its localization as compared with 
that of pressure was poor. Ponzo found warmth localization poor 
and cold localization only slightly better. These results on local- 
ization offer a suggestive parallel to Alston's result, and indicate 
at least a partial explanation of the fusion of a warmth sensation 
and a cold into a unitary experience of heat when the stimuli 
arousing the sensations are separated by more than three times 
the distance of the two-point threshold. 



CUTANEOUS AND KINESTHETIC SENSES IQ 1 

The effect of the area of the stimulus upon the cold sensations 
aroused has been studied by Siebrand (i) and by Barnholt and 
Bentley (i). The former found that the difference threshold for 
temperature was increased when the area of the stimulus was 
increased ; or when, without change of area, it was applied 
so that it affected a greater number of cold spots. Increase 
of area increased the difference threshold even when the stim- 
ulus affected only one cold spot. Barnholt and Bentley are 
concerned with the effect of the spatial extent of the stimulus upon 
the intensity of the cold sensations aroused. They find, other 
things being equal, that the more extended the area the more 
intense is the sensation aroused. However, it is found that if a 
stimulus of smaller area is applied to a surface of greater sensitivity 
the intensity of the sensation is the same as for that aroused by a 
larger stimulus applied to a less sensitive area. This result again 
recalls those subsequently obtained by von Frey and by^Hacker 
when they found that greater intensity of sensation resulted when 
the stimulus covered more than a single sensitive spot. 

The most thoroughgoing introspective study of any single 
cutaneous quality which has appeared recently was made by Becher 
(5) on the pain sense. His purpose was to determine whether 
pain stimuli arouse sensations of different quality when applied to 
different regions. He acted himself as subject and had the whole 
surface of his body explored with various sorts of pain stimuli. 
Everywhere on the white skin he finds the quality of the sensation 
of superficial pain the same. On certain parts of the body, however, 
sensations of different quality were aroused. This was particularly 
true of the interior of the auditory canal. The author devotes 
considerable space to the consideration of the difficulties attending 
an introspective investigation of this sort. Pain, when it becomes 
intense interferes with accurate introspection, so that the relation 
between quality and greater intensity is very difficult if not im- 
possible to study. 

Pain, by R. J. Behan (9), first published in 1914, has appeared 
in a second edition during the past year. The book is intended 
for the clinician, and pain as symptom is the point of view main- 
tained throughout. Some of the neurological descriptions and 
charts may be of value to psychologists, but as far as the study of 
cutaneous pain sensation is concerned the book is of little use. 
The author's psychological horizon is perhaps fairly indicated by 
his treatment of consciousness. He writes (p. 15) : "Since we speak 



192 JOHN T. METCALF 

of consciousness it may be well to briefly consider it. It has been 
defined as the ability, power, faculty, or mental state of being aware 
of one's own existence, thoughts, feelings, actions and sensations, 
whether intellectual, moral or physical (Sudduth, 472), i and must 
be present to take up and correlate the different stimuli reaching 
the brain from the periphery." 

Little experimental work has been done on sensations of tickle 
and itch, and in general they are given little prominence if they 
are mentioned at all in text-book accounts of cutaneous qualities. 
Thole (2) finds that after injection of cocain and stovain into 
the cord tickle and itch disappear as sensory qualities just before 
touch and pain respectively, and return just after them. He 
concludes that tickle is due to partial arousal of the touch mechanism 
and that itch bears a similar relation to pain. This is in harmony 
with other views. Easier (2) studies the relation between the 
weight of a stimulus drawn across the skin and the intensity of 
the sensation of tickle aroused. He finds that there is a certain 
range of weight within which stimuli arouse maximum tickle 
sensations. If the stimulus is further increased the sensations 
of tickle decrease until finally only pressure sensations remain. 
This study also supports the conclusion that tickle is due to a 
partial arousal of the touch mechanism. 

Within the last year Titchener (18) has published descriptions 
of four frame models for the demonstration of sensory qualities. 
One of these is a pyramid to indicate the relationships between 
the various touch qualities as the color double-pyramid indicates 
those between the various visual qualities. The touch model is 
illustrated. Several determinations of touch qualities are admit- 
tedly tentative, and the author confesses that warmth and cold 
baffle him completely in the attempt to bring them into qualitative 
relation with the terms of the figure. But this, he thinks, cannot 
discredit the figure, still less the plan. 

Studies of after-sensations have been made by Hayes (2), by 
Dimmick (6), and during the last year by Holland (16). Hayes 
studied after-sensations of all sorts, Dimmick and Holland have 
confined their investigations to those of pressure. After-sensations 
are found to occur with considerable regularity. The sensation 
may persist after the stimulus has been removed. This is called 
a primary after-sensation. Then the sensation may reappear 

1 The reference is to an article by W. X. Sudduth, "A Study in the Psychophysics 
of Pain," Chicago Med. Recorder, 1897, 13, 329-337. 



CUTANEOUS AND KINESTHETIC SENSES 193 

after an interval during which there is no sensation. This is called 
a secondary after-sensation, and it may recur more than once. 
The secondary after-sensation is called an after-image by some 
writers. One of the chief difficulties in earlier work in this field 
seems to have been that the stimuli used aroused the subcutaneous 
as well as the cutaneous organs to activity, the result being two 
after-sensations. Dimmick, therefore, and Holland, in their work 
on after-sensations of pressure, used stimuli known to be below 
the threshold for subcutaneous pressure. Dimmick had only two 
subjects and found rather wide individual differences. Holland 
repeats the work with more subjects and finds clear evidence that 
individual differences are due to the attitude of the subject which 
results from his understanding of the instructions. When this 
attitude became the same on the part of all subjects wide individual 
differences disappeared. 

There have been comparatively few studies of adaptation in 
recent years. Rubin (2) reported the results of some experiments 
on temperature sensations which lent support to the Weber theory. 
As is well known, this theory meets its greatest difficulty in ac- 
counting for long continued experiences of warmth or cold. Rubin 
had his subject bare his arm in a cold room. A thermometer was 
fastened to the skin, and readings were taken during periods lasting 
from 40 to 60 minutes. It was found that the thermometer regis- 
tered a decrease in temperature during all that time. Moreover, 
the periods during which the subject reported the most intense 
sensations of cold corresponded to those during which there was 
the greatest drop in temperature. This can hardly be taken as 
removing the objection to the Weber theory mentioned above. 
Long-continued experiences of heat in fever still present a difficulty. 
Abbott (4) made a thorough study of the effect of adaptation 
upon the temperature difference threshold. The chief result of 
this study is the discovery that there is a certain point on the 
thermometric scale at which stimuli are accurately judged regardless 
of the condition of adaptation of the skin to which they are applied. 
This point is 32.5 C., which is very close to what has been estimated 
to be normal skin temperature. The author finds both the Weber 
theory and the Hering theory inadequate. The conception of a 
"physiological zero" which shifts up or down with adaptation to 
warmth or cold is incompatible with the facts brought out by the 
experiments. If the current conception of the physiological zero 
were the case, then when adaptation had taken place say to cold, and 



194 JOHN T. METCALF 

the physiological zero had shifted down, we should expect to find 
the finest difference sensitivity to cold stimuli at physiological 
zero temperature. But the results of the experiments show that 
this is not the case, and that stimuli at 32. <; C., or normal skin 
temperature, are still those most accurately judged. The author 
makes the interesting suggestion that normal skin temperature 
may persist as a constant standard of comparison in every expe- 
rience of cold or warmth. Strauss and Uhlmann (7) experiment 
on adaptation to superficial pain. They find, in contrast to some 
earlier views, but in harmony with what one would expect from 
analogy with the other senses, that adaptation to superficial pain 
occurs with great regularity. The absolute time required varied 
considerably between the two observers, but with each it increased 
progressively with increase in the intensity of the stimulus. 

Before leaving the field of cutaneous sensation the so-called 
"sensation of vibration" should be briefly considered. The term 
designates the experience which results when the foot of a vibrating 
tuning-fork is placed in contact with the skin. The experience is 
especially clear when the point of contact is over a bony prominence. 
The method of arousing it has been used rather extensively by 
neurologists as a diagnostic test. Recent papers on its use in this 
way have appeared by Symns (7) and by Williamson (7). von 
Frey (5) made an analytical study of the experience, his chief 
purpose being to determine what sense-organs mediate it. He 
finds that if the vibrating stimulus is made so fine that it affects 
only one sensitive spot on the skin, the pressure spots are the only 
ones which will mediate discontinuous impulses as discontinuous 
when they come at the rate of 60 to 100 per second. Temperature 
and pain spots respond with a continuous, fading sensation. When 
the stimulating vibrator is placed in contact with a bony prominence, 
the effect is intensified, von Frey believes that this is due to the 
spread of the effect to a greater number of pressure end-organs. The 
question of whether sensory endings in the subcutaneous structures 
may mediate the sensations von Frey thinks may be answered in the 
negative, for when these structures are stimulated intermittently 
by the faradic current the only result is dull pain. In connection 
with work on the "sensation of vibration" an investigation made 
by Easier (3) is of interest. By means of an apparatus to which 
he gives the name "thermische Reizmuhle," this experimenter 
determines the rate of succession at which warmth and cold stimuli 
cease to be perceived as discrete and fuse into a single, continuous 



CUTANEOUS AND KINESTHETIC SENSES 195 

experience. As compared with the sense of pressure, the senses 
of cold and warmth are found to be relatively poor in their ability 
to give discrete sensations at a quick rate of succession. The cold 
sense is somewhat superior to the warm in this respect. 

Work on sensations from muscles, tendons, and joints, through 
the earlier part of the period covered by this review, followed old 
lines. The most frequently employed procedure was to arrange a 
member, usually an arm, in such a way that its movements, active 
or passive, could be accurately measured. In this way deter- 
minations were made of the least perceptible movement and of 
difference sensitivity for active or passive movement under different 
conditions. The conditions were varied by changing the degree 
of flexion or extension of the member, the resistance against which 
it had to move, its rate of movement, or by anesthetizing one part 
or another. Toward the close of the decade Lashley (7) published 
the results of an experimental study of the accuracy of movement 
in a pathological case which, in the reviewer's opinion, is of great 
importance for work in this field. The systematic significance of 
kinesthesia has been variously emphasized. In the recent literature 
it has been suggested as a basis for theories of the will by G. V. N. 
Dearborn (3) and by Wheeler (19). 

Employing methods of the kind indicated above, Storring (2) 
found a threshold for horizontal movement about the elbow joint 
of 1/200 of a degree. Previously the threshold of 1/2 degree found 
by Goldscheider had been the smallest. Storring attributes his 
so much smaller result to the fact that in his own experiments 
pressure sensations were not eliminated. Erismann (2) takes the 
difference threshold as a measure of the effect upon kinesthetic 
sensations of varying conditions. The difference sensitivity for 
active and for passive movements he finds to be about the same; 
if anything there is slightly greater sensitivity in the case of active 
movements. The influence of rate of movement is found to be 
very slight; if anything it has a slightly greater effect in the case 
of passive than in the case of active movements. With active 
movement he finds that making the movement against resistance 
results in disturbance of judgment, the result of which is under- 
estimation of the extent of movement. Winter (2) attacked the 
problem of whether movement sensations come from the muscles 
and tendons or from the joints. He concluded in favor of the 
muscles and tendons for two chief reasons: first, because the angle 
at which the arm was held had considerable effect upon the difference 



196 JOHN T. METCALF 

sensitivity, and this is a condition which greatly affects muscle 
shape and little affects joint action; second, because anesthetization 
with ether and the electric current had little effect upon difference 
sensitivity when the agent was applied to the joint, and a much 
greater effect when it was applied to the muscle. 

von Frey (4) favors the view that the sensory factors upon 
which the judgment of weight depends are connected with the 
muscles and tendons and not with the joints. This investigator 
made a new departure in lifted weight experimentation. He used 
a long plaster cast, covered with leather, fitting the subject's arm 
from shoulder to wrist and holding it rigidly extended. When the 
arm in the cast is held at right angles to the body, weights may be 
hung upon it at different distances from the shoulder. In this way 
pressure sensations are eliminated, and it is possible to calculate 
the exact force which the weight exerts about the shoulder joint, 
von Frey has stressed the importance of subjecting the method 
of lifting weights to rigid control. The same weight lifted in 
different ways may involve the expenditure of different amounts 
of muscular force. The significant thing from a psychological 
point of view is not the magnitude of the weight, but the magnitude 
of the muscle strain required to raise it. By the method described, 
von Frey made an investigation of the difference sensitivity for 
lifted weights. He found it to be very fine, approaching even the 
fineness of that for visual intensities. A further study by von 
Frey (5) also emphasizes the need of a perfectly constant method 
of lifting in experimentation of this sort. This study was made 
to test the common observation that tossing a weight in the hand 
is preferred as a method of estimating it to merely raising it. von 
Frey's results bear out the common observation, showing clearly 
that tossing the weight does result in greater accuracy of judgment. 

During the past year Fernberger (12) has described a set of 
weights designed to meet the requirements of non-variability in 
weight and temperature. He calls attention to the fact that 
although the need of eliminating temperature sensations has long 
been generally recognized in esthesiometric work, it has rather 
escaped notice in lifted weight experimentation. He outlines the 
advantages of hard rubber as a substance for making the bodies of 
weights. It varies less than wood with changes in atmospheric 
conditions, and successfully eliminates the factor of temperature 
stimulation which is nearly always present when metal weights 
are used. 



CUTANEOUS AND KINESTHETIC SENSES 197 

An article by Friedlander (13) on the perception of weights 
treats the pressure and kinesthetic sensations involved only as 
incidental to the main problem of perception. The experiment, 
described are directed toward an analysis of the process of object'- 
fication. Weight, like color, is experienced as a quality of the 
object. The groundwork of sensation, the role of attention, and 
various other factors in this objectification are introspectively 
examined under different conditions. 

Lashley's article (7), which appeared in 1917, is the report of 
a study made upon an intelligent young man whose left leg, as the 
result of an injury to the spinal cord, was almost totally anesthetic. 
Tests showed that he was quite unable to judge passive movements 
of the member; in fact, without the aid of vision, he could not tell 
that his leg had been moved at all. One test involved his holding 
his leg extended in a horizontal position. The leg would be held 
in this way for a short time, then it would flex and the foot would 
drop without the subject's being aware that it had changed its 
position. Other tests in which the extents were measured which 
the subject judged to be equal when the leg moved against varying 
degrees of resistance showed that in active movement too there 
were no excitations from the moving limb which were specific 
enough to give a clue to the extent of the movement. The accuracy 
with which the subject was able to move his anesthetic limb was 
then tested. Without, of course, the aid of vision, he was required 
to approximate prescribed extents with movements of the anesthetic 
member. It was found that his ability to do this was not signifi- 
cantly less than that of a perfectly normal subject, and the results 
show clearly that the estimate of the extent is not based upon the 
length of time required to accomplish it. The author thinks it 
probable that the nervous discharge to a muscle may be regulated 
after its initiation without there being any afferent impulses from 
the effector activated. 

These results are highly important in several ways. In the 
first place they add a telling argument to those which have already 
been arrayed against the so-called "sensation of innervation." 
But they are significant also for studies of the afferent impulses 
originated by muscular contraction. Such studies have often 
taken the characteristics of active movement as indicative of the 
characteristics of the sensory processes involved. Lashley's work 
would seem to show that there is no necessary relation between 
them, and that what is really measured may be rather the factor 



198 JOHN T. METCALF 

of central control. There has been, perhaps, a tendency to over- 
emphasize the part played by kinesthetic sensations in the control 
of movement. Pillsbury says (27, p. 340): "In addition to these 
impressions from the higher senses, sensations from the moving 
member serve to control all movement. The best evidence of this 
statement is the fact that when kinesthetic sensations are lacking, 
control is inadequate." Other writers assign to kinesthetic sen- 
sation roles of comparable significance in the control of movement. 
Some, however, regard the "resident sensations" as less indis- 
pensable. Angell, for example (20, p. 402), says: "The ideas and 
sensations by means of which we supervise our movements may 
be of the most various character, and their relations to the move- 
ments may be either very close, as in the case where they are 
kinesthetic, or indefinitely remote." The work described above 
shifts the emphasis from periphery to center, from present sense 
data to the results of past experience. Kinesthetic sensations are, 
no doubt, of great importance when a movement is being learned, 
but when control has once been established their importance seems 
to be less. This whole matter is significantly related to problems 
of the will, since, as noted above, the kinesthetic sensation is taken 
by some writers as the basis of the will-experience; but into the 
intricacies of this subject the present review will not venture. 

The study of the effects of stimulating the semicircular canals, 
utricle, and saccule is generally regarded as a branch of the study 
of kinesthetic sensation. There is no doubt that these organs are 
true receptors and that their stimulation gives rise to reactions 
which may be of considerable importance in the life of the organism. 
Also, since these receptors are normally stimulated by change of 
position or movement, they may properly be classed as kinesthetic. 
Most writers group the functions of the semicircular canals, utricle, 
and saccule together as a single sense, designated as "static" (20, 
23, 26, 27, 29), as "labyrinthine" (25) or "labyrinthic" (24), or 
as the "equilibrium sense" (30). Titchener (28) distinguishes 
two senses here, the "ampullar" and the "vestibular." Writers 
are fairly well agreed that sense qualities aroused by stimulation 
of the kinesthetic sense organs of the inner ear are very vague and 
undifferentiated. Some incline to the view that stimulation does 
not give rise to conscious qualities at all (20, 22, 26), and that the 
activity of the receptors is experienced only through its after-effects. 

The chief methods of stimulating the organs of the static sense 
are by rotating or otherwise moving the whole body in space, 



CUTANEOUS AND KIN ESTHETIC SENSES 199 

warming or cooling the sense organs, or passing an electric current 
through the head. The various methods of stimulation are de- 
scribed in detail in Equilibrium and Vertigo, by I. H. Jones (7). 
The effects of stimulation are found in bodily reactions of various 
sorts: nystagmus, change in the tonus of muscles, compensatory 
reflexes, organic responses, and so on. These reactions are usually 
accompanied by complex experiences of dizziness and sometimes 
of nausea. 

The effects of one-sided labyrinth extirpation upon the tonus 
of the muscles of the body have been made the object of thorough 
study by Magnus and de Kleijn (3). These experimenters used 
four kinds of animals (rabbits, guinea-pigs, cats, and dogs). They 
found that labyrinth tonus exists without a doubt, but that it is 
developed in different degrees in different animals. Within the 
last year these experimenters (10) have published the results of 
further extirpation experiments on cats and rabbits. They conclude 
that labyrinth reflexes in these animals have their central seat not 
in the cerebellum, but in the medulla and mid-brain. The work 
was done on animals which had already been decerebrated. After 
connections with the cerebellum had been severed it was found 
that the labyrinth reflexes still persisted. Careful anatomical 
examinations were later made of the central structures of the 
animals experimented on as a control over the success of the oper- 
ation in completely cutting off, connection with the cerebellum. 
This work is very important, as hitherto most writers have regarded 
the cerebellum as the central seat of static reflexes. The second 
article of de Kleijn and Magnus (n) is a thorough study of the 
tonic reflexes of the eye muscles of the rabbit. Conditions of 
one-sided and double labyrinth extirpation are brought about in 
the analysis. 

Prince (7) has recently made a study for the purpose of ob- 
serving the development of the functions of the labyrinth in very 
young animals. He experiments on the effect of rotation and 
one-sided labyrinth extirpation in very young kittens ranging in 
age from six days to seven weeks. He finds that their reactions 
show progressive changes with increasing age. Well defined 
labyrinth disturbance was not found until about the third week 
after birth. 

Mann (2) has studied the effect of electrical stimulation of the 
labyrinth upon bodily tonus in man. A galvanic current was 
passed through the head from ear to ear. Under conditions of 



200 JOHN T. METCALF 

stimulation of this sort it is found that the functions usually attri- 
buted to the labyrinth are augmented on the cathode side and 
decreased on the anode side. With relatively weak currents, too 
weak to produce the nystagmus or incoordination of bodily move- 
ments which result from the use of stronger ones, a change in the 
tonus of bodily muscles is found to appear. This does not show 
itself in an outwardly apparent relaxation on one side of the body 
and contraction on the other; but if two equal weights are held, 
one in one hand and the other in the other, they appear unequal. 
This, the author thinks, is due to increased tonus on one side and 
decreased tonus on the other. An application of the technique 
of lifted weight experiments to a quantitative study of this phe- 
nomenon might yield valuable results. 

Burtt (7) made a study of the perception of slight changes of 
equilibrium, the purpose of which was primarily to contribute to 
the solution of certain problems of aviation. He found that lateral 
changes were in general more readily perceived than longitudinal 
ones. With the apparatus used in this study it was also possible 
to measure the relative effectiveness with which such changes of 
equilibrium were reacted to with different forms of airplane control. 

During the past year two articles by Griffith (14, 15) give the 
results of a systematic study of the bodily and mental effects of 
repeated bodily rotation. The subjects, of whom there were 
sixteen, were rotated a great number of times during a period 
exten iing over some months. The bo iily and mental effects were 
observed as they underwent change with repeated experiments. 
Each subject was given ten trials during an experimental period, 
five to the right and five to the left, each trial consisting of ten 
revolutions. The ocular resultants of rotation were made the 
object of quantitative study by measurements of the duration of 
apparent movement of objects in the visual field, the number of 
eye-movements, and the duration of after-nystagmus. It is found 
that with repeated rotation the after-effects decrease markedly, 
at first rapidly, then progressively more slowly. The decrease 
holds not only of the series as a whole, but appears also between 
the first and last trials of a single day. Other after-effects of 
rotation are found to follow the same decreasing course as the 
ocular resultants. A careful analysis is made of the effect of various 
physical and temporal conditions, and of that of the general organic 
state of the subject. It is also found that the organic effects of 
practice obtained under one set of conditions may be carried over 



CUTANEOUS AND KINESTHETIC SENSES 2OI 

to other sets of conditions. If practice is kept up long enough 
the organic effects of rotation may entirely disappear. On the 
subjective side it is found that the experiences resulting from 
rotation are very complex, but nowhere is there found a process 
which could be called a "sensation of rotation" or a "sensation of 
movement." It is found that certain mental factors such as atten- 
tion, psychophysical determination, and mode of visual fixation 
have an effect upon the results of rotation, both organic and mental. 

REFERENCES 

1. ANGIER, R. P. Cutaneous, Kinaesthetic, and Miscellaneous Senses. PSYCHOL. 

BULL., 1912, g, I73~i79- 

2. METCALF, J. T. Cutaneous, Kinaesthetic, and Miscellaneous Senses. PSYCHOL. 

BULL., 1913, 10, 173-180. 

3. METCALF, J. T. Cutaneous, Kinaesthetic, and Miscellaneous Senses. PSYCHOL. 

BULL., 1914, n, 153-160. 

4. METCALF, J. T. Cutaneous and Kinaesthetic Senses. PSYCHOL. BULL., 1915, 

12, II4-II7. 

5. METCALF, J. T. Cutaneous and Kinaesthetic Senses. PSYCHOL. BULL., 1916, 

13, 138-142. 

6. METCALF, J. T. Cutaneous and Kinaesthetic Senses. PSYCHOL. BULL., 1917, 

14, 94-98. 

7. METCALF, J. T. Cutaneous and Kinesthetic Senses. PSYCHOL. BULL., 1920, 

17, 117-122. 

8. ALSTON, J. H. The Spatial Condition of the Fusion of Warmth and Cold in Heat. 

Amer. J. of Psychol., 1920, 31, 303-312. 

9. BEHAN, R. J. Pain. New York: Appleton, 1920. Pp. xxviii + 920. 

10. DE KLEIJN, A., & MAGNUS, R. tJber die Unabhangigkeit der Labyrinthreflexe 

vom Kleinhirn und iiber die Lage der Zentren fur die Labyrinthreflexe im 
Hirnstamm. Arch.f. d. ges. Physiol. (PFLUGER), 1920, 178, 124-178. 

1 1. DE KLEIJN, A., & MAGNUS, R. Tonische Labyrinthreflexe auf die Augenmuskeln. 

Arch.f. d. ges. Physiol. (PFLUGER), 1920, 178, 179-192. 

12. FERNBERGER, S. W. A New Form of Stimuli for Lifted Weight Experiments. 

Amer. J. of Psychol., 1920, 31, 147-151. 

13. FRIEDLANDER, H. Die Wahrnehmung der Schwere. Zsc h. f. Psychol., 1920, 83, 

129-210. 

14. GRIFFITH, C. R. The Organic Effects of Repeated Bodily Rotation. /. of Exper. 

Psychol., 1920, 3, 15-46. 

15. GRIFFITH, C. R. An Experimental Study of Dizziness. /. of Exper. Psychol., 

1920, 3, 89-125. 

16. HOLLAND, R. T. On the 'After-sensation 'of Pressure. /. of Exper. Psychol., 

1920, 3, 302-318. 

17. POLLOCK, L. J. Nerve Overlap as Related to the Relatively Early Return of Pain 

Sense Following Injury to the Peripheral Nerves. /. of Comp. Psychol., 1920, 

32, 357-378. 

18. TITCHENER, E. B. Notes from the Psychological Laboratory of Cornell Univer- 

sity: 3. Models for the Demonstration of Sensory Qualities. Amer. J. of 
Psychol., 1920, 31, 212-214. 



202 JOHN T. METCALF 

19. WHEELER, R. H. Theories of the Will and Kinaesthetic Sensations. Psychol. 

Rev., 1920, 27, 351-360. 

20. ANGELL, J. R. Psychology. N. Y., 1908. 

21. BREESE, B. B. Psychology. N. Y., 1917. 

22. JUDD, C. H. Psychology. (Rev. ed.) Boston, 1917. 

23. HUNTER, W. S. General Psychology. Chicago, 1919. 

24. LADD, G. T., & WOODWORTH, R. S. Elements of Physiological Psychology. N. Y., 

1911. 

25. MYERS, C. S. Text-book of Experimental Psychology. Cambridge, 1911. 

26. PILLSBURY, W. B. The Fundamentals of Psychology. N. Y., 1916. 

27. PILLSBURY, W. B. The Essentials of Psychology. (Rev. ed.) N. Y., 1920. 

28. TITCHENER, E. B. A Text-book of Psychology. N. Y., 1909. 

29. WARREN, H. C. Human Psychology. Boston, 1919. 

30. WATSON, J. B. Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist. Phila., 1919. 



SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES 

BY CHARLES A. ELLWOOD 

University of Missouri 

The year 1920 was exceedingly prolific in works in social psy- 
chology and in sociology. Possibly the war has aided somewhat 
in stimulating attention to these subjects. Social psychology in 
particular has come to receive so much attention that it is difficult 
to review even the chief contributions to it during the year. 

Early in 1920 Professor Knight Dunlap in his presidential 
address before the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology 
(7) bewailed the non-existence of a scientific social psychology, 
apparently consigning to the scrap heap all that had previously 
been done by workers in that field. "Where, we ask, is our social 
psychology? And the answer is that it is yet in the making, and 
that it is being made not by psychologists, but by politicians, and 
by indepen lent thinkers like Bertrand Russell and Bernard Shaw." 
Evidently in Professor Dunlap's opinion Cooley, Ross, Giddings, 
and possibly McDougall are not as deserving of mention as Bertrand 
Russell and Bernard Shaw. Yet he concludes optimistically that 
we can have "a real social psychology" if we will proceed upon 
the basis of empiricism and avoid such delusions as the metaphysical 
debate between "interactionism" and "psychophysical parallelism." 
Very sensibly, too, he says: "That which is needed is a social 
psychology: not physiology. We need to deal with the desires, 
with the purposes, the emotions, and the conscious tendencies of 
men and women, and we need to deal with them as they are." 

As if in answer to Professor Dunlap's lament a number of texts 
in social psychology appeared in 1920, each attempting to outline 
at least a scientific approach to the subject. The most ambitious 
of these attempts is that of Professor James Mickel Williams (16). 
He tells us in the preface of his work that it is but the first volume 
of a six volume treatise on the whole field of social psychology. 
This first volume is merely introductory to the whole treatise and 
discusses chiefly the relation of social psychology to the other 
social sciences. The second volume will deal with the field of 
literature and art; the third with that of the conflict of interests 

203 



204 CHARLES A. ELLWOOD 

in social relations; the fourth with that of the adjustment of inter- 
ests; the fifth with the control of personality; and the sixth with 
the processes of social control. If the scheme is carried out the 
work will be almost monumental. Professor Williams informs us 
that these six books are already written. Social psychologists and 
sociologists will eagerly await their publication. 

It seems rash to attempt to criticize a work of which we have 
as yet only the first installment, and the author warns against so 
doing. Nevertheless some judgment may be tentatively offered 
on the basis of this first volume. Professor Williams defines social 
psychology as "the science of the motives of the behavior of men 
living in social relations." Social psychology, he tells us, does not 
cover the entire field of social relations, but merely the motives of 
social behavior. "By a motive," he says, "is meant any mental 
state which either assists or hinders an act." The motives of 
which he apparently intends to make the most use, however, "the 
essential assumptions of social psychology," are certain instinctive 
dispositions such as acquisition, rivalry, domination, submission, 
sympathy. These are the elementary processes of social relations, 
and the author tells us that "these dispositions will be used as 
assumptions in the analysis of the psychological aspect of the 
assumptions of the social sciences." In later volumes he proposes 
to analyze these assumed dispositions and thus reduce them to 
their lowest terms. 

In the present volume he takes up in particular the relations 
of social psychology to political science, to jurisprudence, to econ- 
omics, to history, aiid to sociology, with two concluding chapters 
on the field and methods of social psychology. Very rightly he 
says that each of the social sciences is built up on certain funda- 
mental psychological assumptions. Each social science he regards 
in a large sense as psychological, but the social sciences proper, 
he holds, are objective in their treatment, while social psychology 
is the subjective basis for all of them. 

As to the relations between social psychology and sociology, 
Professor Williams holds that sociology concerns itself with social 
behavior in its external aspects. He accepts Dr. W. I. Thomas' 
contention that sociology is a theory of social organization, and 
is thus a special science of culture, like economics, and is in so far 
opposed to social psychology as the general science of the subjective 
side of culture. Thjs is true even of psychological sociology, 
according to Professor Williams, who says that psychological 



SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES 205 

sociology can mean nothing except a sociology which uses psycho- 
logical assumptions. Nevertheless, no social process is thoroughly 
understood without psychological analysis and especially without 
analysis of the motivation of human behavior. Accordingly social 
psychology is necessary for sociology, but not a part of it. On the 
contrary, it is to be sharply distinguished from all sections of 
sociology and also of social philosophy. 

It cannot matter much by what name any body of scientific 
knowledge is known, provided it is scientific; but it may be doubted 
whether any sharp distinction between social psychology and the 
social sciences, especially sociology, can be carried through as 
Professor Williams argues for. Most American sociologists, at 
any rate, concern themselves chiefly with the motivation of social 
occurrences, such as the formation of groups, the changes in insti- 
tutions, the persistence of groups and their customs, and the like; 
and they use, furthermore, the very methods of investigation which 
Professor Williams approves. Professor Giddings, for example, 
a former teacher of Professor Williams, in two valuable articles on 
"Pluralistic Behavior" (10) does not hesitate to call sociology 
"the psychology of society." This may be a somewhat narrow 
conception of sociology, but it surely more accurately describes 
the scientific sociology which we find today than does Professor 
Williams 's characterization. Moreover, what will our author do 
with such a man as Professor Cooley, whose work in social psy- 
chology and sociology, as I have said elsewhere, deserves, in some 
ways, to be ranked with the work of Darwin in biology? Yet 
Professor Cooley's work owes its scientific character to the accuracy 
of his psychological analysis of the motivation of social behavior. 
It is noteworthy that Professor Williams cites Cooley only once 
in his entire book, and then in a brief reference to Cooley's Human 
Nature and the Social Order. Cooley's Social Organization and 
Social Process are nowhere mentioned, not even in the bibliography, 
though they are his most important works. Is it possible that 
Professor Williams has overlooked some of the most notable works 
in psychological sociology, in spite of his very evident erudition? 
The works of Professor Hobhouse are also not mentioned. 

It would seem, despite the author's argument to the contrary, 
that there is still good ground for clinging to the common sense 
view that "psychological sociology" and at least that section of 
social psychology which we call "collective" or "group psychology," 
are identical. It would follow that social psychology, so far as 



206 CHARLES A. ELLWOOD 

it concerns itself with groups, is a part of sociology in any practical 
division of scientific labor, whereas, so far as it concerns itself with 
individual behavior, it is equally obviously a part of psychology. 
This is, at any rate, the condition which the literature of the two 
sciences seems at present to reflect; and there is nothing necessarily 
illogical about a science which is really a part of two other general 
sciences. 1 If this is the fact, we should expect to find both psy- 
chologists and sociologists engaged in developing social psychology, 
and this is exactly what we do find. 2 

While Professor McDougall in his new book (13), which we 
review elsewhere, holds that group behavior is the subject-matter 
of collective psychology, Professor Giddings in the articles just 
referred to (10) holds that pluralistic behavior, or the behavior of 
groups, is "the subject-matter of sociology," and that the approach 
to a scientific interpretation of such behavior must be through 
like-mindedness, that is, like responses, whether instinctive, habistic, 
or rational, on the part of the individuals of the group, to the same 
stimuli. Professor Bogardus (3), on the other hand, though writing 
asr a sociologist, holds that the field of social psychology is distinct 
both from that of sociology and from that of psychology. His 
text, however, fails to show that this is the case, if we accept the 
drctum that the field of a science is determined by its problems; 
for the problems of 'which Professor Bogardus makes social psy- 
chology treat, are chiefly those of the interaction of minds, of social 
conflicts and change, and of social control and progress. These 
again are surely the problems with which the sociologist concerns 
himself. Professor Bogardus' book, regarded as a text, has the 
advantage that it approaches the subject through the problem- 
solving method of study; buk its weakness is that it approaches 
its problems too largely from the side of suggestion and imitation, 
thus following Ross and Tarde rather than Cooley. 

Perhaps the nearest approach to a satisfactory text in social 
psychology, especially on the strictly psychological and individual 
side, is Dr. Irwin Edman's Human Traits and Their Social Signifi- 
cance (8). This, we are told, was written for use in a course 
entitled "Introduction to Contemporary Civilization," required of 
all freshmen in Columbia University. It is a good presentation of 
the psychology of Professors Thorndike and Woodworth in its 

* Compare physiological psychology, for example. 

* It is noteworthy that Dr. Charles A. Beard in a letter commending this book of 
Professor Williams speaks of him as a "sociologist." 



SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES 207 

social implications. Perhaps rightly, considering that it was written 
as a text for freshmen, it contains no discussion of the relations 
of the sciences, but takes up successively the various types of human 
behavior, such as instinct, habit, and emotion, the social nature of 
man, the development of the self, and individual differences. 
However, part two, entitled "The Career of Reason," undertakes 
to apply psychology to the interpretation of cultural complexes, 
such as religion, art, science, and morals. This latter part of the 
book is least satisfactory, partly because anthropological, historical, 
and strictly sociological data have not been as carefully considered 
as the psychological. As a general survey of the processes of 
human nature, as they reveal themselves in social life, the book 
is worthy of commendation, though there is little original about it. 

A book of a very different type is Professor Patrick's Psychology 
of Social Reconstruction (14) ; a more appropriate title of this book 
might have been, as he tells us, " Preliminary Notes on the Appli- 
cation of Psychology to the Problem of Social Reconstruction as 
Represented in Certain Popular Movements of the Day." Very 
rightly he holds that programs of social reconstruction should be 
tested by psychology; but as he lays much stress upon the instincts 
and the original inherited traits of man, his attitude toward social 
progress and the possibilities of social reconstruction through 
science and education is somewhat negative. He seems to hold 
that not only is there a constant tendency to revert to the instinctive 
level in social life, but that this tendency cannot be overcome 
through rational social control. He seems to agree with Kidd that 
some new interpretation of religion is probably about the only 
thing which will "snatch us out of our devotion to self and our 
narrow class interests." However, Professor Patrick does find 
some help in education and the organization of intelligence, and he 
is undoubtedly right in his contention that emotional, as well as 
rational control, is needed for social progress. The book is stimu- 
lating, but like many books written from the purely psychological 
point of view, it lacks a sufficient background in anthropology, 
history, and the concrete study of social conditions. 

The sociologists, too, are at sea as regards the relation of their 
work to psychology and to social psychology. Perhaps these 
things have no place in elementary texts on sociology and social 
problems. That, apparently, is what Professor Binder (i) thinks, 
though Professor Dow (6) is of the opposite view. Professor Binder 
goes so far in the non-psychological direction that he undertakes 



208 CHARLES A. ELLWOOD 

(2) to formulate a new theory of social progress without reference 
to any troublesome social psychology, namely, that progress is 
due to the amount of surplus vitality, or health, which a nation 
possesses. Professor Dealey (5), on the other hand, finds a large 
place for psychology and social psychology in sociology. He does 
not clearly state whether he regards social psychology as a part of 
sociology or not, but apparently he does, as he devotes several of 
the basic chapters of his book to social psychology. The book is 
an enlargement and revision of the author's Sociology, which was 
published in 1909, and is intended as an elementery text-book for 
college purposes. 

The most notable text in sociology published during the year 
1920, however, is Professor Ross' 700 page work on The Principles 
of Sociology (15). It is well worthy of the attention of social 
psychologists, not that any parade is made of the use of psychology, 
for neither the word psychology nor social psychology occurs in 
the index of the work, but psychological method and analysis are 
more or less in evidence in every chapter. While no formal psy- 
chological doctrines are appealed to, yet there is constant use of 
psychological principles, usually a sound and careful use. It is 
notable that Professor Ross has almost completely discarded, in 
this latest work of his, the use of suggestion and imitation as 
principles of social interpretation. Indeed, these words also do 
not occur in his index; and he refers but once to Tarde, and then 
only in the way of a quotation from Tarde's Social Logic as to the 
effect of festivals on unifying human groups. One cannot but ask 
whether Professor Ross, who made so much use of Tarde's sugges- 
tion-imitation principle in his Social Psychology, published in 1908, 
has outgrown his former views, or whether he merely means that 
he would consign the suggestion-imitation explanation of social 
processes to the limbo of social psychology. 

Professor Eliot is another sociologist who would apparently 
make psychology fundamental in sociological interpretation. Of 
the numerous articles in periodical literature along social psycho- 
logical lines which appeared during 1920 his paper (9) is especially 
worthy of attention, because it indicates a way of harmonizing and 
combining psychological methods with the objective methods of 
the social survey in the study of social conditions. Whether one 
criticizes the details of his exposition or not, one is forced to conclude 
that some such synthesis of subjective and objective methods 
will characterize more and more the social research of the future. 



SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES 2OQ 

This conclusion would, of course, not be agreed to by Dr. Lowie 
who, in his latest study of Primitive Society (12), again condemns 
all psychological interpretation of culture, and rigidly confines 
himself to a description of the objective aspects of primitive society 
in the family, the sib, voluntary associations, rank, government, 
and justice. He is practically forced, therefore, to say nothing 
about primitive beliefs, primitive religion, and primitive art. This 
he does, though to the reviewer, a description of primitive society 
with these things left out seems entirely unsatisfactory, even from 
a strictly scientific standpoint. Mr. James, on the other hand, 
in an elementary text on the same subject (u), devotes a consi- 
derable part of his book to these subjects. Verily, psychology 
divides both the anthropologists and the sociologists, even perhaps 
as sociology may be said to divide the psychologists! 

A book which may help possibly in bringing some order into 
these badly tangled relations in the social sciences is Professor 
Conklin's latest work (4). Avowedly a popular work, and written 
strictly from the standpoint of a biologist, the work in its way 
surveys the whole field of the social sciences. It discusses not 
only the biological foundations of society, but also the biological 
bases of democracy, ethics, and religion. It is noteworthy that 
this biologist finds plenty of room in his scheme of life for the subject- 
ive and the psychic, yes, even the "teleological," though this will 
doubtless make his book anathema to mechanistic determinists. 
Like most social psychologists, he finds that human society is 
founded on human instincts, and that in most men instinct is more 
universal and more powerful than reasoning. However, intelligence 
and freedom have come in human society to interfere with instinct, 
and this is the explanation of the incompleteness of its integration, 
co-operation, and harmony. Moreover, as intelligence rises the 
proportional strength and power of instinct decreases in controlling 
the relationships of men. The well-balanced view of the whole 
social life process which Professor Conklin presents might well be 
emulated by all workers in social psychology and in the social 
sciences. 

REFERENCES 

1. BINDER, R. M. Major Social Problems. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1920. Pp. 

324- 

2. BINDER, R. M. Health and Social Progress. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1920. 

Pp. xi + 295. 

3. BOGARDUS, E. S. Essentials of Social Psychology. Los Angeles: Univ. of So. 

Calif., 1920. Pp. 304. 



210 SPECIAL REVIEWS 

4. CONKLIN, E. G. Direction of Human Evolution. New York: Scribner, 1921. 

Pp. xiii + 247. 

5. DEALEY, J. Q. Sociology, Its Development and Application. New York: Apple- 

ton, 1920. Pp. xv + 547. 

6. Dow, G. S. Introduction to the Principles of Sociology. Waco, Tex.: Baylor 

Univ., 1920. Pp. 505. 

7. DUNLAP, K. The Social Need for Scientific Psychology. Sci. Mo., 1920, xz, 

502-517. 

8. EDMAN, I. Human Traits and Their Social Significance. Boston: Hough ton 

Mifflin, 1920. Pp. xi + 467. 

9. ELIOT, T. D. A Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Group Formation and Behavior. 

Amer. J. of Social., 1920, 26, 333-352. 

10. GIDDINGS, F. H. Pluralistic Behavior. Amer. J. of Social., 1920, 25, 385-404, 

S39-S6I. 

11. JAMES, E. O. An Introduction to Anthropology. London: Macmillan, 1919. 

Pp. vii + 259. 

12. LOWIE, R. H. Primitive Society. New York: Boni & Liveright, 1920. Pp. 

viii + 463. 

13. McDoucALL, W. The Group Mind. New York: Putnam, 1920. Pp. xxii + 4*3- 

14. PATRICK, G. T. W. Psychology of Social Reconstruction. Boston: Hough ton 

Mifflin, 1920. Pp. 273. 

15. Ross, E. A. Principles of Sociology. New York: Century, 1920. Pp. xviii + 

708. 

16. WILLIAMS, J. M. Foundations of Social Science. New York: Knopf, 1920. 

Pp. xvi + 494. 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 

Mind Energy. HENRI BERGSON. (Trans, by H. Wildon Carr.) 
New York: Holt, 1920. Pp. 225. 

The lectures and essays which form the content of M. Bergson's 
latest book have been delivered or published at different times 
and places from 1901 to 1913. They show clearly his characteristic 
philosophical attitude, and his empirical method in dealing with 
philosophical problems, here applied to an important general 
problem of psychology. In this rather small volume he is less 
intimately concerned with the nature of "mind energy" than 
with the nature of the relationship which exists between mind 
and brain. Most of the lectures and essays are concerned with 
different phases of this problem. While certain conclusions reached 
by following various lines of facts are indicated, no attempt is 
made to formulate a precise theory. 



SPECIAL REFIEJPS 211 

M. Bergson considers that all the usual theories of equivalence 
between mind action and brain action, monism, parallelism, epi- 
phenomenalism, etc., are ultimately derived from the work of 
Descartes and his successors. This philosophy itself arose as a 
result of the applications of mathematics to physics and astronomy 
in the early days of modern science. For lack of anything better, 
not only the physical sciences, but also biology and psychology are 
built upon the metaphysical foundations of this type of philosophy. 
Since these foundations were fashioned to support only those 
sciences which deal with the entities to which the mathematics of 
space may be applied, the result is that the edifice of the life sciences 
appears very much awry, and that of the mental sciences in an 
even worse condition. 

Present-day psychologists have allowed themselves to become 
hide-bound by the Cartesian tradition instead of following the 
facts until led to discover a set of fundamental principles more 
proper to their science. On account of this, our intellectual laziness, 
and the dullness of our philosophical wits, we are condemned to 
suffer a host of misbegotten theories ranging from monism to 
certain types of behaviorism. 

In dealing with his main problem M. Bergson breaks away from 
the a priori methods habitually followed by most psychologists 
in discoursing upon the problem of mind and matter, and follows 
up certain lines of facts. These converging lines of evidence lead 
him to the conclusion that mental processes and neural processes 
do not stand in a one to one relationship to each other. Even if 
we had a complete knowledge of all the processes among the atoms 
and molecules of the brain, and knew their psychical correlates 
of the moment, this would not enable us to tell all that was going 
on in the mind at that moment, because a vast part of mental life 
goes on independently of the brain. One could "read" from a 
complete knowledge of brain processes only that relatively small 
portion of mental activity which immediately has to do with the 
choice and action of the moment, with the insertion of the mind 
in the physical universe. Facts in support of this thesis, and such 
evidence as is afforded regarding the nature of Venergie spirituelle, 
are drawn from a consideration of such subjects as "Life and 
Consciousness," "The Soul and the Body," "Phantasms of the 
Living," "Dreams," "False Recognition," "Intellectual Effort," 
and "Brain and Thought." 



212 SPECIAL REVIEWS 

The function of the brain as connected with the mind is, as 
M. Bergson has stated in his other books, to inhibit mental activity, 
screening off all except such portion of it as may be useful from 
the point of view of the choice and action of the moment. Occa- 
sionally this screen falls, the inhibitory mechanism lapses in its 
functioning, and in dreams, in cases of false recognition, in the 
various phenomena of trance, and in certain other mental states, 
we are enabled to discern portions of that abundance of mental 
life which goes on in addition to that portion connected with the 
working of the brain. 

In the last essay "Brain and Thought," the position is taken 
that theories of equivalence, besides being untrue to the facts, are 
further vitiated by a logical error, into which their supporters 
inevitably fall. Either the notation of idealism, or that of realism, 
or both may be employed. But whatever is employed must be 
employed consistently, and the two notations kept separate from 
one another. This, M. Bergson finds, the supporters of theories 
of equivalence are unable to do, but they surreptitiously interchange 
one for the other to avoid the contradictions which inevitably 
threaten, when one is on the verge of success in applying any 
theory of equivalence to the problem of brain and mind. 

The material of the book is not all new, and with certain brilliant 
exceptions, M. Bergson has expressed similar ideas in former books, 
but its value as a criticism of most of the usual attempts to define 
the relationship of mind to brain is decided. And it will probably 
be welcomed by those psychologists who may prefer to follow 
"lines of facts" in such matters, rather than a priori methods 
based upon somewhat threadbare and partially inapplicable meta- 
physical doctrines. 

FOSTER P. BOSWELL 

General Psychology. WALTER S. HUNTER. Chicago: University 

of Chicago, 1919. Pp. xiii + 351. 

The writing of elementary text-books of psychology appears 
still in the experimental stage. Variation in the presentation of 
material occurs long after the science has settled down system- 
atically, as witness mathematics, but in psychology we have not 
yet eliminated many of our fundamental difficulties. The methods 
used, the scope of the subject, and the point of view maintained 
are still open to variable interpretation. Considerable headway 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 213 

has been made in the matter of agreeing to definitions and concepts, 
a progress that in view of the divergent traditional training of 
representative psychologists is in many respects astonishing, but 
much is still to be hoped for in other directions. There is no better 
way, however, to improve the presentation of the subject than by 
continued alteration of the presentation. The science, with its 
previous mistakes and also its present standards well in mind, is, 
as it were, continually re-writing its manuscript. Altogether the 
ideal text ought to be scholarly, unbiased, and pedagogically sound. 

The author of the text before us is aware of the problem and 
willing to advance a solution. He believes that "too much stress 
is placed upon normal adult psychology (pure psychology) in our 
introductory courses," and therefore offers a volume which presents 
"a general survey of the science while still stressing the customary 
side of the subject." Accordingly a little less than a third of the 
book is devoted to a description of the fields of psychology outside 
that of the normal human adult and the remainder treats the 
material usually found In our texts. It would have been an inter- 
esting experiment if the author with a bit of daring had expanded 
the first part of the text considerably and had condensed the field 
of the normal human acfult mind to about a third or even a quarter 
of th,e book. There is a distinct need for a book that shall give 
a survey of the entire general scope of the subject on the order 
of Angell's Chapters from Modern Psychology but with the intensive 
treatment of the present volume. 

The fields covered in Part I are: animal, individual and applied, 
abnormal, and social and racial. Here again one might take issue 
with the author for his divisions and for their order, but in so new 
an undertaking almost any carefully thought out classification is 
as good as another. The reviewer could not, for example, agree 
with the author in casting out child psychology and physiological 
psychology for the reasons advanced. Historically by far the 
greater amount of material in child psychology that deserves the 
name of science has been done outside of the field of tests and by 
no means "all psychology seeks to correlate consciousness and 
physiological processes and is therefore physiological psychology 
in intent." Even the three Wundtian volumes practically dropped 
their physiological orientation after the first volume. The author 
is right, however, in insisting that logically at least, though not 
often in practice, genetic and comparative psychologies are points 
of view rather than separate segments of the whole subject. 



214 SPECIAL REVIEWS 

It is not unnatural to begin the series with the animal field. 
The author's chief interest lies presumably there and the topic 
offers him one of the best opportunities of presenting psychology 
from the "objective" point of view. This pleases the student and 
at once postpones the main difficulty in the teaching of psychology. 
The author has already paid his respects to introspection as a 
method. In spite of its literal connotation in practice and in 
current usage it simply means ''observation." In the reviewer's 
mind we should begin to dispense with the long paragraphs on the 
peculiar nature of introspection and perhaps, as one authority has 
already done with the term ''consciousness," do awayi with it alto- 
gether. In regard to ''structuralistic" and ''behavioristic" con- 
tentions the author maintains an attitude of benevolent neutrality 
toward ''behaviorism" because it "has the advantage" with the 
later reservation, however, that "it is much too early to decide 
between the two points of view." The chapter contains a review 
of well selected experiments on conditioned reflexes and on general 
and selective responses illustrating the sensory and motor capacities 
of various forms of animal life. The presentation is vitalized by 
a rapid fire of pointed questions and by frequent references to 
human analogies. 

In the chapter on individual and applied psychology the author 
summarizes first of all the voluminous material that usually passes 
under the name of educational psychology and then completes the 
subject with a discussion in several sections of psychological appli- 
cations to medicine and law, to education, and to business. Since 
the expansion of the field in industrial relations and enterprises 
is going on apace, a revision of the text done later might take such 
developments into account. One misses, too, some of the earlier 
work done in differential psychology at Columbia and a more than 
nominal mention of Stern's contributions. Closely allied is the 
chapter on abnormal psychology since some of the abnormal aspects 
of mind were just now treated under feeble-mindedness. But the 
reader might very well demand a stricter delimitation of the ab- 
normal field. Why not include the material under feeble-mind- 
edness? Or does the author seriously commit himself to the 
formula that mental disturbances are mental disintegrations, as 
he seems to do in the opening paragraph ? The temporary character 
of the ailments or their appearance after a period of normal mental 
function is not a safe distinction nor one on which the authorities 
will agree. But then the author is not responsible because the 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 215 

entire field needs to be thought out logically with definition, classi- 
fication, and systematization in mind. Some attention is paid 
to the Freudian hypothesis and to the psychoanalytic method. 

In the chapter on social and racial psychology the author 
discusses the behavior of the individual when under the stimulus 
of other individuals. The socializing tendencies of mind as well 
as the traditional influences of society are given a share in the 
ensemble. Under the former the author finds occasion to discuss 
the self including its development and under the latter custom 
and the mob are scrutinized. Racial psychology is covered briefly 
with a summary of the problems chiefly concerned with racial 
differences and the question of the influence of hereditary and 
environmental factors. 

In Part II the author strikes boldly out in the traditional field 
of normal human adult psychology but in an untraditional manner: 
attention is the first subject. And not a bad idea! Most of the 
treatment follows the usual course, save where the degrees of 
clearness become degrees of effort in terms of motor accompani- 
ments. This savors much of Mach's theory of the function of the 
tensor tympani and, indeed, of all shades of theory concerned with 
the motor explanation of attentive fluctuations. An excellent 
summary of the nervous system is provided together with clear 
diagrams of the main structures and connections. Then follow 
in order: reflex action and instinct, emotions, affective processes, 
sensory processes, imagination and the sequence of experiences, 
memory, and thinking. Important considerations which stand 
out in the development of the text are too many to mention in 
detail. Above all seems to be the author's gift of making the 
subjects presented very clear to the reader. An instance of this 
appears in the discussion of the James-Lange theory of emotions 
the logic of the theory, its positive and negative criticisms, and 
its modern interpretations are all given in exemplary fashion. One 
misses Crile, however; but what does one not miss in a brief text? 
Under the pressure of brevity, too, in some cases the arguments 
assume the specious quality. In dealing with affective processes 
some interesting developments occur: clearness, location, and 
meaning are additional attributes. Affective processes may not 
be very clear, but to be conscious they must be somewhat clear; 
they have location because they almost always refer to the body, 
and they have meaning or significance. That is certainly an easy 
method of disposing of the problem of meaning, but can an attribute 



2l6 SPECIAL REVIEWS 

of this character stand coordinately with the others which are 
pitched in the descriptive key? Quality, duration, intensity, and 
clearness, if you like, describe the process. Does meaning? It 
would be an interesting mental test to devise the categories of 
this new attribute. This confusion is emphasized later when we 
learn how sensory processes may develop through growth in mean- 
ing. In the auditory field the text offers an upper limit of 50,000 
v. d. that in the light of recent research may have to be reduced. 
There is also no discussion of the important investigations on 
vowel tones. In describing visual sensations the traditional 
brightness value or tint becomes intensity. Is it not also confusing 
to denote protanopes as 'red-blind' and deuteranopes as "green- 
blind"? The book seems to thin out in the realm of the higher 
mental processes, although the material on memory and association 
is ample and clear. 

Two very general criticisms: the book needs first of all a better 
underlying logic. Systematically it is not quite as connected as 
it might become. While the fields of psychology seem in a sense 
disjointed, it would appear possible to follow some logical outline 
in the presentation. In the second place it requires better balancing 
of sections. This has been indicated before. The impression 
that has repeatedly been made on the reviewer, however, is the 
grace with which the author has accomplished an inordinate amount 
of compilation. The assimilation in most places is excellent. The 
author has furthermore an unusual sense of pedagogical propriety 
without distortion of scientific fact. Each chapter ends with a 
concise and selected bibliography preceded by a summary and 
conclusion, and the entire volume closes with serviceably arranged 
authors' and subject indices. As a pioneer undertaking, it is a 
work of high merit. 

CHRISTIAN A. RUCKMICH 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



Morale, The Supreme Standard of Life and Conduct. G. STANLEY 

HALL. New York: Appleton, 1920. Pp. ix + 378. 

Morale, as defined in Dr. Hall's latest book, is a combination 

of human efficiency and enthusiasm. On the one hand it is the 

"cult of condition," whose code is that of "personal and social 

hygiene," and on the other it is the urge to achievement. Morale 

"not only faces opportunities, but makes them." As a standard 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 217 

of conduct it avoids the banal self-conscious morality of conscience 
and the deadening Kultur of the superman, while comprising the 
better aspects of both these standards. 

The first half of the work traces the development of morale, 
chiefly American, in the Great War. Physical conditions such 
as health, food, and sleep are basic in morale. Soldiers are immun- 
ized against the demoralizing effects of fear by drill, diversion, 
examples of courage, resolution, fatalism, religion, and familiarity 
with terror. A kindred problem is that of steeling the soldier to 
the proximity of death, a specter which society has mollified by 
ceremonials, monuments and the like, but which the soldier must 
witness in its unmasked horror. The attitude of the nation adds 
a sublimity to the sacrifice of life. The author, however, deprecates 
spiritism as a sentimental antidote for the pall of death. The 
part played by anger, both in the nation at large and the fighting 
man, receives rather too brief a discussion. 

Among the various stimulations of morale are songs (particularly 
home and love themes), humor and diversions in general. Humor 
releases the grim tensions of war. An account is given of the 
arousal of civilian morale by medals, placards, slogans, and war 
collections. On the side of Kultur there is reviewed the organization 
of our man power by mental and trade tests, ratings, and personnel 
classifications. Censorship in war should be thorough but intel- 
ligent; and the democratic soldier given all information practicable 
concerning the aims and progress of the war. Cowards for con- 
science' sake, and otherwise, contrast strongly with the soldier 
ideal a man actuated by honor, esprit de corps, self-sacrifice for 
an ideal of defending the weak, rigorous and superb in discipline 
of mind and body. The difficult problem of soldiers and women 
is dismissed with an inadequate dogma of chastity. The Camp 
Greenleaf program of morale for favorably disposing the "draftee" 
to his new role is outlined, with a valuable suggestion added for 
morale specialists in industry, education, and other fields. Finally 
the author discusses the means of restoring of the morale of the 
wounded, the desponders as well as the parasitically minded who 
are too conscious of "having done their bit for their country." 

In the second half of the book Dr. Hall extends the standard 
of morale to various social questions. The fundamentals of human 
desire must be studied in the labor problem; and profiteering is 
to be abolished by publicity and ridicule. The author's views on 
feminism are very suggestive. Psychoanalysis, applied broadly 



2l8 SPECIAL REVIEWS 

throughout the book, is here given considerable rein. The modern 
woman should strive to be equal to the man, but not to be like him. 
Next to intelligently controlled procreation, it is the chief work 
of woman to bring to fullest expression the secondary qualities of 
sex in herself and especially in the male. By coyness and reluctance 
in sex relations woman has the power to evoke in man as subli- 
mations ("long-circuiting") the traits of heroism, enthusiasm, and 
productivity literary, scientific and moral. Darwin's secondary 
sexual characters are thus identified in social progress with Freudian 
sublimations. Unknown reservoirs of energy may be tapped by 
this principle. The author favors the rendering of divorce, in 
cases where interests of children are not at stake, more expedient 
and respectable. 

In education methods, curricula, and faculties are in need of 
that humanistic enthusiasm and loyalty which are the very breath 
of morale, and which extend at present only to athletic sports 
and contests. Dr. Hall in dealing with "statesmen" revives the 
old social organism metaphor under the modern guise of psycho- 
analysis. The maladjustment of the neurotic individual is pro- 
jected into the body politic. Hence it comes that our legislators 
faced with the grave crisis of decision regarding the League of 
Nations, have reverted to infantilism. They choose to remain 
in our juvenile isolation from Europe so as to escape the "growing 
pains" of trans-Atlantic responsibility. Other neurotic trends 
emerge, such as frightened exaggeration of details in the treaty, 
and blinding absorption in self. There is a piquant justice in the 
comparison. 

The discussion of morale and prohibition is somewhat reac- 
tionary, especially the defense of that "poor man's club," the 
corner saloon. The present writer doubts whether the social 
morale of this obsolete institution ever rose much above the level 
of the discussion of gang politics and prize-fights. The tribute to 
the morale of the American voter in the abolition of his personal 
beverage for the common good Dr. Hall leaves unmentioned. 
The tenets of Bolshevism are well summarized as well as the neces- 
sity for freely developing Nature's individual differences among 
men. The Soviet scheme is meritorious, not in its leveling and 
confiscating policy, but in fostering the reorganization and morale 
or industrial and trade groups, making them functional units in 
representative government. Finally religion too must be reorgan- 
ized for modern needs. Immanence, in the concepts of reason, 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 219 

science, psychoanalytic release, and libido, must replace the trans- 
cendence-dogma of blind faith, Heaven and Hell, sin, prayer, and 
love of an objective deity. A useful descriptive bibliography is 
appended. 

Although the author's concept of morale in the army is quite 
clear, when applied to social problems as a standard it lacks 
definition. To one who has served in it, the military regime is 
very different from the social. The army in the field exhibits 
esprit de corps, cooperation, and competition for excellence in 
both "condition" and "achievement" to a degree almost unknown 
in peace-time society. There is also the abnegation of self-interest 
in the motor attitude of obedience through superiors to the will of 
the army and the nation and to the larger ideal of the war. Thus 
selfish inhibitions are removed and true morale is possible. These 
factors, while not entirely neglected by Dr. Hall, receive far too 
little attention. Morale is condition and enthusiasm, not undi- 
rected, but for some definite social purpose. The fact that an 
army is united in a common cause, that it represents one hundred 
per cent, socialization, is the sine qua non of its morale. In pro- 
portion as a nation is characterized by the concert of individual 
activities for social ends, it is likely to be characterized also by 
morale. Morale, in other words, is the condition which arises 
when people unite to achieve some common goal; it is not the goal 
or standard in itself. 

FLOYD H. ALLPORT 

The Group Mind. A Sketch of the Principles of Collective Psychology 
with some attempt to apply them to the Interpretation of National 
Life and Character. WILLIAM McDouGALL. New York: Put- 
nam, 1920. Pp. xxii + 418. 

Professor McDougall's Introduction to Social Psychology, pub- 
lished in 1908, proved to be one of the most fertilizing books in 
the social sciences of recent years, and in that sense was epoch- 
making. 

The present work, he tells us in the Preface to the American 
Edition, represents the second step in the writing of a comprehensive 
treatise on Social Psychology, of which the Introduction was the 
first. In this new book he sketches the principles of the mental 
life of groups and attempts to apply these principles to the under- 
standing, in particular, of the life of nations. 



220 SPECIAL REVIEWS 

In a brief introduction the author takes up the province of 
collective or group psychology, examines the conception of a group 
mind, and the relations of social psychology to other social sciences. 
After this he outlines the general principles of collective psychology 
as shown in the mental life of the crowd and of the highly organized 
groups. The author then proceeds to the study of national mind 
and character, discussing successively the concept of a nation, the 
mind of a nation, freedom of communication as a condition of 
national life, the part of leaders in national life, the will of the 
nation, and the role of ideas in national life. In a concluding 
section he discusses the various factors which enter into national 
development. Race and environment, he finds, are the fundamental 
factors, but the intermixture of races, social traditions, social 
organization, the cross-fertilization of cultures, and the development 
of the higher spiritual values are important. 

Group Psychology the author makes a distinct field within 
social psychology. Social psychology studies the reciprocal in- 
fluences of the individual and the society in which he plays a part. 
Collective or group psychology is that part of this field which 
studies the mental life of groups of all kinds. It itself consists 
of two parts, that which deals with the most general principles 
of group life, and that which applies these principles to the study 
of particular groups. The tasks of group psychology, according 
to Professor McDougall, are to examine the validity of the con- 
ception of a group mind, to set forth the general principles of 
collective mental life, to distinguish the principal types of collective 
mental life, to describe the peculiarities of those types and as far as 
possible to account for them. 

The author does not discuss whether such group psychology 
is a part of psychology in the proper sense, or a part of sociology. 
He evidently, however, assumes that it is a part of psychology, 
as he holds that sociology is a synthetic science which takes a 
comprehensive view of the life of mankind, making use of the 
conclusions of many sciences; but among these, he thinks, group 
psychology is probably the most important. This is in sharp 
contrast to the position of Professor Giddings who holds that 
sociology is "the psychology of society." 1 It also differs from the 
position of those earlier psychologists, like Baldwin, who held that 
psychology concerned itself with the individual, while sociology 
concerned itself with the group. 

1 See his article on "Pluralistic Behavior" in the American Journal of Sociology, 
January, 1920, p. 388. 






SPECIAL REFIEWS 221 

In criticism of Professor McDougall's position it may be pointed 
out that any psychology of group behavior, if scientific, must 
necessarily be synthetic in character. It must take into account 
biological conditions, geographical conditions, economic conditions, 
etc., as well as the social tradition and the social mind. This, 
indeed, is exactly what Professor McDougall himself does in his 
treatment of group psychology. In pointing out the synthetic 
character of sociology, therefore, he has made no clear distinction 
between group psychology and sociology. If there is any such 
distinction Professor McDougall offers no convincing demonstration. 
To the careful student of society it would seem, indeed that the 
psychology of group behavior in any given situation is inextricably 
bound up with historical, biological, geographical, economic and 
many other conditions. The careful consideration of all of these 
influences, if possible with some quantitative analysis of them, is 
indeed just what is necessary to make any science of collective 
behavior truly scientific. This is the program of the sociologist, 
but as yet many group psychologists do not seem to sense the 
difficulties of the task which they are undertaking. 

Indeed, as one reads through Professor McDougall's book, one 
is impressed that it is the premature deliverance of thought which 
might have been made much more valuable and scientific if it had 
been allowed to mature. The reviewer is, in general, in sympathy 
with the author's psychological point of view and approach to the 
problems of group behavior. Indeed, he would hold that it is the 
only scientific point of view. He regrets, therefore, to be compelled 
to criticize the detailed handling of problems in the work under 
discussion. Professor McDougall shows a good knowledge of the 
work of the older British and Continental social theorists, his work 
being especially influenced by the French social psychologists. 
But he pays little attention in general to recent works. One is 
amazed to find him taking the theories of such a man as Buckle, 
who lived in a pre-psychological age, seriously. On the other 
hand, there is no mention of the remarkable work of Professor 
C. H. Cooley along the very lines which Professor McDougall under- 
takes to study. 1 If the reviewer is not mistaken, Professor Cooley 's 
work in social psychology and in sociology in the years to come 
will be recognized as scarcely less important than Darwin's was 
in biology. One might as well overlook variation and selection 

1 Miss Follett's book, The New State, which Professor McDougall praises, is 
largely based upon Cooley's work. 



222 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 



in biology as neglect Cooley's doctrine of the importance of primary 
groups and of inter-communication in social psychology and in 
sociology. 

This brings us to what seems to the reviewer the fundamental 
criticism of Professor McDougall's book, namely that he takes the 
crowd and its phenomena as the starting point for the interpretation 
of group spirit, whether in natural or in artificial groups. This is 
of course, the point of view of the French school. In contra- 
distinction, Professor Cooley would take the primary groups of 
men, especially the family and the neighborhood groups, as the 
starting point for understanding the whole process of interaction 
between individuals and, hence, collective behavior. Professor 
McDougall, to be sure, emphasizes the great difference between 
an amorphous crowd and a highly organized group, like, say, an 
army. Nevertheless his whole approach to the problems of national 
life and character are essentially through crowd psychology 
rather than through the psychology of small, primary, face-to-face 
groups. There can be little doubt that the contention between 
these two schools of social interpretation is destined to play a 
considerable part in the near future in social psychology. The 
school of mechanistic objective determinists will also hve to be 
reckoned with, though Professor McDougall pays it no attention 
at all. 

There is much of value in Professor McDougall's book, and 
the above strictures should not be taken to mean that the reviewer 
does not fully recognize its value. As a pioneer psychological 
treatise on national mind and character it will probably take the 
same place which the Introduction to Social Psychology took as 
a pioneer treatise in its field. 

CHARLES A. ELLWOOD 
UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI 



S. W. FERNBERGER. Interdependence of Judgments within the 
Series for the Method of Constant Stimuli. J. of Exper. Psychol., 
1920, 3, 126-150. 

This experimental investigation was devised to ascertain whether 
there was operative, for the method of constant stimuli, any effect 
of one judgment upon another within the series. In such experi- 
ments stimuli of varying intensities are compared with the standard 
stimulus, and one might surmise that an experiment may have 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 223 

some influence on the judgment passed on the one following. Such 
an influence must show itself in the relative frequencies of the 
categories of judgment. 

Fernberger experimented with lifted weights using the turning 
top table. The standard was 100 grs., the comparison stimuli 
88, 92, 96, 100, 104 grs. The results of the 96 and 100 grs. pairs 
are most likely to show the influence of this factor. In the first 
series (Series A) these pairs followed the 104 grs. pairs, while they 
followed the 88 grs. pairs in the second series (Series B). Two 
such series were taken simultaneously in order to make the results 
directly comparable. There were, therefore, ten pairs of weights 
presented to the subject. The arrangements of these stimuli were 
changed in order to prevent the observers from learning the order 
of the weights. The stimuli were presented to the subject in an 
unbroken series. This had to be divided subjectively into pairs, 
and the subject was instructed to judge each second weight in 
terms of the standard which just preceded it. The instruction 
emphasized the fact that each comparison stimulus had to be 
judged solely in terms of its own standard stimulus. For every 
comparison stimulus 500 experiments were made. At the end of 
this group of experiments, 50 more judgments, with knowledge of 
results, were taken with each one of the four observers. This gives 
a total of 22,000 individual judgments as the empirical basis of 
this paper. 

The results obtained are tabulated in detail so that one can 
check up every step of the argument. The relative frequencies 
make it evident that the order of the series of stimuli has a marked 
effect upon the relative frequencies of the categories of judgment. 
When the 96 and 100 grs. pairs followed the 104 grs. pairs, there 
was a strong tendency for them to be judged ''lighter." When they 
followed the 88 grs. stimuli there was an equally strong tendency 
for them to be judged " heavier." The statistical tables are supple- 
mented by graphs which Fernberger plots for his four subjects, 
which show at a glance the general trend of the results. 

The next step consists in studying the effect of these differences 
of the observed relative frequencies for the two series on the con- 
stants of the psychometric functions, on the values of the thresholds, 
on the point of subjective equality, and on the interval of uncer- 
tainty. These quantities are given separately for each subject 
and for every fraction of 50 judgments into which the complete 
data are divided. It is found that the coefficients h for the " lighter" 



I 



224 SPECIAL REVIEWS 

judgments for Series A are almost invariably smaller than the 
corresponding values for Series B. The coefficients h for the 
''heavier" judgments of Series A are usually smaller than the 
corresponding values for Series B. The difference of the lower and 
the upper thresholds S and S for Series A and B is very striking. 
Both values are less for Series B than for Series A. In all the cases 
the amount of shift of the upper threshold is greater than that 
of the lower threshold. From this it follows that a change of 
order has a greater effect on the upper than on the lower threshold. 
It is shown that the observed differences of the size of the interval 
of uncertainty are significant. 

The most striking difference is found in the position of the 
point of subjective equality. In every fraction for every subject 
the point of subjective equality for the Series B is lower than the 
corresponding value for Series A. The average difference for all 
four observers is 2.87 grs. with an index of significance of 0.9949. 
In calculating this coefficient no account was taken of the fact 
that these differences have the same sign in all the series. Taking 
this into consideration one must assign to the coefficient of signifi- 
cance the value I, i.e., the experimental evidence shows con- 
clusively that every experiment has some influence on the one 
following. 

At the end of this group of experiments the observers were 
informed of the difference of the judgments in Series A and B. 
Then an additional series of 50 experiments with each comparison 
stimulus was taken, in order to ascertain whether such knowledge 
has any effect on the judgment. It was found that this instruction 
has practically no influence on the judgment, from which it follows 
that this influence can not be eliminated by simply instructing the 
subject not to let the judgment be influenced by the one given 
in the preceding experiment. 

One may say in general terms that there exists some sort of 
contrast effect between the stimuli. Further investigation has to 
show the exact nature of this influence. It is possible that there 
exists a type of expectation which tends toward a reversal of judg- 
ment from one pair to the one succeeding. When the subject 
gives a "lighter" judgment he is by doing so "set" toward a 
tendency to give a "heavier" judgment of the next pair. If this 
be so this "set" is not a conscious process. All the subjects were 
surprised on hearing the significance of the statistical data obtained 
from them, and all insisted that such a form of expectation was 
not consciously present. 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 22$ 

It would not be difficult to suggest other plausible explanations. 
As long as no further information is at hand our judgment must 
remain in abeyance, and it is safest to speak in general terms of 
a contrast effect between the stimuli, leaving it undecided whether 
this "set" consists in a mental process or in some sort of phys- 
iological disposition as, e.g., a muscular adaptation which persists 
after lifting a weight. 

Fernberger's observation ought to be the starting point for a 
number of investigations. Whatever the nature of this contrast 
effect may be, it is likely to depend on the time-interval between 
two experiments. This might be investigated by allowing a time- 
interval of varying length to elapse between two experiments 
instead of presenting the weights in an unbroken series. Pre- 
sumably the contrast effect will grow smaller the longer the interval 
between the experiments and disappear entirely when this interval 
exceeds a certain length. Experiments of this kind should give 
good opportunity for introspecting and for analyzing the conscious 
process of judging. 

F. M. URBAN 

BRUNN 



G. D. H. COLE. Social Theory. New York: Stokes, 1920. Pp. 

220. 

J. J. FINDLAY. An Introduction to Sociology. New York: Long- 
mans, Green, 1920. Pp. xi + 304. 

The above two books are good examples of contrasted methods 
among contemporary English social theorists. Mr. Cole, who is 
the leading thinker of the English guild socialists, follows the old 
method of deductive analysis employed by Rousseau and by so 
many of the political and economic thinkers of the nineteenth 
century. He makes little use of psychology or of any modern 
science. Indeed, he complains that social psychology is either 
"mob" psychology or an unsatisfactory study of the psychological 
aspects of complicated and highly developed groups. Hence he 
practically ignores it. It is no wonder that he decides that the 
study of the family forms a part of the study of individual conduct 
rather than of social conduct! 

Professor Findlay, on the other hand, who is professor of edu- 
cation in the University of Manchester, builds his little text-book 



226 SPECIAL REFIEWS 

upon the results of modern science. He bases his work especially 
upon that of Professor Cooley, to whom, he says, the book "owes 
much." Like Cooley, Professor Findlay would make the life of 
primary groups, especially the family and the neighborhood, 
central in social psychological study. The social process he finds 
to be essentially a process of communication, and hence social 
progress depends largely upon the growth of communication. 
Starting from these two fundamental perceptions the author builds 
up a careful and scientific, if not very original, psychological analysis 
of group behavior and organization. The book is noteworthy 
because it indicates that at least in a small group of English social 
thinkers American, rather than French, social psychology is be- 
ginning to take the lead. 

CHARLES A. ELLWOOD 
UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI 


J. B. BURY. The Idea of Progress. An Inquiry into Its Origin 
and Growth. London: Macmillan, 1921. Pp. xv + 377. 
This is an historical rather than a psychological work. But 
it is a work which no social psychologist can afford to overlook. 
It not only traces the origin and growth of one of the ruling social 
ideas (or " socio-psychic dominants") of our age, but by its 
very criticism of that idea raises some of the deeper problems of 
social psychology. 

CHARLES A. ELLWOOD 
UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI 

RICHARD H. PAYNTER, JR. A Psychological Study of Trade-Mark 
Infringement. Archives of Psychology, 42. New York: Science 
Press, 1920. Pp. iv + 72. 

The reader desiring an introduction to the psychology of trade- 
mark infringement will find this study very illuminating but, 
if he is not wary, very confusing. The first third of the study 
is devoted to an historical account of the development of the subject 
and comprises a rather comprehensive review of previous literature. 
Fully nine pages of this section are given to an analysis of a study 
made by Dr. Gustave A. Feingold. The upshot of this painstaking 
analysis is the conclusion that the psychology of trade-mark in- 
fringement is not concerned with the degree of physical similarity 
which may seem to exist between trade-marks but with the actual 
confusion created in the minds, or rather responses, of the observers. 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 227 

Once this important and readily acceptable proposition has 
been established, the writer proceeds to describe his own methods, 
the recognition method and the order of merit or relative position 
method. In the former a number of typewritten trade-marks 
were shown to the subjects in the experiment, after which the same 
trade-marks with their imitations were given to the subjects who 
were then asked to sort them into seven piles according to the 
degree of certainty with which they recognized each trade-mark. 
There were three groups of subjects, an uninformed group, an 
informed group, and a control group. The degree of confusion 
between trade-marks was found to vary over a wide range, but 
was higher in the uninformed than in the informed group. 

From his results, Paynter concludes that there is no clear cut 
division, such as is implied by legal procedure, between trade-marks 
likely to deceive and those not likely to deceive. This conclusion 
we may readily accept, but when the writer goes on to infer that 
"the construction of a psychological scale for the measurement 
of deceptive similarity of two trade-marks would be the most 
scientific way of determining the question of infringement" (p. 52), 
and particularly when he describes the make-up of such a scale, 
it becomes impossible to follow him. "Those trade-marks" he 
says, "composing the scale should be so selected after experimen- 
tation that only infringements should lie in the illegal and non- 
infringements in the legal limits." He also believes that such a 
scale should contain all degrees of confusion, from o 100 per cent., 
and that "the difference between the degrees should be equal or 
very nearly so"; also that "an absolute scale would be preferable, 
as it would be more reliable." 

A detailed analysis of the above statements is impossible here, 
but it is obvious from these and similar statements that the writer 
lacks an appreciation of the theoretical implications of his experi- 
mental study. It is a long step if not an impossible step from his 
experimental results or from any other psychological study of the 
subject to the kind of scale which he discusses. Indeed, the writer 
seems to be unduly obsessed by the importance of measuring scales 
in psychology. For, after naming a list of psychologists who have 
developed scales and after enumerating some of the scales, he 
concludes: "There are now at least 29 mental scales in use." Evi- 
dently he believes that there should be at least thirty. 

On the other hand, Paynter's study does show that a method 
or technique by which to determine degrees of confusion experi- 



228 SPECIAL REVIEWS 

mentally is a practical possibility. Many problems must be solved 
before this possibility can be realized. For example, should the 
degree of confusion be based upon typewritten samples of trade- 
names alone, as in Paynter's experiments, or upon the trademark 
as it actually appears in print, or upon the spoken trade-mark, 
or upon all three? A few practical questions like these immediately 
complicate the problem. 

By the use of the relative position method, Paynter found 
degrees of confusion which agreed rather closely with the results 
in the recognition experiments. It is to be expected that subjects 
of a certain intelligence would be able to estimate at least crudely 
the confusion which certain trade-marks would create in actual 
experience. Further experiments are needed, involving more of 
the actual elements in trade-mark recognition, and including a 
greater range of subjects, before psychologists can accept the short 
cut of the relative position method. 

A rather trivial but irritating feature of this study are the 
patronizing comparisons made between the legal and psychological 
procedure, the numerous platitudes on the relative value of objective 
and subjective judgments, and the extravagant claims made for 
the psycholocical method. If this study is intended for psycholo- 
gists, all but the briefest mention of these facts is superfluous. 
If it is intended for the legal profession, the psychology of trade- 
mark infringement is still so far from filling the gap which this 
study emphasizes, that a little more modesty would be in order. 

Indeed, the Psychology of Trade-Mark Infringement is far too 
comprehensive a subject. It would be more practicable for psy- 
chology to emphasize the investigation of ''trade-mark confusion." 
The psychology of trade-mark confusion is no mean field and at 
least it offers some possibility for a scientific technique. When a 
practical technique in this field has been developed, the psychologist 
may begin to apply his standards to the problems of infringement. 
Paynter's study is valuable for the ground it breaks in preparation 
for the development of such a technique. 

HENRY C. LINK 

COBB, M. V., & YERKES, R. M., Intellectual and Educational Status 
of the Medical Profession as Represented in the United States 
Army. Bull, of the Nat. Research Council, 1921, I, Part 8. 
This report of the statistical study of the records of about 

2,500 medical officers is the direct result of the critical interest 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 229 

aroused among the medical profession at the findings of Col. Shaw 
in his report to the Surgeon General in November, 1917, based on 
psychological examinations in the U. S. Army which indicated that 
the intellectual status of the medical officers was lower than that 
of officers in other branches of the service. The present research 
covers data secured during 1917-18, in a large number of army 
camps which is undoubtedly a fair representation of all the officers 
in every branch of the army. The group examination, Alpha, was 
used in examining the soldiers. Items of information of prime 
importance concerning each individual include, among other things, 
pre-medical education, medical school attended, intelligence grade, 
years of medical experience, geographical location, and annual 
earnings. In analyzing these data the investigators have attempted 
to give principal facts concerning the medical officers themselves, 
the relations of these facts to each other, and their significance for 
medical education and the profession in general. 

It is a detailed analytical study, liberally supplied with tables 
of distributions for each field, and graphs which tell their own 
story. The investigators have left no stone unturned in giving 
the doctors a fair hearing. A summary at the beginning of the 
article assembles these findings, together with their interpreted 
significance. The medical officers rate intellectually on a par with 
the Quartermaster Corps whose rating is lower than that found in 
any other branch of the service except the Dental and Veterinary. 
Each arm has its characteristic psychograph (curve representing 
scores in the eight different types of test of the Alpha) which differs 
widely from every other arm, that of the doctors and the engineers 
being almost exactly inverse, but there is striking similarity between 
the curves of the several special medical groups. For in order to 
ascertain whether the medical psychograph was characteristic of 
the medical profession, the records were further subdivided into 
specialties represented, and there appeared an almost startling 
uniformity. This would indicate development of specialized 
intellectual functions for different professions or vocations. 

It is suggested that responsibility for the low rating of the 
medical men is dependent upon the following factors: age, medical 
military selection, habits of deliberateness and accuracy acquired 
in the medical training and practice, and character of the tests 
themselves which are more in line with the work of engineers than 
of doctors. A subdivision on the age basis showed obvious differ- 
ences which would suggest that age may influence the curve. Since 



230 SPECIAL REVIEWS 

the median age of the officers of the Medical Corps was 37.6 as 
opposed to 28.8 of all the officers, and since a study, illustrated in 
table form, on the relation of age to intelligence of all officers reveals 
a negative correlation of age with intelligence rating, applicable 
to men over 26 years, we may conclude that the medical showing 
was held down partly for reasons of age. The writers then discuss 
briefly the value of various factors which would creep in to modify 
age performance record and show also that too much importance 
has been attached to the plea of deliberateness and accuracy versus 
speed and agility being responsible for the lower scores. There is 
no support in favor of the assumption that the tests were less 
applicable to the medical than to the other army corps. Because 
of the imperative need for doctors, appointments were made, not 
by the weeding out process of the officers' training school and 
strict examination, as in the other arms of the service, but directly 
on basis of age, certification by the American Medical Association, 
and only sometimes by professional examination. This undoubt- 
edly influenced the general intelligence level of the medical corps 
as compared with that of the more hand picked groups. 

A geographical classification, either of training school and 
graduation or of field of medical practice, reveals substantial 
differences'in intelligence level, earnings and experience. Generally 
speaking, superiority in these respects rests with the northeast, 
central and northwest sections of tJfre country. Intelligence and 
earnings vary also for rural, urban and metropolitan districts. 
Intelligence is highly correlated with rank and promotion in the 
Medical Corps. 

The statistical study concerning medical schools resulted in five 
classifications: geographic location, size (according to registration 
in 1916-17), entrance requirements, American Medical Association 
rating, and medical sects. Again the northeast, central and north- 
west sections show an advance over the south and south central 
sections in the matter of intelligence rating and earnings of their 
graduates. The larger institutions, on the whole, turn out better 
intellectual product than the smaller, but there is no correlation 
between size of college and size of income. A high entrance re- 
quirement, as in the case of Johns Hopkins and Harvard, bespeaks 
for its graduates high intelligence scores and larger earnings. The 
difference between first and third class schools rated by the American 
Medical Association, although significant, is not so striking as that 
between highest and lowest entrance requirement. Homeopathic 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 231 

schools were represented in earnings and intelligence, by better 
men than were eclectic schools, the regulars taking a midway 
position, possibly because homeopathic physicians may have been 
more carefully scrutinized and selected before being commissioned 
in the army. The southern schools on the whole, show lower 
scores, less schooling, lower earnings and fewer promotions than 
the northern. Seven schools secured, through the representation 
of their graduates, a median intelligence rating of A. 

The report is worth very careful study. It also points to 
different directions where further research would be advisable and 
desirable, such as an intensive study of the psychographs of the 
different professional groups, already available through the army, 
and psychographs for corresponding student groups in various 
schools, to determine characteristicity. If there is agreement, 
this might suggest its applicability in vocational guidance; if 
disagreement, which points to the result of professional training 
and practice, it might yield suggestions for educational methods, 
both of which conditions would serve to improve the status of 
the medical profession. 

SCHWESINGER 
RADCLIFFE COLLEGE 



OBITUARY. 
THEODORE FLOURNOY (1854-1920) 

With the death of Flournoy, in November 1920, another one of 
the few remaining pioneers of scientific psychology has gone. To 
most of us he is known as editor, with Claparede, of the Archives 
de Psychologic de la Suisse Romande and as the author of a number of 
remarkable studies in domains in which the scientifically minded 
researcher rarely ventures. Des Indes a la Planete Mars (1900), 
E sprits et Mediums (1911), Une Mystique Moderne (Archives, 1915), 
have no superior in point of critical acumen, broad mindedness 
and talent of exposition. But, whatever the value of those studies, 
his place in the history of modern psychology is marked rather by 
his forceful plea, in 1891, for a psychology conceived as pure natural 
science, i.e., as independent of any metaphysics, a plea which 
resulted in the immediate foundation of a chair of psychology in 
the Faculty of Science of the University of Geneva. This was 
probably the first time that psychology was officially recognized 
in this manner as an independent scienc/e. 

Flournoy was the first occupant of the new chair. The labor- 
atory which he founded in connection with it was, however, soon 
turned over to his younger colleague, Claparede; for, like so many 
other champions of experimental psychology, Flournoy felt un- 
bearably cramped by the narrowness of its scope. He understood 
his friend Wm. James when he wrote, speaking of his own labor- 
atory work, "Ca tourne au cauchemar!" 

Between James and Flournoy there were striking points of 
resemblance. Both began with the study of medicine and both 
turned early from physiology to psychology; both wearied rapidly 
of laboratory research, and both became increasingly interested 
in philosophical problems. The ideas of the Swiss psychologist 
were on many problems so near to those of James, that in La 
Philosophic de Wm. James (1911), it is at times difficult to tell 
when Flournoy expounds the views of the great American and 
when his own. 

Productive as he was in academic pursuits, Flournoy did not 
let himself be absorbed entirely by them. The social and, in 

232 



OBITUARY 233 

particular, the religious problems of the country in which he lived 
never left him indifferent. Every worthy cause found him ready 
to give of his best. He is mourned in death, as he was honored in 
life, not only by his academic colleagues but also by his fellow 
citizens who regarded him as a good and wise man. 

JAMES H. LEUBA. 
BRYN MAWR COLLEGE. 



BOOKS RECEIVED 

BAUDOUIN, C. Suggestion and Autosuggestion. (Tr. by E. & C. 

Paul.) New York: Dodd, Mead, 1921. Pp. 349. 
CHAPMAN, J. C. Trade Tests: The Scientific Measurement of Trade 

Proficiency. New York: Holt, 1921. Pp. ix + 435. 
BURR, C. B. Practical Psychology and Psychiatry. 5th Ed., 

Philadelphia: Davis, 1921. Pp. viii + 269. $2.00. 
PLATT, C. The Psychology of Thought and Feeling. New York: 

Dodd, Mead, 1921. Pp. x + 290. 
LIPMANN, O. Die psychische Eignung der Funkentelegraphisten. 

Leipzig: Barth, 1919. Pp. 40. M. 1.80. 
MARTENS, H. A. Psychologie und Verkehrswesen. Leipzig: Barth, 

1919. Pp. 14. M. 0.70. 

DEWEY, E., CHILD, E., & RUML, B. Methods and Results of Testing 

School Children. New York: Dutton, 1920. Pp. xii -f- 176. 

5.00. 
FERNALD, M. R., HAYES, M. H. S., & DAWLEY, A. A Study of 

Women Delinquents in New York State. (Pref. by K. B. Davis. 

Statistical Chapter by B. Ruml.) New York: Century Co., 

1920. Pp. xviii + 542. 

DUNLAP, K. Mysticism, Freudianism and Scientific Psychology. 

St. Louis: Mosby, 1920. Pp. 173. 
DOWNEY, J. E. Graphology and the Psychology of Handwriting. 

Baltimore: Warwick & York, 1919. Pp. 142. $1.50. 
SULLY, J. My Life and Friends. A Psychologists Memoirs. New 

York: Dutton (no date). Pp. xii + 344. $5.00. 
HALL, G. S. Recreations of a Psychologist. New York: Appleton, 

1920. Pp. ix + 336. $2.50. 
DUNLAP, K. Personal Beauty and Racial Betterment. St. Louis: 

Mosby, 1920. Pp. 95. $1.00. 
D'EICHTHAL, E. Du Role de la Memoire dans nos Conceptions 

metaphysiques, esthetiques, passionnelles, actives. Paris: Alcan, 

1920. Pp. 198. 3 Fr. 
EDMAN, I. Human Traits and their Social Significance. Boston: 

Hough ton, Mifflin, 1920. Pp. xi + 467. $3.00. 
INGALESE, R. The History and Power of Mind. New York: Dodd, 

Mead, 1920.. Pp. xxv + 329. 

234 



BOOKS RECEIVED 



235 



DESSOIR, M. Vom Jenseits der Sede. (Dritte Aufl.) Stuttgart: 

Enke, 1919. Pp. xvi + 354. M. 15. 
TREVELYAN, J. P. Evening Play Centers for Children. (Pref. by 

Mrs. H. Ward.) New York: Button (no date). Pp. xxii 

+ 183- 
GARTH, T. R. Mental Fatigue During Continuous Exercise of a 

Single Function. New York: Science Press, 1919. Pp. 85. 

75 cts. 
BROUSSEAU, A. Essai sur le peur aux Armees 1914-1918. Paris: 

Alcan, 1920. Pp. 158. 6 Fr. 

STRONG, E. K., JR. Introductory Psychology for Teachers. Balti- 
more: Warwick & York, 1920. Pp. xiii + 233. 
ROSANOFF, A. J. (Ed.). Manual of Psychiatry. (5th Edit.) New 

York: Wiley, 1920. Pp. xv + 684. 
DWELSHAUVERS, G. La Psychologic Franqaise Contemporaine. 

Paris: Alcan, 1920. Pp. xii + 256. 10 Fr. 
VON ScHRENCK-NoTZiNG, BARON. Phenomena of Materialisation: 

A Contribution to the Investigation of Mediumistic Teleplastics. 

(Trans, by E. E. Fournier d'Albe.) London: Kegan Paul, 

Trench, Trubner, 1920. Pp. xii + 340. $15.00. 
STERN, W. & WIEGMANN, O. Methodensammlung zur Intelligenz- 

prufung von Kindern und Jugendlichen. Leipzig: Barth, 1920. 

Pp. v -f 256. M. 24. 
STERN, W. (Ed.). Untersuchungen uber die Intelligent von Kindern 

und Jugendlichen. Leipzig: Barth, 1919. Pp. 167. M. 15.60. 
PETER, R. & STERN, W. Die Auslese befdhigter Volkschuler in 

Hamburg. Leipzig: Barth, 1919. Pp. x -f- 157. M. 12. 
ZARAGUETA-BENGOECHEA, J. Contribucion del Lenguaje a la Filo- 

sofia de los Falores. Madrid: Rates, 1920. Pp. 221. 
GIESE, F. Psychologisches Worterbuch. Leipzig: Teubner, 1921. 

Pp. 170. 



NOTES AND NEWS 

DR. JAMES ROWLAND ANGELL, formerly professor of psychology 
at the University of Chicago and more recently head of the Car- 
negie Corporation of New York, has been elected president of 
Yale University. 

DR. J. D. MORGAN has been appointed psychologist at the 
clinic and also at the psychiatric hospital of the University of 
Iowa. Dr. Morgan is at present stationed in the Hawaiian Islands 
engaged in army hospital reconstruction work. 

DR. EDWARD A. SPITZKA assumed his new work in the Neuro- 
psychiatric section, medical division, War Risk Insurance Bureau, 
Washington, D. C. on March ist. 

AT the University of Cambridge, Dr. C. S. Myers, Gonville and 
Caius College, has been appointed reader in experimental psychol- 
ogy. 

Dr. K. M. DALLENBACH of Cornell University has been made 
an assistant professor of psychology at that institution. 

DR. F. L. WELLS of the Boston Psychopathic Hospital has been 
appointed instructor in experimental psychopathology at the 
Harvard Medical School. 

DR. JOHN E. COOVER of Stanford University has been promoted 
to the rank of associate professor. 



236 






Vol. 1 8, No. 5 



"7 

May, 1921 



THE 



PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN 



i. GENERAL 

212. CALKINS, M. W., The Truly Psychological Behaviorism, 

Psychol. Rev., 28, 1921, 1-18. 

Extreme behavioristic psychology, represented by Prof. Watson r 
is criticized on the ground that it departs too widely from historical 
conceptions of psychology and biology. Furthermore is it not 
fully adequate to the facts especially the analysis of sensory/ 
qualities and "thought." Modified behavioristic psychology,, 
represented by Prof. Warren, takes the facts of consciousness into- 
account. The difficulty with Prof. Warren's position is the ten- 
dency to identify consciousness and neural process (different 
observational facts). The procedure is metaphysical and not 
psychological. Self-psychology, the author maintains, is the* 
"only genuine behavioristic psychology." Self-psychology is' 
"behavioristic when it stresses the relation of self to environment-'" 
It is the science of a behavioristically conceived individual, the 
self, in relation to a behavioristically conceived environment. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

213. GILSON, E., Descartes et Harvey. Rev. Philos., 1920, 90, 

432-458; 1921, 91, 108-139. 

Influence of the Scholastics upon Descartes' physiological 
theories, and the relationship between the views of Descartes and 
Harvey. 

KITSON (Indiana) 

214. MACCURDY, J. T., Psychiatry and "Scientific Psychology." 

Ment. Hyg., 5, 1921, 239-265. 

Believing that what has heretofore been a private quarrel 
between psychiatrists and "academic psychologists" over hypo- 
thetical and systematic psychological problems of the unconscious 

237 



238 GENERAL 

and the like, must now be taken before the public for its parti- 
cipation, the author attempts to answer Dunlap's recent book on 
"Mysticism, Freudianism and Scientific Psychology." The author 
claims that the hypothesis of the unconscious is found essential by 
many psychiatrists and therefore that Dunlap's attack upon this 
hypothesis concerns more than the psychoanalyst. The author 
disagrees with Dunlap's view that mysticism is essentially an 
emotional attitude on the part of persons who are too tender- 
hearted or impatient to accept scientific explanations of phenomena. 
It is claimed that Dunlap's critical characterization of the Freudian 
method of collecting data the anecdotal or historical method 
is unjust since the collection of any data is to a certain extent 
anecdotal, particularly in such cases in which all conditions under 
which data are observed are not controlled. The author attempts 
to defend the notion of "unconscious consciousness" on the ground 
that hypnosis and divided personalities demonstrate beyond a 
doubt that there exists a consciousness of which the individual may 
sometimes be unaware. 

Finally the author criticizes Dunlap's own psychology. He 
characterizes Dunlap's statements of the biological conditions of 
consciousness as mere tautology because they may be reduced to 
the statement: "Sometimes when the nervous system functions, 
there is consciousness." He claims that Dunlap has failed to do 
justice to "synthesis" in psychology. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

215. FRANZ,, S. I., Cerebral-mental Relations. PsychoL Rev., 28, 
1921, 81-95. 

Address of the president, before the American Psychological 
Association, Chicago Meeting, December, 1920. The author 
discusses the bearing of certain recent observations of aphasia upon 
the problem of cerebral-mental relations. The main points are 
"(i) that although there is a general dependence of mental states 
upon the state of the brain, there is also (2) not the defined depend- 
ence of a special mental state upon the integrity of certain special 
cerebral parts." Permanent damage to the cerebrum does not 
certainly mean a permanent mental disturbance. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 



NERFOUS SYSTEM 239 

2 1 6. SAFFIOTTI, F. U., La evoluzione della Psicologia sperimentale 

in Italia. Riv. di PsicoL, 16, 1920, 129-153. 
History of the development of experimental psychology in 
Italy from the time of G. Sergi (1873) with a discussion of present 
tendencies. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

217. KIESOW, F., Del fato e dei concetti del? anima nelF Eneide di 

Firgilio. Contribute alia Psicologia dei popoli. Miscellanea 
di studi critici in onore di Ettore Stamping p. 209-224. 
S. Lattes e C., Torino Geneva. 1921. 

Auf Grund der durch Wilhelm gWundt gewonnenen volker- 
psychologischen Erkenntnisse sucht der Verf. sowohl den die 
Dichtung und das ganze Zeitalter der Dichters beherrschenden 
Glauben an das fatum, sowie auch die verschiedenen, in dem Werke 
enthaltenen Seelenvorstellungen auf ihre eigentlichen Ursachen 
zuruikzufuhren. Wegen Mangels an Raum beschrankt sich der 
Verf. in der vorliegenden Mitteilung auf den Inhalt der ersten 
fiinf Biicher, das psychologisch nicht minder wichtige sechste 
Buch und was sonst vom Handpunte der Volkerpsychologie aus 
von Interesse sein kann, wird an anderem Orte behandelt werden. 

KIESOW (Turin) 

218. KIESOW, F., Guglielmo Wundt. Arch. ital. di PsicoL, I, 

1921, 203-213. 

In diesem Nachruf sucht der Verfasser, ein Schiller und Anhanger 
des am 31. August 1920 dahingeschiedenen Gelehrten, auf Grund 
der von ihm hinterlassenen umfangreichen Werke ein Lebensbild 
des Verstorbenen zu entwerfen und seine Verdienste um die Neu- 
belebung des philosophischen Denkens und die Begriindung der 
neueren Psychologic in das reche Licht zu stellen. 

F. KIESOW (Turin) 

2. NERVOUS SYSTEM 

219. Doi, Y., On the Existence of Antidromic Fibers in the Frog 

and their Influence on the Capillaries. /. of PhysioL, 1920, 
54, 213-217. 

The existence of antidromic fibers in the posterior roots of 
spinal nerves of the frog is demonstrated. Mechanical stimulation 



240 NERFOUS SYSTEM 

of these fibers results in an increase in the volume of the hind limb, 
due mainly to dilatation of skin vessels. 

ANDERSON (Yale) 

220. NEAL, H. V. Nerve and plasmodesma. /. of Comp. Neurol., 

33, 1921, 65-75. 

Examinations of dog-fish embryos furnish evidence that the 
connections between nerve and muscle are at the outset nerve 
structures neuraxones and their sheaths and not the so-called 
plasmodesmata of Baton and Held. The discovery of the plas- 
modesmata was based upon poorly stained specimens. Certain 
non-nervous tissues are found but are of secondary importance. 
From these results the author suggests discarding the term "plas- 
modesma" as unnecessary and misleading. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

221. JOHNSON, S. E. & MASON, M. L., The first white ramus com- 

municans in man. /. of Comp. Neurol., 33, 1921, 77-84. 
Textbooks and current literature lack agreement concerning the 
occurrence of a white ramus communicans in connection with the 
first thoracic spinal nerve. This has undoubtedly been due to the 
fact that the location of these nerves may vary from individual to 
individual. The authors found one or more white rami communi- 
cantes arising from the first thoracic spinal nerve in several labo- 
ratory bodies as well as in fresh autopsy subjects. As a rule these 
rami connected with the stellate ganglion and contained a rela- 
tively high percentage of medullated fibers. Thus it would seem 
that if the first white rami actually does arise from the higher spinal 
nerves such a condition is unusual. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

222. JOHNSON, S. E., An experimental study of the sacral sym- 

pathetic trunk of the cat with special reference to the 
occurrence of intrinsic commissural neurons. /. Comp. 
Neurol., 33, 1921, 85-104. 

In twelve cats the sympathetic trunks were divided between 
the 7th lumbar and the first sacral ganglion. In two of these cats 
operations a week later were performed in order to remove the 
source of any dorsal root fibers which might reach the trunk through 
the sacral gray rami. From 25-30 days were allowed for nerve 



NERFOUS SYSTEM 241 

degeneration. The cats were then killed and sections from the 
sympathetic trunk thus affected were prepared for microscopic 
examination. The lower sympathetic trunk ganglia possess a 
rich intercellular plexus probably similar to a corresponding plexus 
in the higher trunk ganglia. This plexus disappears upon descend- 
ing degeneration of preganglionic axones. It must therefore be 
formed by the terminations of preganglionic efferent axones 
which run to the trunk through the lower white rami. An unex- 
pectedly large number of undegenerated fibers remained after the 
first operation; these fibers evidently reached the trunk by way 
of the gray rami since most of them degenerated upon the second 
operation. No evidence of commissural neurones was found. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

223. LANDACRE, F. L., The fate of the neural crest in the head 

of the urodeles. /. of Comp. NeuroL, 33, 1921, 144. 

The dorsal portion of the neural crest gives rise to general 
cutaneous and visceral portions of the 5, 7, 9 and loth cranial 
nerves and also, in part, disintegrates to form mesenchyme. This 
mesenchyme becomes mingled with entodermal mesenchyme. 
The ventral portion of the neural crest furnishes mesenchyme for 
the ventral head and branchial regions. No evidence is found 
that lateral ectoderm furnishes mesenchyme, as was for a time 
believed. The mesenchyme furnishes material for cartilage and 
similar structures. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

224. COOK, M. H. & NEAL, H. V., Are the taste-buds of elasmo- 

branchs endodermal in origin? /. of Comp. NeuroL, 33, 
1921,45-63. 

Rather doubtful has been our knowledge in the past concerning 
the origin of taste-buds in vertebrates. While morphologists have 
generally held that sense organs are ectodermal in origin it has 
long been known that the tissues in which some of these sense 
organs develop are of endodermal origin. Examinations of sections 
of Squalus (dogfish) embryos indicates that the whole pharyngeal 
cavity is endodermal in origin. In spite of arguments to the 
contrary the authors find that taste-buds in Squalus acanthias are 



242 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

derived from endoderm. There is no indication of an inward 
migration of ectoderm which would warrant an assumption that 
the taste-buds are thus derived. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

3. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

225. HARTRIDGE, H., The Ear as Morphologically an Apparatus 

for Perceiving Depth below Sea-level. /. of Physiol., 1920, 
54, 244-247. 

Based on a mechanical analogy between the auditory apparatus 
of mammalia and the depth controlling gear in the naval torpedo 
and the fact that in certain fish ossicles are found connecting the 
internal ear and the swim bladder, the view is advanced that the 
auditory apparatus of mammalia is a device for perceiving the 
depth below sea level rather than sound vibrations. If the view 
is correct it would explain why the cochlea, the semi-circular canals, 
and the otolith organs are associated anatomically and have a 
common nerve, since if the cochlea perceives depth below surface, 
all three would be directly concerned with the perception of position 
and the control of direction. 

ANDERSON (Yale) 

226. HARTRIDGE, H., Note on the Sense of Smell. /. of Pkysiol., 

1920, 54, 39-4L 

ANDERSON (Yale) 

227. PRADINES, M., La vraie signification de la loi de Weber. 

Rev. Philos., 1920, 90, 393-431. 

The mysterious and interesting part of the phenomenon reported 
by Weber is not the consciousness of difference between two amounts 
of stimulus, but the fact that we are unconscious, for so long, of 
any change. The law should be stated, "Our unconsciousness of 
intensity increases with the intensity." This phenomenon is not 
explained by any of the interpretations thus far proposed. It is 
not a different awareness of external increasing differences (Hering) ; 
nor a similar awareness of similar external connections (Brentano) ; 
nor a similar awareness of external increasing differences (Fechner). 
It is not awareness at all, but absence of awareness; and in proof 
of the fact that this lacuna of consciousness endures as long as 



SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 243 

the stimulus increases is the remarkable fact which neither Hering 
nor Brentano remark and which Fechner conserves only by dis- 
torting it. 

Consciousness does not passively register the increments. It 
exerts some kind of an activity toward them; the exact nature of 
which must be investigated through a study of the limits and so- 
called exceptions of the law. 

KITSON (Indiana) 

228. BEAUNIS, H., Les aveugles de naissance et la monde exterieur. 

Rev. P kilos., 1921, 91, 15-74. 

How can blind persons secure certain ideas of spatial relation- 
ship, such as that of perspective? A device is suggested, consisting 
of a cube set in a frame so that it can revolve around one of its 
vertical corners as an axis. A blind person, holding his ringer on 
a horizontal edge of the revolving cube, finds that he must let his 
finger go backward in the horizontal plane. He can translate 
this backward movement into terms of Tightness and leftness by 
measuring with his other hand on a fretted horizontal scale attached 
to the frame. 

With the help of such instruction, blinded persons (of whom 
war makes so many) might have access to a realm of enjoyment 
at present closed to them. They might enjoy reproductions of 
friends in profile and in relief, as seeing persons enjoy photograph 
albums. They might appreciate masterpieces of graphic art in 
relief. It is conceivable that they might even become painters, 
executing designs in relief as certain blind sculptors model busts. 

KITSON (Indiana) 

229. MANOIA, A. R., Sulla cenestesi, come oggetto di studio degli 

effetti delle sostanze ebriogene. Riv. di Psicol., 16, 1920, 
253-265. 

The concept implied by the term cenaesthesia is vague even in 
its pathological variations. While all agree in regarding cenaes- 
thesia as a complex of sensations derived from bodily modifications 
it is not clear whether one should understand by these modifications 
only those of which a clear consciousness is not had. Those taking 
up the study of this class of sensations should keep in mind the 
following considerations. 

I. Variations of cenaesthesia can only be determined by the 
intensity of these sensations in the field of consciousness. Without 



244 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

any special effort of attention they are sometimes perceived more 
clearly, sometimes less. Sensibility is increased in morbid states. 

2. Favorable or unfavorable dispositions should be considered. 
These manifest themselves as pleasure or pain tendencies. 

3. The quality of the sensations which are referable to sensations 
analogous to thermal, painful and tactile. 

4. Some internal sensations become more clearly conscious when 
localized in a special region of the body. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

230. BONAVENTURA, E., Le illusioni oltico geometriche. Riv. di 

PsicoL, 16, 1920, 220-233. 

The scientific importance of the study of optical geometric 
illusions lies in the fact that, among the phenomena of spacial 
perception, they show how complex is the mental work involved 
from which results our representation of the world. For the most 
part people believe it is only necessary to open the eyes to see 
things as they are, nothing is more untrue. The phenomena with 
which the author deals are the result of complicated processes of 
elaboration integration, of interpretation, in themselves uncon- 
scious. They serve to show the synthetic activity which is char- 
acteristic of spiritual life. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

231. KIESOW, F., Osservagioni sopra il rapporto tra due oggetti visti 

separatamente coi due occhi. Trasparenza soggettiva gara 

e miscele delle impressioni di luce, lucentezza stereoscopica, 

contrasto binoculare. Arch. ital. di PsicoL, I, 1921, 239-290. 

Die Abhandlung bildet die fortsetzung der schon in fasc. I/II 

(p. 3) der gleichen Zeitschrift erschienenen ersten beiden Teile der 

Untersuchung: 

Der stereoskopische Glanz. Nach eniem historischen t.'berblick 
iiber die bis dahin auf diesem Gebiete erzielten Resultate und 
Ansichten, berichtet der Verfasser iiber seine eigenen Versuche, die 
ihn zu folgenden Hauptergebnissen fiihrten: Der stereoskopische 
Glanz ist nicht abhangig vom Wettstreit der Lehfelder an sich, 
doch hat der letztere insofern eine Bedeutung fiir das Auftreten der 
Erscheinung, als durch denselben derjenige Moment bestimmt ist, 
in welchem die den beiden Augen dargebotenen Enidruike einen 



SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 245 

geniigenden Grad von Unabhangigkeit gewinnen und demgemafs 
hinreschend gegen einander kontrastieren. Jenseits jener Grenze 
tritt eine vollkommene Verschmelzung der hindriike auf, diesseits 
derselben Mischung mit zunchmendem Wettstreit und sich stetig 
verstarkenden Glanze. Das Auftreten des Glanzes ist ausser dem 
insofern von der Form der dargetotenen hindruike abhanzig, als 
dieselbe die Unabhangigheit der letzteren steigert und eventuell zu 
Augenbewegungen Anlass giebt. Mittels der auf einer Augehangten 
Tafel beigegebenen Ringform erzielte der Verfasser die hochsten 
Stufen des Glanzes. Bei chromatischen Enidriicken hangt das 
Auftreten des Glanzes von der Wahe der verwandten Farben ab. 
Die Farben mittlerer Wellenlange (orangegelb, gelb und gelbgriin) 
liefern die starkste Wirkung, weniger wirksam ist das Orange, 
noch weniger das Griin. Nach beiden Seiten hin nimmt die 
Wirkung weiterhin stetig ab, sodass die Farben grosster und 
geringster Wellentenge sich am wenigsten, wenn iiberhaupt, fur 
das Hervortreten des Phanomens eignen. Der Verfasser sucht 
diese Tatsachen zu den zuerst von Fritjof Holmgren und in letzter 
Zeit vielfach naher untersuchten Aktionsstromen der Netzhaut in 
Beziehung zu setzen, welche Vorgange freilich nicht die psycho- 
physischen Prozesse als solche darstellen, wohl aber die letzteren 
regelrecht begleiten. Der Verfasser geht dann auf die von Rood 
erzielten Resultate ein, die er teils bestatigt, teils erweitert. Na- 
mentlich ist es der bei Benutzung photographischer Bilder von 
Metallen in Stereoskop auftretende Metallglanz, den der Verfasser 
zum gegenstand ausgedehnter Beobachtungen macht. Er kommt 
zu dem Resultat, dass es sich hiebei um assimilative Vorgange 
handelt. Was die Erklarung des in Rede stehenden Phanomens 
betrifft, so ist der Verfasser der Meinung, dass es sich bei demselben 
in Wirklichkeit nicht wie beim gewohnlichen Glanz um unvoll- 
kommene Spiegelung handeln kann, sondern dass in beiden Fallen 
vielmehr gleichartige psychologische Bedingungen vorliegen. Der 
stereoskopische Glanz ist ebenso, wie vas vor seinem Auftreten 
sich zeigende Leuchten der Mischfarbe, nach dem Verfasser ein 
Produkt der psychischen Synthese. 

Der binokulare Kontrast. Der Verfasser unterzieht die namen- 
lich von Fechner mitgeteilten Beobachtungen einer neuen Unter- 
suchung, er fiigt diesen eigene Beobachtungen hinzu und unterwirft 
die von Ebbinghaus gegebene Erklarung einer eingehenden Priifung. 
Er kommt zu dem Erzebnis, dass dieselbe fur die in Rede stehenden 
Erscheinungen nicht geniigen kann, dass diese vielmehr ein Zebiet 



246 FEELING AND EMOTION 

von Tatsachen darstellen, die im Allgemeinen den selben Regeln 
folgen, denen die Tatsachen des gewohnlichen Kontraster unter- 
worfen sind. 

F. KIESOW (Turin) 

232. KIESOW, F., I. Un Fenomeno Rappresentatino Centrale. 

2. Una Esperienza dimenticata. Arch. ital. di Psicol., 
I, 1920, 102-106. 

Two notes, the first dealing with the effect produced by fixing 
monocularly a piece of iron wire or similar object against the clear 
sky and at the same time holding in front of the same eye a solid 
non-transparent body, as the finger. This object instead of 
appearing broken or interrupted, as one might expect, is seen to be 
continuous. The origin of this phenomenon is considered to be 
centrally determined by a process of assimilation. 

The second note contains a discussion of phenomena previously 
observed by Purkenje and later confirmed by Volkmann and 
Fechner. One closes an eye and with the other one looks at an 
evenly colored surface (a wall, the sky, piece of paper) without 
fixing any definite point. After a while it will be noticed that 
rivalry is set up between the two fields of vision of which one is 
dark (that of the closed eye), the other clear. 

The experiment is a simple one and confirms the results of 
experiments related in a previous paper noticed here to wit that 
the rivalry in the achromatic series is slow. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

4. FEELING AND EMOTION 

233. LUNDHOLM, H., The Affective Tone of Lines: Experimental 

Researches. Psychol. Rev., 28, 1921, 4360. 
The subjects were asked to draw the lines suggested by adjectives 
such as: sad, quiet, lazy, merry, agitated, furious, etc. The lines 
were classified in an attempt to determine the motor expression 
suggested by the stimulus-word. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

234. KANTOR, J. R., An Attempt toward a Naturalistic Description 

of Emotions (I). Psychol. Rev., 28, 1921, 19-42. 
Following are the section headings: (i) The Nature of Emotional 
Conduct; (2) The Systematic Analysis of Emotional Acts; (3) Some 



MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 247 

Points of Contact between the Organismic Hypothesis and the 
James-Lange Theory; (4) Distinction of Emotions from Non- 
emotional Feeling Behavior; (5) Are Emotions Inherited? 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

235. KANTOR, J. R., An Attempt toward a Naturalistic Description 

of Emotions (II). Psychol. Rev., 28, 1921, 120-140. 
In continuation of a previous paper the following section 
headings are presented: (6) The Utility of Emotional Behavior; 
(7) The Relation of Emotions to Instincts; (8) The Classification 
of Emotions; (9) Determining Conditions of Emotions; (10) Emo- 
tions in Animals and Infants; (n) Emotions and Expressions; 
(12) Summary. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

5. MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

236. COLEMAN, W. M., On the Correlation of the Rate of Heart 

Beat, Breathing, Bodily Movement, and Sensory Stimuli. 

/. oj PhysioL, 1920, 54, 213-217. 

Observations were made of the pulse rate in animals and men 
under varying conditions. Accord of rates is usual between heart, 
footsteps, and breathing. The heart will take up the rate of 
periodic movement or sensory stimuli (beat of a metronome, 
accented syllables of speech) within limits of 15% below and 30% 
above its own rate. Emotion, strong exertion, or unusual metabolic 
demands may prevent the accord of rates. 

ANDERSON (Yale) 

237. BRIGGS, H., Physical Exertion, Fitness, and Breathing. /. 

of Pkysiol., 1920, 54, 292-312. 

Physical work is found to be easier for unfit men when oxy- 
genated air is breathed than when normal air is breathed, but no 
such difference is observed with fit men. A method of measuring 
fitness is described based upon the experimental fact that fitness 
is inversely as the divergence of the curves showing work done (ab- 
scissae) and the exhaled CO 2 percentage (ordinates) (a) when the 
subject breathes oxygen and (b) when the subject breathes air. 
Tables are given setting forth the oxygen consumption of subjects 



248 MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

while working the ergometer, while walking and running, and 
while climbing a slope of 21 degrees. 

ANDERSON (Yale) 

238. PEPPER, S. C., The Law of Habituation. Psychol. Rev., 28, 

1921, 61-71. 

The term "habituation" is applied to progressive changes in 
affective judgment, whether in the individual or in the social group. 
In the history of music, for example, we find a progressive liking 
for the more and more dissonant intervals. Similar "affective 
sequences" may be found in the history of architecture and poetry. 
Changes in appreciation can not be adequately explained by the 
conservative principles of imitation, fatigue and habit. The 
author believes that "habituation" has a continuous and a cyclic 
phase. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

/ 

239. Editorial. Is Lefthandedness a Sign of Inferiority? /. 

Amer. Med. Ass., 1921, 76, 1010. 

Four per cent, of our population are left handed. It is hered- 
itary. Quinan, a recent investigator, suggests that left-handed 
people can not execute finely coordinated movements. He states 
that sinistrality is prevalent among the feebleminded; that stam- 
mering occurs with a frequency of from three to seven times greater 
in "sinistrals" than in the "dextrals." High arterial tension is 
more common in the lefthanded, he says. The editor says it would 
be rash to accept Quinan's conclusions. In fact, he is inclined to 
believe quite the opposite. 

SYLVESTER (Drake) 

240. BERNARD, L. L., The Misuse of Instinct in the Social Sciences. 

Psychol. Rev., 28, 1921, 96-119. 

Bernard criticizes current conceptions of instinct commonly 
accepted by social psychologists. He points out that so-called 
instincts are really complex habit systems. Inherited mechanisms 
constitute the raw material upon which habit systems are built, 
in much the same way that the higher stones of a skyscraper are 
built upon the lower, and the lower in turn upon the original 
foundations. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 



MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 249 

241. M. PONZO, La misura del decorso di process! psichici eseguita 

per mezzo delle grafiche del respiro. Process! di riconos- 
cimento e denominazione. Arch. ital. di. Psicol., I, 1921, 
214-238. 

Die Arbeit steht in Zusammenhang mit der friiher erschienenen 
Abhandlung des Verfassers: Lui tempi di riconoscimento e di de- 
nominazione di oggetti e di figure in adulti ed in allievi delle scuole 
elementari (Riv. di Psicol., 1914, n. i). In der vorliegenden 
Untersuchung bestimmt Ponzo mittels der phonetischen Reaktion 
die Zeiten fur die Erkennung und Benennung von Gegenstanden 
unter gleichzeitiger Registrierung der Atemkurve. In dieser 
Kurve zeigen sich innerhalb der Strecke, die vom Momente der 
Presentation bis zur Benennung des Gegenstandes verlaiift, mit 
grosser Deutlichkeit die hauptsachlichsten Phasen, aus denen sich 
der Gesamtvorganz zusammensetzt. Man sicht die Phase der 
einfachen Wahrnehmung, die der Erkennung und die des Suchens 
nach dem Namen, bezu. der Bildung desselben. Die erwahnten 
Veranderungen der Atemkurve haben fur jede Versuchsperson 
etwas durchaus charakteristisches und blieben fur dieselbe konstant, 
wenn der Reiz in einem bestimmten Momente der Atembewegung 
appliziert wird. Als giinstigster Moment des Reizapplikation 
ergab sich fur Ponzo nach vielen Vorversuchen derjenige, in dem 
die Inspirationsbewegung ihren Hohepunkt erreicht. Um die 
Dauer der genannten Phasen zu bestimmen, ersann Ponzo eine 
doppelte pneumatische Kapsel, die (zusammen mit den notizen 
Hilfsapparaten) gestattet, die Zeit werte in Federschwingungen auf 
Atemkurve selbst zu registrieren und von dieser direkt abzulesen. 
Vier dem Texte eingefiigte Zeichnungen, sowie sechs auf einer 
besonderen Tafel beizegebene Pneumogramme illustrieren die 
Einzelheiten der Versuchsanordnung und der erzielten Resultate. 
Unterstiitzt ward die Untersuchung durch die Aussagen der Ver- 
suchspersonen, die in jedem einzelnen Falle protokolliert wurden. 
Die gewonnenen Ergebnisse bestatigen in auschanlicher Weise die 
Auffassung Wundts iiber den zusammengesetzten Reaktionsvorgang 
Die Arbeit liefert ausserdem einen Beitrag zur Feststellung in- 
dividueller Differenzen. 

F. KIESOW (Turin) 

6. ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 

242. D'ALLONNES, R. Le mechanisme de la pensee: Les schemes 

mentaux. Rev. Philos.j 1920, 90, 161-202. 



250 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

A schema is the resultant of an abstraction, brought about by 
the elimination of some qualities and the preservation of others, 
leaving a symbol which may stand for the whole. There are two 
varieties artificial, such as written characters; and natural, mere 
silhouettes or outlines, showing characteristic features. The 
essence of these schemas is the image, which may serve in five ways: 
as a simplified residual, a simplifying agent, a collective index, a 
collecting agent, and a discriminating agent. 

The schema is the essence of all thought processes. This 
discussion attempts to show how it operates in apperception, 
judgment, conception, reason, with hints as to its place in im- 
agination, personality and thinking done in specialized fields such 
as science and philosophy. 

KITSON (Indiana) 

243. THORNDIKE, E. L., On the Organization of Intellect. Psychol. 

Rev., 28, 1921, 141-151. 

Thorndike criticizes Spearman's theory of a general intelligence 
factor. Tables of correlations and intercorrelations, based upon 
army data, are presented; and the application of Spearman's 
criterion of a general factor proves to be adverse to his own theory. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

7. SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

244. VOLLMER, A., A Practical Method for Selecting Policemen. 

/. of Crim. Law and Crim., 1921, II, 571-581. 
Vollmer deplores the fact that the many duties imposed upon 
the modern police force detract from the fullest and most efficient 
exercise of its primary function, that of crime prevention. But 
until there is a better way of making appointments to the higher 
positions in the administration, and a better basis of selecting men 
who enter the force than that of physical tests or political affiliation, 
or even the slightly improved civil service examinations, one cannot 
approach maximal efficiency. Emphasis must be shifted to a new 
set of values, from mere brute strength to vigor, intelligence, tact, 
courage, self-control and loyalty to the job. Needless to say, 
nothing less than expert service in conducting these physical, 
educational and psychological examinations should be employed. 



SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 251 

The appended report of Dr. Ball exemplifies a method such as 
is recommended by Vollmer. Candidates are given a preliminary 
and qualifying examination, the more obvious misfits being rejected 
on the first test. The qualifying examination rates the condidates 
in five fields, physical, nervous, mental, personality and general. 
The scheme for rating is similar to that used in the army, but here 
results are arrived at by actual examination, not by a man to man 
comparison. The laboratory report covers recommendations as to 
the disposition of the candidate, together with an individual 
vocational guidance chart, illustration of which is given. 

SCHWESINGER (Radcliffe) 

245. TRAMM, K. A., A Study of the Scientific Aspects of Work-tools 

and Working Facilities. Praktische PsychoL, 1921, 2, 

179-186. 

It is denied that practice and experience, trial and error result 
inevitably in the proper tools and working facilities for certain 
kinds of activities, either within or outside of industry. A careful 
stu.-iy must be made involving in each case: (i) Material to be 
worked upon. (2) Form of the proper tool. (3) Purpose of the 
work. (4) The physical and mental make up of the worker. The 
latter is the only point in which present studies are thwarted or 
futile. Individual peculiarities and tastes are the chief factors 
here. Examples are given showing how very common and well 
established activities may be made much more effective by a study 
of the elements enumerated. 

. LINK (New Haven) 

246. DURKHEIM, E., La Famille conjugale. Rev. Philos., 1921, 

91, 1-14. 

The history of the family shows a constant tendency toward 
contraction. The "conjugal" family the resultant of a con- 
traction of the "paternal" family consists of husband, wife, 
minor and unmarried children. To each member of this group 
pertain certain rights and obligations of a social and legal nature, 
which become more and more exclusively personal as the domestic 
communism of earlier types of family disappears. Although, in 
this shrinking process, the family loses ground, nevertheless marriage 
gains strength. 

KITSON (Indiana) 



252 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

247. GESELL, A., Vocational probation for subnormal youth 

Ment. Hyg. t 5, 1921, 321-325. 

The author presents a proposed law relating to vocational 
probation of subnormal youth, devised under the auspices of the 
Connecticut Commission of Child Welfare. It is designed to care 
for the subnormal and delinquent youth who is capable of earning 
wages if his conduct and work are supervised. It involves the 
cooperation of the juvenile court, the public schools and the in- 
dustries, and constant supervision by a probation officer. This 
proposal is in line with the modern tendency of welfare work away 
from institutional segregation toward local community control. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

248. BIGELOW, E. B. Experiment to determine the possibilities 

of subnormal girls in factory work. Ment. Hyg., 1921, 5, 
302-320. 

A special class of subnormal girls was organized in a rubber 
factory. They were taught to perform the simpler types of manual 
tasks; their mentality was tested; their case histories were inves- 
tigated as far as possible; and their earning capacities were carefully 
watched. Although the experiment was not completed it yielded 
several valuable suggestions such as the following: the vocational 
training of subnormals should be carried on away from other 
workers; subnormal employees require not only longer training but 
a special type of training in which appropriate discipline can be ex- 
ercised; the supervisor should understand the limitations of sub- 
normal employees and should possess an unusual amount of patience 
and tact; every possible incentive must be used; each employee 
offers individual problems; improvement of state legislation in regard 
to subnormals is urgently needed; there should be a greater amount 
of cooperation between the state and industry in handling the 
subnormal who is not confined to special institutions. There is 
no more practical or less expensive method of providing for the 
large numbers of defectives who must remain in the community. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

249. LINK, H. C., A Further Development of Employment Psy- 

chology. /. of Applied PsychoL, 1920, 4, 306-309. 
Six hundred sixteen women who applied for clerical work were 
examined, 287 recommended by the psychological section were 



SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 253 

hired; 137 recommended but not hired, 173 not recommended 
but hired. Of those recommended and not hired 35 wanted summer 
work only. In some cases the wages they demanded were above 
the starting rate for clerical work. Thus predetermined starting 
wages had eliminated some of the most desirable applicants. It 
showed that a system of flexible starting wages was highly desirable 
if the wages could be varied in accordance with the quantity and 
quality of the available labor supply. 

MULHALL ACHILLES 

250. FROST, E., Should Psychology Bake Bread? /. of Applied 
Psychol., 1920, 4, 294-305. 

At least two considerations may militate against the wise 
application of a science: First, the science may be so new and its 
conclusions in consequence so half-baked, that the premature 
utilization of them is of no value, or second, we run a liability 
of prejudicing the future of the science itself, so that subsequent 
researches are no longer as search for truth but are biases and 
opinions dictated by needs. The second result would be calamitous. 

Is psychology sufficiently developed so that it may hope to 
offer its formulae and conclusions as practical recipes toward the 
solution of human problems? What is the effect of success upon 
the science itself and those who carry its touch ? The technique of 
the psychology laboratory is not sufficiently standardized to 
translate it effectively to industry. The major premise that 
human problems of industry are psychological is well established 
and industry has recognized it. The minor premise of application 
is lacking and will probably remain so until more men are interested 
in both the psychological and industrial background. Industry 
inclines to be over-practical, while the laboratory psychologist 
leaves out of account variables due to nationility of worker, history 
of management, etc., which vary with each industry. Industry 
needs the psychologist but he must come with his overalls on and 
be as eager to learn as to teach. "Underdone bread is sometimes 
worse than no bread and makes for indigestion. If the psychologist 
is to do any industrial baking, he must learn first to cook, for 
everyone knows, cooking is an art and its secrets lie outside of 
books." 

MULHALL ACHILLES 



254 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

251. STRONG, E. K., Job Analysis of the Manager in Industry. 

Sch. y Soc., 1921, 13, 456-461. 

In this article the writer points out the fact that many men 
are sent out to occupy important executive positions in industry, 
after having been prepared by college courses which have little 
practical bearing on the real needs of their positions. He draws 
attention to the fact that many such courses are added to a college 
curriculum merely by the judgment of individual professors who 
have no real knowledge of the types of training the various executive 
positions in industry require. 

The writer also speaks of the desirability of all such courses 
being based on information which should be the result of a thorough 
job-analysis in every branch of industry. Men could thus be 
prepared for executive positions in industry by practical courses 
with definite aims concerning future needs. He says: "What is 
vitally needed is an extensive survey of the real conditions in in- 
dustry, so that we may know the number of different types of ex- 
ecutives in existence, what they have to do and what they have to 
know in order to perform their duties. . . . With such data before 
us we then would be in a position to overhaul our existing courses 
and develop new curricula specially adapted to the training of execu- 
tives. . . . We should also be able to know the objectives to be ac- 
complished by each course in a curriculum and to develop new 
courses to meet these objectives." The point is also made that 
when elements in college work are made similar to elements in 
after life then, and only then, will the average student get the 
benefit of a transfer of training. 

HODGKINSON (Harvard) 

252. TAMASSIA, A., Le determinanti psico-psiologiche dello scrittura. 

Riv. di PsicoL, 16, 1920, 335-338. 

On the hypothesis that there exists a relation between hand- 
writing and mental facts, it should be possible to use graphology 
as a means of investigating the psychology of the child. The 
author carried out experiments on persons varying in age from 
7 to 60. The writing showed certain variations in the course of 
the experiments, but these are less marked in the seven-year-old 
child, and in those of advanced years. The greater amount of 
variation occurs between the ages of 12 and 17. 

The psychophysiological determinants of handwriting form in 
the period between puberty and adolescence, in the age of emo- 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 255 

tional preponderance, when temperament begins to develop. Hand- 
writing then begins to acquire its special physiognomy which will 
be maintained throughout life, and is due to the formation of its 
psycho-physiological determinants. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

253. FERRARI, G. C., Per 1'orientamento professionale dei lavoratori. 

Riv. di. Psicol., 16, 1920, 327-334. 

The development of vocational psychology in America has been 
followed with considerable interest in Italy. The author has made 
a restricted application of the principles among the feebleminded. 
With the end of the war it became urgent to introduce some system 
by which the worker could be improved on the lines which suit 
his innate dispositions. The work of reform should begin: 1st, 
in the school with the object of discovering, by scientific method, 
the native dispositions of the child, and of organizing these elements 
in every institution, elementary, superior or professional, so as to 
facilitate the adaptation of the man to his proper work. 2nd, in 
the workshop, with the analysis of the mechanical and mental 
conditions of each kind of work. 3d, By elevating the individual 
disposition of the worker, so as to establish the professional apti- 
tudes which follow. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

8. SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

254. MOXON, C. Religion in the Light of Psychoanalysis. Psy- 

choanalytic Rev., 1921, 8, 92-98. 

From the psychoanalytic point of view, religion may be described 
as a psychical flight from a dark and threatening reality. It is a 
regression to a more infantile way of life in which fantasy takes 
the place of reality and a loved or feared God takes the place of 
the loved or feared parent of childhood. Religious beliefs give a 
symbolical satisfaction for hidden impulses, lowly emotions, and 
primitive desires. They are not a product of reason but of repressed 
instinct and emotion. 

God is a symbol of the parent. The childish attitude toward 
the parent is transferred to the symbol. This attitude is usually 
ambivalent, both love and hate. The mind projects its feelings 



256 SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

upon its symbolic object. Consequently the God is conceived as 
loving or hating his worshippers. He rewards and he punishes 
just as the childhood father did. 

The intensity of a man's religious life will depend upon the 
amount of repressed libido that is available for sublimation. The 
person who has found satisfaction in a normal love life and in his 
work will have no energy to spare in this form of sublimation. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

255. TOWNE, J. E., A Psychoanalytic Study of Shakespere's 

Coriolanus. Psychoanalytic Rev., 1921, 8, 84-91. 
This story of a bold warrior losing his life because so "bound 
to's mother" is clearly but a variation of the most essentially tragic 
of all myths, that of Oedipus. It is true the story has a historical 
basis, but both Plutarch and Shakespere departed widely from the 
earliest and probably the most authentic accounts, and in both 
cases the result has approached more nearly the characteristic 
Oedipus fantasy. As has been previously pointed out by Jones 
and Coriat, Shakespere's insight into human nature was so profound 
that he intuitively made use of much that psychoanalysis has since 
revealed. This is illustrated by examples from the play. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

256. HUBBARD, L. D. A Dream Study. Psychoanalytic Rev., 

1921, 8, 73-83. 

A young woman, an only child with a strong parent complex, 
subsequent to a disappointment in love, regresses to a homosexual 
level and develops a neurosis. The dream reported occurred 
during the course of her psychoanalysis. It is unique in its dramatic 
form, appearing in a prologue, four acts, and an epilogue. Its 
interpretation seems to corroborate Maeder's theory that a dream 
may concern itself not only with the regressive tendencies of the 
libido but with the progressive tendencies as well. Throughout the 
first half of the dream, regression is the main feature, but in the 
last half desire for proper adult adjustment and for improvement 
are represented. The dream not only recapitulates the struggles 
of the infantile libido but it also represents the attitude of the 
dreamer towards her present difficulties. It is wish-fulfilling but 
at the same time it is autosymbolic and confessional. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 257 

257. BARNES, H. E., Some Reflections on the Possible Service of 

Analytical Psychology to History. Psychoanalytic Rev., 
1921, 8, 22-37. 

The new standpoint in history emphasizes the importance of 
psychological analysis of the personalities of statesmen and leaders, 
for it regards leadership as the product of two factors: a stimulating 
environment and a personality that can respond. Personality can 
be best understood from the psychoanalytic point of view; but 
psychoanalysis need not be limited in history to the interpretation 
of personal traits. Freudian mechanisms may also, perhaps, be 
applied to the interpretation of mass psychology. For example, 
was New England puritanism a psychic compensation for economic 
chicanery in smuggling and the rum-trade? And was Southern 
chivalry a collective compensation for sexual looseness and mal- 
treatment of the negro? 

The former more promising aspect of the new method in history 
is applied to an interpretation of the personal traits and public 
policies of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Hamilton's 
love of order, authority, and centralization in government as well 
as his self-confident and reality-conquering personality are traced 
to the fact that he knew little of family life in his childhood and 
never experienced the restraining influence of a harsh father. 

Jefferson, on the other hand, was the son of a severe and dom- 
ineering father who had the boy in constant fear of him. This 
explains his constant feeling of inferiority, his sensitiveness to 
public opinions, and especially that hatred of authority and dom- 
ination and love of individual liberty characteristic of Jeffersonian 
democracy. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

258. CLARK, L. P., Unconscious Motives Underlying the Person- 

alities of Great Statesmen and their Relation to Epoch- 
Making Events (I. A Psychologic Study of Abraham Lin- 
coln). Psychoanalytic Rev., 1921, 8, 1-21. 

Adequate interpretation of historical events is not possible 
without psychological analysis of the traits of character and per- 
sonality of the prominent leaders of the period. Such an analysis 
must take cognizance of the unconscious as well as the conscious 
motives of the individual, and must seek to explain overt adult 
traits by tracing their antecedents back to the earliest events of 
childhood. 



258 SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

This psychoanalytic procedure is applied to Abraham Lincoln. 
Most prominent among his personality traits were the depressive 
episodes from which he suffered at times during the greater part 
of his life. Such depressions are due to regressive introversion of 
the emotions whenever the individual is unable to adjust to reality. 
This regression is based upon an over-attachment to the parent of 
the opposite sex. 

Lincoln's early attachment to his mother and afterwards to his 
stepmother and his dislike for his father are verified by his biog- 
raphers. In his adult life these attitudes persist as unconscious 
motives which explain at least in part the following points: his 
regressive depressions, his failure to appear on his appointed wedding 
day in 1841, the general instability of his love life, his reaction 
against the authority and dominance of the church (father sub- 
stitute), his chivalry and tenderness (mother ideal) to the weak 
and enslaved, his leniency to infractors of military discipline, and 
his attitude toward the erring South. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

259. SCHILLING, W., The Effect of Caffein and Acetanilid on Simple 

Reaction Time. Psychol. Rev., 28, 1921, 72-79. 
Apparently these drugs tend to retard auditory reaction time, 
and to produce greater variability of response than sugar of milk 
which was used as a control. 

YOUNG (Minnesota) 

260. LODGE, O., Testimony to a Child's Impression of Fairies. 

J. Soc.for Psychical Res., 1920, 20, 63-70. 

Report of a case of a woman who, it is alleged, in her childhood 
talked and played with fairies. Her impression is that they are 
from four to six inches in height, iridescent, many colored and that 
they came to her only at night or when everything was quiet 
about her. Letters of confirmation of reports attached. 

BROOKE (Pennsylvania) 

261. E. R. GROVES, E. R. SPAULDING, W. A. WHITE, P. BLANCHARD, 

C. C. ROBINSON, I. L. PETERS. Round Table. Sociological 
Significance of Psychoanalytic Psvchology. Pub. Atner. 
Sociol. Soc., 15, 1920, 203-216. 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 259 

Because psychology and sociology are closely related sciences 
the upsetting influence of psychoanalysis is very significant to the 
sociologist. Psychoanalytic psychology claims the discovery of a 
new technique of immense value in psychological investigation, the 
discovery of evidence which individual behavior discloses, of the 
difficulty of bringing man's instinctive cravings under social dis- 
cipline, and bringing to light the preponderate importance of early 
childhood as the social destiny period of human experience. It 
leads us to see in mental disorders, delinquency, and industrial 
unrest the disastrous results due to the failure of the individual to 
achieve a working harmony with the dictates of the social regime. 
Some sociological problems suggested by psychoanalysts are: the 
interpretation of mob psychology in terms of repressions; the social 
sublimation of the tremendous mass of restless energy brought 
forth by mental conditions; the use of social propaganda so as to 
obtain greater opportunity for the constructive utilization of energy 
which will increase rather than diminish individual responsibility; 
the psychoanalytical study of the character and personality of 
great men; the investigation of the bonds which hold together the 
various subgroups of society; the intensive study of the pre-school 
age; the possible applicability to the social group of laws worked 
out in the study of the individual; the reconstruction of industry 
in harmony with the deeper emotions of the personality; the 
neuropathic basis of criminality; and the sublimation of sex cravings 
in work with employed boys. 

HART (Iowa) 

262. DOOLEY, L., A Psychoanalytic Study of Manic Depressive 
Psychosis. Psychoanal. Rev., 1921, 8, 38-72, 144-167. 

This study was undertaken with two purposes in view: first, to 
determine whether or not psychoanalysis could be applied to the 
severe cases of manic depressive psychosis with beneficial results, 
and secondly to trace the symptoms of the psychosis back to phases 
of character development and to the specific crises in the lives of 
the patients where the arrest of emotional growth occurred. 

Five cases are described in detail as to symptomatology, history, 
and psychoanalytic treatment. The therapeutic results are doubt- 
ful, but suggest the importance of further application of the method. 

The fuller personal history obtained through psychoanalysis 
gives some points of interest. Four of the five cases recorded 
reached puberty at an unusually early age, and all of them developed 



260 SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

sex repressions as a result of their mothers' failure to meet their 
needs at the critical time. Curiosity, doubt, and fear as to sexual 
problems arose early and were inadequately met by incomplete 
knowledge gained in a clandestine manner. Excessive bashfulness, 
lack of self-confidence, modesty, prudery, and incipient homo- 
sexuality were the usual results. In married life the patients 
were unhappy, sexually frigid, and in general maladjusted. If 
some normal persons have had similar unfortunate histories, they 
remain normal probably because they have inherited better inte- 
grated nervous systems, and have succeeded in finding means of 
sublimation. 

The study also throws some light on the psychology of the psy- 
chosis. The wish-fulfilling nature of many of the delusions and 
irrational actions is apparent. These wishes are in direct opposi- 
tion to the consciously endorsed desires of the patient who feels an 
inner compulsion to talk and act as he does. During the course of 
the disease the patient gradually regresses to a fulfillment of more 
and more infantile types of wishes and trends, but during this regres- 
sion the contact with reality is never broken, and therein lies the 
differentiation of this psychosis from dementia precox. The manic 
depressive character is extroverted while the dementia precox char- 
acter is introverted. The " Flight into Reality" of the manic attack 
is a defense reaction by which the patient is protected from the pain- 
ful thought of his own fundamental inferiority. In the depressive 
attack the defense is no longer possible, and the patient is weighted 
down with the pain of acknowledged defect. The difficulty of psy- 
choanalysis is due to the method of defense in the manic phase and 
to listlessness and inaccessibility in the depressive phase. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

263. VAN TESLAAR, J. S., The Death of Pan: A Classical Instance 
of Verbal Misinterpretation. PsychoanaL Rev., 1921, 8, 
180-183. 

The myth of the death of Pan is traced back to its original 
source in Plutarch's De Defectu Oraculorum. It is found that the 
form of the story there reported very probably originated in a 
misunderstanding on the part of a group of sailors of a line of 
ritual chanted by worshippers on the shore. Subsequently there 
was bfuiU up around this trivial incident one of the most formidable 
myths in medieval Christianity. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 261 

264. STRONG, M. K., A New Reading of Tennyson's "The Lotos- 

Eaters." Psychoanal. Rev., 1921, 8, 184-186. 
This poem is interpreted as the conflict of a dissociated per- 
sonality. The neurotic seeks refuge from reality in voluptuous 
fantasy. In the Choric Song is pictured the conflict between 
indulgence and struggle, sensuality and rationalism, with the former 
winning. It is the story of a failure. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

265. LAZELL, E. W. The Group Treatment of Dementia Precox. 

Psychoanal. Rev., 1921, 8, 168-179. 

The author describes a method of treating dementia precox 
patients in groups by giving them instruction relative to their 
fundamental instinctive nature and chief mental mechanisms. The 
instruction is given in short lectures or talks, and the material 
presented is largely the result of psychoanalytic investigation. 
The aims of the instruction are to lead the patient to an understand- 
ing of the subjective nature and origin of his symptoms, and to as- 
sist him to a better social adjustment by directing the instinctive 
demands into channels compatible with the herd law as well as the 
ego-ideal. It seeks to withdraw the regressing libido from the 
world of incestuous, narcissistic, and homosexual fantasy, and to 
redirect it into the world of reality and towards a heterosexual and 
altruistic goal. 

For purposes of instruction only such patients as presented the 
same fundamental problem and were solving their difficulties in 
the same manner were included in the same group. From the 
psychoanalytic point of view, it was found that all cases of dementia 
precox can be placed in one or the other of two groups: the ag- 
gressive and the submissive. This classification, which corresponds 
roughly to the hebephrenic and paranoid forms respectively, is 
based upon the way in which the patient seeks to gratify his homo- 
erotic cravings, and ultimately upon the nature of his Oedipus 
problem. 

The talks were given in very simple language on the following 
topics: the fear of death, conflict and regressions, reactivation of 
infantile wishes, explanation of the most common hallucinations 
(accusing and defending voices), masturbation and narcissism, 
sublimation of the self-love, homosexuality and its rationalization, 
the feeling of inferiority and its causes, the usual causes of flight 



262 SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

from women (bars to heterosexuality), over-compensation for 
inferiority, the explanation of delusions, day-dreaming and its 
explanation. 

Some results of the method are: (i) the patient is socialized 
with reference to fear of death and the sexual problem, (2) the 
fear of the analyst is removed and some patients request further 
individual treatment, (3) patients apparently absolutely inaccessible 
really hear and retain much of the material, (4) many patients 
show improvement and some apparently recover. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

266. FORSYTH, D., The Rudiments of Character. A Study of 
Infant Behavior. Psychoanal. Rev., 1921, 8, 117-143. 

Since psychical development is continuous and uninterrupted 
from childhood to adult life, it may be assumed that there is nothing 
in adult psychology which is not derived from some childhood 
element. The complex is derived from the simple, and psychology 
should begin with the latter rather than the former. It is the aim 
of this paper to establish some of the main facts of infantile psy- 
chology, and to trace their development through some of the 
earliest stages. 

There are three distinct stages in the early development of the 
infant mind: (i) the vegetive stage, contemporary with intrauterine 
life, after birth represented by dreamless sleep; (2) the nutri-excretal 
stage, immediately following birth, when the bodily needs must be 
supplied with the help of novel nutritive and excretory functions; 
(3) the stage of external projection, resulting especially from the 
addition of the cutaneous, visual, and auditory senses. This stage 
is not further considered in the paper. 

In the nutri-excretal stage the placental functions are replaced 
by four new channels of communication with the environment: 
(i) the oral zone, (2) the urethral zone, (3) the anal zone, (4) the 
respiratory zone. Each of these zones, under the influence of its 
proper stimulus (milk, urine, feces, breath) produces feelings of 
pleasure and muscular effects. Simultaneously the tension in the 
zone is reduced to zero, gradually to rise again until the next 
stimulation produces the same result. The tension is painful, its 
relief pleasant; and the greater the relief the greater the intensity 
of the pleasurable feeling. The attitude the child developes toward 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 263 

these four zones and the distribution of his interest among them 
are the fundamental determinants of his future welfare, health, 
character. 

The affective concomitant of the vegetive state may be called 
"Vegetive emotion." It is a negative or passive state of perfect 
contentment. In the nutri-excretal stage this elemental affective 
state is differentiated into pleasure and pain. The pleasure-pain 
principle of Freud is thus not so ultimate as the Vegetive or Nirvana 
principle. The goal of regression is not merely to escape pain, 
but to escape both pleasure and pain in order to find the lost 
Nirvana. Sleep follows the removal of all physiological tensions. 
Persisting tensions (unsatisfied desires) are the bases of anxiety 
and fear. 

In the further process of development, two emotions are differ- 
entiated: love and hate. Love is the feeling bestowed upon an 
object which relieves tension (gratifies desire); hate is the projection 
upon an object of the unpleasantness (anger) due to unrelieved 
tension. Hate always implies frustrated desire. Thus love and 
hate have the same objects (ambivalency). These objects are at 
first the stimuli for the nutri-excretal zones, especially the oral anal. 
If milk is the chief love-object, it leads to extroversion. The child 
is obliged to take an interest (through the mother) in the outer 
world. If feces becomes the chief love object, it leads to intro- 
version, for there is no dependence upon the environment. 

The effects of these early loves and hates upon character for- 
mation are very great and decisive. Oral love, with its impulse to 
ingest, results in aggressive and masterful behavior. Oral hate 
impels the removal (death) of its object, and is an important 
factor in the development of disgust. Anal love results in a passive, 
submissive character. Anal hate, with its tendency to withhold, 
results in obstinacy, stubbornness and parsimoniousness. An 
extreme development of the last two types and their frequent 
alternation (ambivalency) are found in the suggestibility and 
negativism of catatonic dementia precox. 

BRIDGES (Ohio State) 

267. Editorial Psychanalysis. /. Amer. Med. Asso., 1921, 76, 

3I7- 

People are paying too much attention nowadays to their minds. 
An abnormal interest in the working of one's own mind produces 
either an introspective philosopher or a "common nut." When 



264 SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

the interest relates to a fascination for cogitation on things sexual, 
it is dangerous. We are flooded with books on psychanalysis; the 
movies picture it; theaters dramatize it; and churches have lectures 
on it. The craze promises to make the medical psychiatrist a very 
busy man. 

SYLVESTER (Drake) 

268. ASSAGIOLI, R., La psicologia e la scienza della sessualita. 

Alti dell' Associazione di Studi Psicologia. Riv. di PsicoL, 

16, 1920, 2 1 1-2 20. 

The scientific study of sexuality is a relatively recent devel- 
opment of psychology. The author outlines the more important 
aspects of the problem, such as the ontogenetic development of the 
sexual functions. The Freudian theory of infantile polymorphic 
sexuality and the group of problems which require investigation 
pertain to individual sexual differences. The author observes that 
the tendency of modern civilization is to assume an increasingly 
masculine character and raises the question of its advantages, 
especially in so far as it concerns the female sex. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

269. BORRINO, A., Delia psicoterapia nell' enuressi essenziale dei, 

bambini. Riv. di PsicoL 16, 1920, 189-198. 
Physical treatment for enuresis in children produces but little 
effect. Psychotherapy gives better results. Various cases are re- 
ported in which an action on the psyche of the child resulted in cure. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

270. GUALINO, L., Psicofisiologia dei Fucilandi. Riv. di PsicoL, 

16, 1920, 42-60. 

A psychophysiological study by a military medical officer of 
soldiers condemned to be shot. The various emotions experienced 
in the hours just preceding the execution of the penalty are observed 
with great detail together with physiological observations on 
nervous, muscular and glandular activity. 

The mental functions of the condemned remain intact until the 
last moment, though on account of the atonic physiognomy the 
contrary seems to be the case. Cardiac and respiratory phenomena 
indicate a prolonged cerebral activity, as do also such signs as 
the dilation of the pupils, the hyppus reaction. 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 265 

The presence of mioctonic tremors, sensory anaesthesia associated 
with variations in reflex activity, lead to the hypothesis that the 
emotions act by means of a constriction of the medullary blood 
vessels, bringing on anemia. 

The general paresis which develops may also be conditioned 
through general inhibition, lack of the psychic impulses necessary 
to sustain the body, thus setting up a spurious state of "astasia 
ataxia." 

The spinal chord is the first to suffer a variation of its function, 
while the organ of thought continues to understand and to suffer. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

271. FERRARI, G. C., Psicologia dei moribundi. Riv. di Psicol., 
16, 1920, 101-107. 

In this paper the author completes the observations of Gualino. 
With some remarks of a more general character concerning the 
psychology of the dying, and in particular of the dark moments of 
the soldier-deserter about to suffer the death penalty. The chief 
preoccupation of them centers around the mystery of the physical 
passage from life to death, and the chief agony is derived from the 
fact that this moment is irrevocably fixed. ,The fact that Gualino's 
observations are taken from a homogeneous material limits the 
general validity of his conclusions. One defect lies in the fact that 
Gualino does not take into account the reasons which led to the 
condemnation nor the type of individual condemned for desertion. 
Taken as a group they represent the average of the population 
even if some habitual criminals may be included. Fear, shock and 
other motives may be at the back of the act of desertion, rather 
than other motives, such as are shown by others who resort to dev- 
ious methods of saving their lives and escaping as well from the 
horrors of the trench. 

With suitable subjects, trained in the psychological method of 
introspection, it is possible to study cengesthesis, using this method 
if the criteria previously mentioned are taken into account. Ex- 
periments could then be made on the effects produced by toxic 
substances administered in doses of various strength at different 
intervals of time, and under conditions which would exclude the 
possibility of interference due to other disturbances from other 
sources. 



266 NERFOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

Finally the special individual sensibility should be taken into 
consideration, especially such as may constitute a constitutional 
or transitory diosyncracy for any one of the toxic substances used 
in the experiments. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

9. NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

272. LECLERE, A., Contribution a 1'etude des "Regressions psy- 
chiques" (Examen special de 1'aspect sexuel de ce probleme). 
Rev. Philos., 1920, 90, 203-272. 

By regression is ordinarily understood that reversion to the 
days of youth which occasionally manifests itself in persons of 
advanced age. This consists not of a real "resurrection" of the 
past, but of a condition brought about by the prolongation of the 
past or by new circumstances which produce effects analogous to 
those produced by past circumstances. 

This thesis explains the sexual irregularities that occasionally 
crop out in old age, which might be called (following Freud's 
infantilisms) juvenilisms. It explains the puerilities of mental 
maladies by assuming that the patient obtains a refuge or defense 
from undesirable present conditions by pretending that he is again 
a youth. It explains the more subtle mental phenomena in adults 
who otherwise pass as normal for example, the vague reveries in 
which the majority of people pass most of their time. These 
reveries or wanderings of attention are really revivals of youthful 
phantasies. (We call them in extreme old age reliving one's youth.) 
Indeed, even the most sanely mature man must realize that his 
maturity is at best only artificial and intermittent. He is obliged 
to guard himself constantly, lest he regress prematurely into the 
stage of juvenile fancying. 

Periods of "depression" may be regarded as regressions. The 
tendency at such times is to simplify life by avoiding the present, 
and is carried out by reverting to juvenility. Again, what is play 
in adults but a regression into puerilities of action and feeling? 
Likewise the adult love of literature, especially of the novel, is but 
the juvenile love of stories, more often than not looking toward a 
vicarious gratification of sexual impulses. Even the metaphysics 
of the day consists of a play with abstract ideas, "and to speak of 
play is to speak of youth." One has only to watch normal adults 



NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 267 

in a crowd to see them retrograde in the direction of juvenile 
exaggerations, violences and states of suggestibility. Peoples en 
masse may also retrograde in phenomena like Bolshevism. 

The ideal way to grow old is to mature normally. This is 
accomplished by absorbing in each period of growth the best 
elements of the preceding period. In order to provide a social 
regime conducive to this, provide for each age the development 
which is normal to it, constantly looking forward to a maturity 
which will contain as many good elements as possible of each stage 
of growth. Facilitate easy preservation of the good things of the 
past; for as races must lean upon their traditions for achieving 
future greatness, so individuals must be able to lean upon their 
past for evolving a noble maturity. 

KITSON (Indiana) 

273. RAWLINGS, E., The Intellectual Status of Patients with 
Paranoid Dementia Praecox. Arch, of N enrol, and Psychiat., 
1921, 5, 283-295. 

This investigation, carried out for the purpose of ascertaining 
the intellectual status of apparently well preserved cases of paranoid 
dementia praecox, was chiefly concerned with memory and the 
higher associative processes. The cases were selected from among 
those patients of native birth who had completed the grammar 
grades or received a higher education, and showed an apparently 
normal preservation. Fifty patients were tested but only sixteen 
were counted as it was impossible to score the rest. In ascertaining 
the general level of intelligence the revised Yerkes-Bridges point 
scale was used. The tests for the higher and more complex phases 
of mental activity were as follows: (a) Kent-Rosanoff; (b) Controlled 
Association; i.e., Pyle's part-whole and opposites tests, Woodworth 
and Wells genus-species test, and some computations; (c) Tests for 
imagination and invention (Ink Blot, Masselon's, Development 
Theme, Completion of the test of Ebbinghaus); (d) General and 
specific information. The sixteen selected cases scored by the 
Yerkes-Bridges point scale showed a general average of 76.5 points 
with a mental age of 1 1.6 and an Intelligence Quotient of 72. The 
tests for controlled and uncontrolled association, and those for 
imagination and invention correlated well with the above scores, 
giving the patients a general average of 11-12 years. The test for 
general and specific information showed a diminution in linguistic 



268 NERFOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

fluency, patchy memories, ideation sterile in type, the tendency to 
deal with the concrete rather than the abstract even when the 
latter was indicated, and a general lack of flexibility in the use of 
mental equipment. In correlating the clinical with the pathological 
findings it was discovered that there was an impairment of mind of 
the volition, emotion, the higher intellectual faculties of memory, 
reasoning, and a deterioration in judgment. 

B. J. JONES (Radcliffe) 

274. LOWREY, L. G., An Analysis of Suicidal Attempts. /. of 

Nerv. tsf Ment. Dis., 1920, 52, 475-482. 

The writer makes an analytic study of 46 cases of attempted 
suicide by patients at the Boston State Hospital. In each case he 
gives the reason or reasons for the attempt, the methods selected, 
and the psychiatric diagnosis. The writer points out that a high 
proportion of dementia praecox patients attempt suicide, and it is 
therefore necessary to safeguard such patients even more than has 
previously been thought necessary. Out of the analysis of 46 
patients; 16 were cases of dementia praecox; 9 were manic depressive 
types; 5 were cases of psychopathic personality; 3 of psychoneurosis, 
and the others were scattered cases. The writer also states that 
the number of cases of attempted suicide due to depression is 
unexpectedly low and indicates the need for guarding other than 
depressive cases against the suicide danger. The methods used by 
the 46 patients in hospital, in order of frequency were, cutting, gas, 
poison, drowning, hanging, jumping from a height, swallowing 
foreign bodies, strangulation, shooting, setting fire to clothing. 
The writer also points out that occasionally attempts at suicide 
were made by patients in order to gain notoriety and sympathy or 
to achieve definite ends. These patients, however, very seldom 
intend their attempts to be successful, and the suicidal mood 
usually succumbs to the distractions of their environment. 

HODGKINSON (Harvard) 

275. STRECKER, E. A., Mai-behavior Viewed as an Out-patient 

Mental and Nervous Clinic Problem. Ment. Hyg., 5, 1921, 
225-238. 

Out-patient psychiatry has opportunity for vast expansion and 
with its growth there should develop a general recognition of 



NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 269 

principles by which mental and nervous clinics shall be developed. 
While methods of treatment, diagnosis and prognosis in this field 
cannot be as standardized as in such fields as the eye, ear, nose and 
throat, certain policies can be adopted for the good of the movement 
as a whole. The chief principle which activates a clinic should be 
the study of mal-behavior, an investigation of its causes and an 
effort to correct its ill effects. By mal-behavior is meant any form, 
of behavior opposed to good, normal, moral or average behavior 
any form of behavior which lowers the morale, efficiency and 
progress of the individual, the family and the community. A 
second principle should be that the clinic be not highly specialized 
but highly generalized. Its duties and tasks are many. The 
author illustrates his points by reference to type cases due to phy- 
sical causes, psychogenic factors, a mixed etiology, and to psy- 
chopathic inferiority. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

276. SPAULDING, E. R. An emotional crisis. A description and 
analysis of an episode that occurred among psychopathic 
women. Merit. Hyg., 5, 1921, 266-282. 

This article describes an episode which took place among a 
group of inmates in one of the cottages of the Bedford reformatory.. 
Five girls of various psychopathic types were the dramatis personal 
of a riot of emotion and excitement which lasted about 5 hours 
during the night. , The conditions leading up to the riot had to do* 
with defiance of authority, jealousy, excitement resulting from a* 
play which the inmates had recently given and the resignation of 
a play-leader, and suspicion on the part of the five inmates. Con- 
tributing to the riot were such factors as the emotional instability 
of the group, lack of inhibitory power, exaggerated traits of char- 
acter such as extreme sensitiveness, over-suggestibility, sullenness, 
and lack of intelligence. Aside from their general child-like 
characters and over-development of the elementary instinctive and! 
emotional responses of love, hate, anger and jealousy these girls 
showed a hypertrophied herd-instinct. Complexes of various sorts, 
including hysterical behavior based upon menstrual and other 
physical difficulties added their influence to the developmental 
causes. The episode demonstrates that the treatment of the 
psychopathic delinquent woman should be undertaken from at least 
four points of view: therapeutic, educational, disciplinary and that 
of their social organization. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 



270 NERFOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

277. POLLACK, H. M. & FURBUSH, E. M. Mental diseases in 

twelve states. Ment. Hyg., 5, 1921, 353-389. 

This study is the first attempt to use for comparative purposes 
the results of the uniform system of statistics of mental diseases 
which was adopted by the American Medico-Psychological Asso- 
ciation in 1917. Males exceed the females in traumatic, syphilitic 
and alcoholic groups. Males also exceeded in the dementia-praecox 
group for reasons unknown. Women exceed in the somatic- 
disease and manic-depressive groups owing probably to the bearing 
and rearing of children. Women also excell in the involution- 
melancholia group. The rate per 100,000 population of first 
admissions to state hospitals was 69.9 for urban districts and only 
37.9 for rural districts. Of the males having dementia praecox, 
about 74 per cent, were single; of those having general paralysis 
60 per cent, were married; the percentage of women with general 
paralysis in the separated or divorced group is relatively high. 
Numerous tables deal with the distributions of different diseases 
in the two sexes; the rates of first admissions in the separate states; 
the distribution of diseases in the different states; the per cent, 
distributions of the principal psychoses of readmissions; recovery 
and improvement rates by states and by diseases and the like. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

278. LURIE, L. A., Treatment of the Subnormal and Psychopathic 

Child. /. Amer. Med. Asso., 1921, 76, 1386. 

In order to diagnose and prescribe properly for a child showing 
delinquency in anti-social behavior, truancy, mental defectiveness, 
mental retardation or some other form of psychopathy, examiners 
must determine (i) the innate mental capacity, and (2) the make- 
up of the environment. Mental capacity is ascertained by physical 
and neuropsychiatric examinations, including a psychometric test. 
Some, fortunately not physicians, assert that a psychometric 
examination is all that is necessary. The Stanford-Binet is the 
most commonly employed. The self-styled psychoclinician over- 
looks deafness and visual defects, and depends only on responses to 
questions. Obviously all findings should be correlated by a 
physician. Study of the social, economic, educational and religious 



NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 271 

factors composing the environment depend on the aid of a social 
worker. The child must be studied in a controlled environment 
which can be provided only in a Psychopathic Institution. 

SYLVESTER (Drake) 

279. IRELAND, M. W., The Achievement of the Army Medical 

Department in the World War, in the Light of General 
Medical Progress. /. Amer. Med. Asso., 1921, 76, 767. 
Salmon, Bailey, and Yerkes, through application of the newer 
findings of psychology found large numbers of weak, undeveloped 
and disordered minds. Mental defectives will be bad risks in any 
future army. Our prospective army school will train mind and 
senses to co-ordinate through vocational adaptation to suitable 
employments. 

SYLVESTER (Drake) 

280. LEAHY, S. R., and SANDS, I. J. Mental Disorders in Children 

Following Epidemic Encephalitis. /. Amer. Med. Asso., 

1921, 76, 373. 

Epidemic encephalitis was at first regarded as an acute infectious 
disease, involving chiefly the central nervous system, running a 
more or less classical course and terminating either in death or 
complete recovery. It has been found, however, that many patients 
after an apparently complete somatic recovery, show striking 
forms of abnormal behavior. A group of children in the Psycho- 
pathic Wards of Bellevue Hospital were carefully studied. Ap- 
parently the disease's process had come to a standstill, but "their 
mental status was characterized by purposeless, impulsive motor 
acts, marked irritability, definite attention disorders, distractibility 
and changing variable mood, inadequate and inconsistent emotional 
reactions, marked insomnia and, in two cases, precocious sexual 
feelings and intense eroticisms." The writers believe that the 
replacement of diseased, destroyed nervous tissue by neuroglia scar 
tissue acts as a stimulating and undoubtedly as an irritating agent 
to the rest of the nerve tissue. These patients acted badly to 
drugs, so treatment was virtually limited to physical agents intended 
to give rest and to shield the diseased brain from irritating stimuli. 
Warm packs, cold packs, hydrotherapy, massage, and occupational 
therapy were found to be important agents in hastening conva- 
lescence. 

SYLVESTER (Drake) 



272 NERFOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

281. CRILE, G. W., The Mechanism of Shock and Exhaustion. /. 

Amer. Med. Ass., 1921, 76, 149. 

"The man in acute shock or exhaustion is able to see danger, but 
lacks the normal muscular power to escape from it; his temperature 
may be subnormal, but he lacks the normal power to create heat; he 
understands words, but lacks the normal power of response. In 
other words, he is unable to transform potential into kinetic energy." 
In exhaustion, the organism has lost its self mastery. Self-mastery 
is achieved only by the master tissue the brain. Acute exhaus- 
tion may be caused by failure of functioning of the respiratory sys- 
tem, the circulatory system, the blood, the muscles, suprarenals, 
the liver, and the brain. The brain is the master tissue of the body. 
It is the most active energy-transforming tissue, and on it the body 
must depend for the transformation of potential into kinetic energy. 
The conclusion is that when we speak of exhaustion of a man, we 
mean exhaustion of his brain. 

SYLVESTER (Drake) 

282. SILK, S. A., Compensation Mechanisms of Delusions and 

Hallucinations. Amer. J. of Insanity, 1921, 47, 523-542. 

In attempting to satisfy the biologic demands arising from the 
two basic impulses of hunger and sex, the organism has been forced 
into a struggle with various obstacles opposed by his environment. 
Satisfaction of these impulses is accompanied by a feeling of pleasure 
and dissatisfaction by a feeling of pain, and with both pleasure 
and pain are associated certain reflex physical phenomena such as 
changes in pulse, respiration, muscular tension. Pleasure, repre- 
senting satisfaction of biological demands, becomes one of the 
chief aims of activity. 

Two paths are open to the organism facing difficulty: first, fight, 
as a result of which anger has developed; and second, flight, as a 
result of which fear has developed. Through phylogenetic asso- 
ciation, the same physical phenomena have come to be associated 
with anger as with pleasure, and those with fear as with pain. 

Man has found it advantageous to live in a social unit, but in 
so doing, he has had to adapt himself to society's demands, satis- 
fying his affective cravings in a manner prescribed by social custom. 
Since the adjustment and adaptation to the complex demands of 
society are chiefly at the psychical level, the struggle is chiefly 
there. Since the feeling of power has been necessary to keep up 



NERFOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 273 

the fight in overcoming obstacles of the social environment, the 
"will to power" has become a motivating force, and by phylogenetic 
association, accompanied by a sense of pleasure. 

Gradually two mechanisms of defense have developed, repre- 
senting efforts on the part of the individual to meet difficulties at 
the social level: first, day dreams and phantasies; and second, 
delusions and hallucinations. Since, however, the individual is 
thereby perceiving reality not as it is but in a way compatible with 
his desires, he is actually running away from reality and adopting 
flight rather than fight, a method which although it may temporarily 
remove the individual from danger, is not a constructive method of 
adaptation. Should man meet obstacles in the way of satisfying 
the demands of the sex impulse, he may overcome them at the 
psychical level by fight, wherein he endeavors to change social 
custom or repress those desires and wishes antagonistic to it, or he 
may adopt flight, through psychical substitution, thereby perceiving 
the environment in a way compatible with his wishes or conceive 
himself the possessor of such desires as may be approved by society. 

Two cases are presented in considerable detail: to illustrate the 
compensatory mechanisms of delusions and hallucinations through 
which the biologically inefficient individuals attempt to adjust 
themselves to society. 

The first is a soldier, 29, of effeminate voice and homosexual 
tendencies who saves himself the pain which would be caused by 
conscious knowledge of his inefficiency, by projecting his difficulties 
on someone else and developing definite ideas of persecution, thereby 
adopting the method of flight. He further compensates for his 
inferiority by accentuating his masculine appearance by growth of 
beard and moustache, by cultivating an air of superiority and 
making extravagant statements regarding his ability. It is further 
suggested that his joining the army, although consciously in order 
to assert himself and prove himself masculine enough to become a 
warrior, unconsciously was due to the fact that he recognized in 
the army, a means of gratifying his homosexual cravings. 

The second is also a soldier, 27, who because of homosexuality, 
was impotent upon marriage. He too flees from the recognition of 
reality by projecting his difficulties upon his wife, accusing her of 
unfaithfulness. After leaving her, he wanders for a time and then 
joins the army, where his conflict is brought to consciousness in a 
more acute form and he becomes hallucinated, hearing his fellow 
soldiers call him vile names. Here the hallucinations are an 



274 NERFOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

indication of his real cravings. After a period marked by withdrawal 
from reality, as the psychosis clears he protects himself from 
recurrent pain by perceiving himself not inferior and lacking in 
power to create, but as the Messenger of God, and hence above 
demands of the flesh. As he no longer needs projection mechanism 
of delusions and hallucinations they disappear. 

In both cases, the nature of the delusions and hallucinations 
indicate mechanisms which have been developed to compensate 
for consciousness of inferiority due to homosexual cravings. 

LOWDEN 

283. MURPHY, G., A Comparison of Manic-Depressive and De- 
mentia Praecox Cases by the Free-Association Method. 
Amer. J. Insanity, 1921, 77, 545-558. 

The first part of the paper is a revision of the system of classi- 
fication of responses for the free-association experiment reported in 
the Amer. J. Psychol., 1917, Vol. 28, 248. Many classes have been 
dropped due to the personal equation involved in identifying them 
or to the infrequency of responses falling in those classes. Eleven 
principal classes remain, termed as follows: (i) Spatial Contiguity 
which includes only objective spatial contiguity as carpet-floor; (2) 
Similarity; (3) Coordinates; (4) Contrasts; (5) Common Pairs; (6) 
Subordinates; (7) Supraordinates. Class 8A includes responses 
naming a person or thing representative of the general idea of the 
stimulus when the stimulus is a noun and 8B the same when the 
stimulus is an adjective. Class 9 are responses naming the general 
idea of which the stimulus is representative, the opposite of class 8. 
Class 10 includes responses naming the substance of which the 
stimulus is composed. Class II includes noun-adjective asso- 
ciations. All responses not included in these eleven (about 35 per 
cent.) are grouped together as unclassified. 

The second part of the paper discusses the records from the 
free-association experiment of 21 manic-depressive depressed, 12 
manic-depressive excited and 13 dementia praecox cases and 
compares the two psychoses. The records of 4 general paresis 
cases were also studied. The records are made with the Kent- 
Rosanoff word list. No single type of association could be defi- 
nitely associated with any one diagnosis. It appears that a wide 
discrepancy between the number of contiguity and adjective-noun 
associations is atypical of dementia praecox and a wide difference 



NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 275 

between the number of adjective-noun and noun-adjective asso- 
ciations is atypical of a manic-depressive psychosis. The central 
tendencies of different types of associations were found to be 
significant. The median of the contiguity class for dementia 
praecox was 9 and for manic-depression 6 and the median of noun- 
adjectives for dementia praecox was 3 and for manic-depression 6. 
A study of the influence of age, sex and intelligence showed no 
special effect of these factors on the classes of associations. 
Comparison of the responses with Kent and Rosanoff's frequency 
list showed no important difference between the two psychoses. 
On the basis of these findings and on a further study of normal 
persons the following criteria were formulated: The presence of a 
large number of individual reactions is in general in favor of de- 
mentia praecox; the presence of individual contiguities is in favor 
of a diagnosis of dementia praecox if there is a question between 
manic-depression and dementia praecox; to give 8 or more noun- 
adjective associations is atypical of dementia praecox; to show a 
difference of 10 or more between the number of contiguities and 
the number of adjective-noun associations is atypical of dementia 
praecox; and to give 20 or more individual reactions is atypical of 
manic-depression. 

The last part of the paper is a report of a brief attempt to devise 
a new word-list containing words of emotional coloring and words 
of such infrequent usage as to get beneath the verbal habits. Under 
these conditions over half the responses were synonyms. It is 
probable that unusual words operate principally to produce defi- 
nitions. 

KENNEDY (Radcliffe) 

284. GODDARD, H. H., The Problem of the Psychopathic Child. 
Amer. J. of Insanity, 1921, 77, 511-526. 

Child insanity has been overlooked in the past, due to a false 
theology, and to the fact that the study of man has been chiefly 
concerned with the full grown adult. It is now beginning to be 
realized that much of juvenile misbehavior is as surely due to a 
brain functioning badly on account of disease, as in similar conduct 
in the adult. 

For two years the Ohio Bureau of Juvenile Research has been 
engaged in detecting juvenile psychopaths. The children when 
admitted are given the Kent-Rosanoff Association tests, the Binet 



276 



NERFOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 



(Stanford Revision), and other tests such as Healy and Porteus. 
Some standardization of psychopathic indications has been worked 
out from the laboratory findings. The range above the basal 
year in the Binet more than four years, is one indication. Distri- 
bution in the Binet shows that the psychopath is apt to be poor 
in memory, in association, and in the weights, while good in com- 
prehension and reasoning. The psychopath gives peculiar and 
individual reactions, interpolating peculiar things in reading, and 
giving nonsense syllables when giving sixty words in three minutes. 
Such a child gives more than ten individual reactions in the Asso- 
ciation tests, or more than ten reactions which are abnormal 
according to the Kent-Rosanoff definition. An age norm for the 
various performance tests differing by more than four years is 
another indication. Other factors are exceptionally poor or good 
orientation, extraordinary ability in school work, lack of coherence 
in the child's own story, behavior in the examination showing 
peculiar emotional reactions, lack of adaptation, or excitability. 

The personal history facts which indicate psychopathy are as 
follows. The children may be more or less solitary, and not able 
to get along well with children of the same mental level. Their 
games may have a queer monotony. They may have strong likes 
and dislikes as regards food. They may have violent tempers, and 
may be moody, depressed, or "exalted." In their school work, 
they are relatively poorer in spelling and geography than in their 
other subjects. The teacher finds them difficult to handle, as she 
cannot rely on them, and does not know how to cope with their 
peculiar misbehaviors. 

Some of these children grow better as they grow older; another 
group grow up to become nervous unstable men and women, 
becoming delinquents and anti-social members of the community. 
A third group grow progressively worse, finally becoming distinctly 
insane. Curing or preventing this condition is a pressing problem. 
For some cases, anti-syphilitic treatment has been administered, 
but no marked results are reported. For the others, special hygienic 
measures, firm discipline, conditions making for happiness, is 
advised. 

PROUTY (Wellesley) 

285. GREGG, D., Plots in Psychiatry. Amer. J. of Insan., 1921, 

77, 517-522. 

The author finds that often a diagrammatic method of explaining 
ideas dealt with in psychiatry is more illuminating than a word 



NERFOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 277 

picture, both for those to whom the explanation is being made and 
for the one who is attempting the explanation. In psychiatry 
will, intellect and emotion are considered the three chief fields of 
mental activity. These three fields vary according to increased or 
decreased activity or lack of activity. In mental and nervous 
diseases intellect and emotion are primarily involved, and will, 
only secondarily. The plans for charts do not therefore consider 
the will. The first chart represents the degree of emotional reaction 
of different individuals to a given stimulus. The reaction is 
expressed chiefly through the vegetative and sympathetic nervous 
systems. In the normal person a stimulus produces a corresponding 
emotional reaction; in the neurotic, an excessive reaction, and in 
the psychotic, a diminished reaction. In analyzing emotions we 
find them of triple origin: from the body, from the mind and from 
the environment. The next charts show individual variation with 
regard to these three emotional sources. The chart of each person 
is in the form of a column divided into three segments which vary 
in size according to whether his emotions are derived chiefly from 
the environmental, psychic, or somatic field. For example, the 
neurasthenic would be represented by a column longer than that 
of the normal person, indicating greater emotionality in general, 
and with a particular augmentation of the somatic segment. The 
chart of the psychaesthenic shows an augmentation of the psychic 
segment. 

In the next chart intellect and emotion are plotted in parallel 
lines. The distance between the two lines measures "morale." 
The convergence of the two lines indicates an abnormal heightening 
of emotional activity at the expense of the intellect. If they cross, 
emotion has become the guide, instead of intellect. A second 
method of plotting the relationship between the intellect and 
emotions is that which uses coordinates. Here we have an in- 
tellectual and an emotional zone. An individual starting at zero, 
presumably in childhood, lives a life in which the emotions and 
instincts predominate as governing factors. Later in life the 
intellect normally becomes the guide of activities, and from then 
on the curve should swing further and further away from the 
danger line where the emotions predominate over the intellect. In 
a hig'hly emotional person the curve would not swing far from the 
emotional area. With a hysteric there would be abrupt excursions 
into the emotional field. 

HINCKS (Radcliffe) 



278 NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

286. PORTEUS, S. D., A Study of Personality of Defectives With a 

Social Ratings Scale. Publ. Training School at Vineland, 
New Jersey, No. 23, 1920, 1-22. 

Intelligence tests alone are inadequate for the diagnosis of high 
grade feeble-mindedness because they are unable to guarantee 
social inefficiency, which is after all the final criterion. To be fit 
for the community the individual must have some capacity for self- 
management and self-control. Porteus has devised a social ratings 
scale for the measurement of these qualities to supplement the 
Binet and Porteus Scales, based upon 125 mental defectives at the 
Vineland Training School. Very few of these have ever been tried 
in the community, which is unfortunate, as the author admits. 

A list of traits, characteristic of the social aspects of feeble- 
mindedness, was gathered from the descriptions by leading au- 
thorities, and from the author's experience. Three judges were 
then asked to indicate which traits were characteristic of each of 
the 125 cases. The list was reduced, and the traits finally con- 
sidered were lack of planning ability, lack of initiative, irresolution, 
nervousness, silliness, impulsiveness, moodiness, bad temper, 
imprudence, cunning and simplicity. Each case was then ranked 
according to Scott's System with army personnel, but upon a three 
instead of five point basis. Everyone was also ranked upon an 
estimate of his general social fitness. The ratings for each trait 
were correlated singly with the general social estimate. As a 
result of the correlations, cunning, deceit, impudence, disobedience 
and bad temper were eliminated, not because they are not char- 
acteristic of defectives, but because they appear not to affect social 
fitness adversely. Each trait was correlated with every other, 
and then each characteristic was weighted to obtain an individual 
index of social fitness. Correlation coefficients were found between 
the Binet and Porteus Scales and the Social Ratings Scale. Neither 
the Binet nor Porteus alone correlated as highly with it as did the 
average of the two together. These statistics seem to indicate that 
after all mental tests are a fairly reliable index of social adaptability. 

HINCKS (Radcliffe) 

287. BELLAVITIS, C., Un caro di Microcefalia. Riv. di. PsicoL, 

1 6, 1920, 290-306. 

The physical and psychological characters of a case of micro- 
cephaly are given in detail. Psychologically, the subject shows no 



INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 279 

antisocial tendencies. He is a deaf mute, and deficient in senses 
of taste and smell. Cutaneous sensibility normal. Fundamental 
notion of space and quantity are wanting. While able to distin- 
guish colors fairly accurately, is unable to discriminate between 
different weights. The memory is well developed, but on account 
of the lack of words, processes of association and abstraction and 
the formation of concepts and ideas is difficult. Relation of cause 
and effect is apparently understood but does not extend to analogies. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

10. INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

288. MARSTON, W. M., Psychological Possibilities in the Deception 

Tests. /. of Crim. Law and Crim., 1921, n, 551-570. 
The four types of psycho-physiological tests are the galvanometer 
test, the association reaction-time test, Benussi's breathing test, 
and the systolic blood pressure test. The galvanometer test 
registers practically all emotions so that it is impossible to dis- 
tinguish those caused by deception; the value of the association 
reaction-time test is limited because of the difficulty in getting 
crucial and non-crucial words; Benussi's test is of little value because 
testimony cannot be broken up into isolated statements. The 
systolic blood pressure test, however, has given "100 per cent, 
accuracy of judgment under very difficult conditions." In this 
test, the witness' blood pressure is taken from time to time while 
he is cross-examined either by the blood pressure operator or a 
second operator called the examiner. "The effectiveness of the 
test depends almost entirely upon the construction and arrangement 
of the cross-examination and its proper correlation with the blood 
pressure readings, a system of signals between the examiner and the 
blood pressure operator being necessary. . . . The form of the 
blood pressure curve as correlated with the cross-examination . . . 
is found to indicate with surprising accuracy and minuteness the 
fluctuations of the witness' emotions." Twenty criminal de- 
fendants were tested by the blood pressure, breathing and asso- 
ciation tests. The author's conclusions were that the blood pressure 
test is valuable in determining the truth of the individual's story, 
in sometimes bringing about confessions not made during cross- 
examination, and in supplying new clues by the discovery of 
unsuspected guilty emotions. Thirty-five soldiers were examined 



280 INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

at Camp Greenleaf by the blood pressure test. The results show 
the test has "practically absolute reliability" when given by an 
expert, although the results of non-experts cannot be relied upon 
entirely. The writer's general conclusions are that there is sufficient 
psychological background to qualify an expert upon deception, 
and that the use of deception tests in court is justified. 

GAW (Boston Psychopathic Hospital) 

289. WILLIAMS, F. E., Mental hygiene and the college student. 

Ment. Hyg., 5, 1921, 283-301. 

The problem of the mental hygiene of the college student is a 
neglected one. In our universities emphasis has always been 
placed upon quantity of "brains" rather than upon "quality" or 
at least that "quality" which controls and directs our lives. Since 
Universities are free from feeblemindedness and insanity except in 
very rare instances, and since mental hygiene was thought to be 
vague and intangible, little attention has been paid to the mental 
health of students in college. The college student undergoes many 
emotional and intellectual changes which may effect not only his 
college career but his whole life. Some of his problems are those 
of friendship, attitude toward his family, morals, social views, 
proper physical care, success in his studies. One of the worst evils 
of university life is the danger that students develop an exaggerated 
feeling of inferiority. Thus the emotional life of the student must 
be made a subject of study by university officials. Emotional as 
well as physical health should be a part of the college program. A 
program of mental health and hygiene will forstall many intellectual 
failures, failures in the form of nervous and mental diseases either 
immediate or remote; it will raise the standard of intellectual 
achievement by reducing the amount of inadequate mental ad- 
justment, mental inefficiency and unhappiness. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

290. SINGER, H. D., The possibilities of a state society for mental 

hygiene. Ment. Hyg., 5, 1921, 342-352. 

The functions of such a society are educative rather than 
legislative. Its chief duty is to disseminate information and 
propaganda which will work toward the preservation of mental 



INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 28 1 

health and the prevention of mental disease. This function involves 
suggesting methods for the recognition of early signs of mental 
breakdown or abnormality, active work in bringing about the 
establishing of local clinics in all communities, efforts to bring 
about a realization on the part of the public of the needs for and 
the usefulness of such clinics, and the like. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

291. BLUMGART, L., Observations on maladjusted children. Ment. 

Hyg., 5, 1921, 327-34I- 

Report on the work of the Children's Clinic for 19171918, 
Department of Psychiatry, Cornell Medical School. Such a clinic 
is of special service in bringing about the proper handling of children 
who are called "nervous" or "difficult" to deal with but who are 
neither feebleminded nor malignantly psychotic. Physical defects 
are corrected; the child is often reeducated, the attitude of the 
home toward the child is changed; or where the children are suffi- 
ciently neurotic or where home conditions are sufficiently irremedia- 
ble the children are sent to a farm-school. It turns out that at the 
end of two and one half years improvement in the behavior of 
maladjusted children seems to reach a stage of permanence in at 
least 50 per cent, of the cases. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 

292. LICHTENBERGER, J. P., Social Significance of Mental Levels. 

Pub. Amer. Social. Soc., 1920, 15, 102-124. 

The theory of mental levels established in the measurement of 
intelligence in the feebleminded and confirmed by experience with 
army mental tests with 1,726, 966 men, possesses a degree of validity 
which requires recognition in the field of social interpretation. 
Among the fundamental postulates of the theory are: There is a 
normal symmetrical development of intelligence corresponding to 
physical growth, with symmetrical deviations both in acceleration 
and in retardation. It is now possible to measure these deviations 
and to classify the population on the basis of the degree of in- 
telligence. Objections and criticisms arising from the low average 
mentality shown by the army mental tests result primarily from 
failure to realize that the brain and nervous structure which deter- 
mine mental development mature at fourteen to sixteen years of 
age, and that intelligence must be distinguished from knowledge. 



282 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

It is recognized of course that intelligence is not the only test of 
social efficiency, but that emotion, temperament, character, etc. 
are important. It must also be recognized, however, that as a rule 
exceptional abilities in any line are correlates of intelligence. 

Assuming a population of 100,000,000, it is estimated that we 
have 10,000,000 persons of very inferior intelligence and 4,500,000 
of very superior intelligence, with a normal distribution between 
these extremes. This distribution of the population into mental 
levels must be taken into account in considering such industrial 
problems as wage levels, vocational guidance and labor turnover, 
such educational problems as retardation and acceleration, the 
problems of delinquency and dependency, the contrast between 
races, and the possibilities of democratic government. 

HART (Iowa) 

293. HUMPHREY, S. K., The Menace of the Half-Man. /. of 

Heredity, 1920, u, 228-232. 

Half-men (the feebleminded and morons) are multiplying twice 
as fast as the mentally normal. Only ten per cent, of the feeble- 
minded are in custodial institutions. To prevent race degradation it 
is suggested that the unfit should be weeded out in the schools 
and should be isolated or sterilized. 

FRANZ (St. Elizabeths) 

ii. MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

294. WESTFALL, W. I. A., Some Examples of Coefficients of Cor- 

relation. Sch. and Soc., 1921, 13, 359-360. 

Although the coefficient of correlation has given very fruitful 
results in biometry it has been misused in educational investigations 
because the form of the frequency curve, on which it depends, has 
not been standardized. If it is to be really valuable there should 
be a generally accepted curve of distribution of grades and enough 
computations made on this basis so that the numerical value of any 
coefficient will have real significance. At the University of Mis- 
souri, under the author's direction, studies were made of the grades 
of certain subjects required of students in engineering. A uniform 
system of grading was used and the correlation was based on a 
distribution approximating the error curve. The probable errors 
were small so the coefficients of correlation are significant. They 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 283 

decrease as the time between the taking of the two subjects in- 
creases. For 4 example, the correlation index between English and 
Trigonometry, which were taken simultaneously, is -45-.O22; be- 
tween English and Analytics, which were consecutive courses, .40- 
.025 ; between English and Differential Calculus, when one semester 
intervened, -33-.O33; and between English and Integral Calculus, 
when two semesters intervened, only .I9-.O39. 

KENNEDY (Radcliffe) 

295. THORNDIKE, E. L., Equality in Difficulty of Alternative 

Intelligence Examinations. /. of Applied Psychol., 1920, 

4, 283-288. 

Certain facts of general interest found in investigations made 
to secure equal difficulty in the alternative forms of the Intelligence 
Examination arranged for use by colleges are reported. Forms A, 
E, J, L and N are approximately equal, C and I are about I per 
cent, easier, F, K and M about I per cent, harder, H is about 3 
per cent, easier, D about 5 per cent, easier, G and O are about 
2^2 P er cent, harder, B is about 5 per cent, harder. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

296. BURTT, H. E. and ARPS, G. F., Correlation of Army Alpha 

Intelligence Test with Academic Grades in High Schools 
and Military Academies. /. of Applied PsychoL, 1920, 4, 
289-293. 

The correlation of Army Alpha with academic marks in high 
schools and military academies yields an appreciably higher cor- 
relation for the latter group. This suggests to the authors that 
methods of instruction in the military academy are more apt to 
hold the student to his maximum intellectual ability. The low 
correlation generally found between intelligence and academic 
marks may be to a considerable extent due to the fact that methods 
of school instruction do not hold students to their maximum 
efficiency. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

297. STERN, E., The Natural Course for Training Children of 

Primary and Pre-primary Age. (The Montesson Method) 
Praktische PsychoL, 1921, 2, 161-169. 



284 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

Children beginning school undergo a transition from a very 
spontaneous kind of home training to a kind of training which is 
highly artificial and mechanical. Therefore, steps should be taken 
to make the first years of school life correspond more closely with 
the natural development of the child. The Montesson method is 
described, from a psychological viewpoint, as one attempt to base 
primary education upon the processes characteristic of early 
childhood. 

LINK (New Haven) 

298. PIORKOWSKI, C., The Principles of Selection in the Berlin 

Examination for Children of Conspicuous Talent. Prak- 
tische PsychoL, 1921, 2, 186-188. 

A plan for furnishing special educational opportunities to the 
children of the common schools whereby, annually, 150 pupils who 
are recommended by their teachers, are given a psychological 
examination. The choice is based upon the combined results of 
scholastic standing, personality, and success in the tests with 
special reference to conspicuous superiority in any one of the three 
phases. 

LINK (New Haven) 

299. HORN, E., The Selection of Silent Reading Text-books. /. 

Educ. Research, 1920, 2, 615-619. 

A plea is made for the consideration of two additional factors 
involved in silent reading besides speed and comprehension, namely, 
ability to organize what is read and the mastering of a memory 
technique. 

It is suggested that book companies develop silent reading 
manuals, the outstanding characteristics of which should be these: 
(i) They should be rich in factual and informational data; (2) The 
content of the selections should be worth while; (3) Most of the 
selections should be of sufficient length; (4) Some selections should 
contain data given in great detail; (5) Some selections should be 
preceded by guiding problems; (6) Each selection should be followed 
by appropriate comprehension tests and tests to measure organizing 
ability; (7) The book should contain an excellent index and table 
of contents; (8) The mechanical make-up of the book should be 
good. 

KOHS (Portland, Ore.) 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 285 

300. DICKSON, V. E., The Use of Group Mental Tests in the 

Guidance of Eighth-Grade and High-School Pupils. /. 
Educ. Research, 1920, 2, 601-610. 

Acknowledging wide variations in mental power, it is emphasized 
that proper guidance and classification of entering high-school 
pupils is absolutely essential. This differential treatment can be 
determined after utilizing group tests, such as the Otis. 

An experiment is described explaining the progress of two 
selected groups of eighth-grade pupils, one an "accelerated group," 
the other a "regular group," who passed through the eighth-grade 
and first year of high school. The conclusions are that " this experi- 
ment gave us evidence that there was mental capacity in many a 
child that could easily be used to net that child returns in accelera- 
tion without endangering scholarship. It also indicated that superior 
mental capacity was a greater guarantee to good scholarship than 
was the mastery of all the items in the course of study of the 
previous grade." Nevertheless, care is taken to emphasize that the 
group intelligence test is not an infallible guide, but serves merely 
as an important tool in selection and guidance. 

KOHS (Portland, Ore.) 

301. DAWSON, C. E., Educational Measurement in Grand Rapids. 

/. Educ. Research, 1920, 2, 611-614. 

Self-surveying illustrated. Educational measurement in this 
city was entered upon in order to classify children "according to 
mental levels and accomplishments, and to stress instruction where 
it is needed." 

KOHS (Portland, Ore.) 

302. PRESSEY, L. W., Scale of Attainment No. I An Examination 

of Achievement in the Second Grade. /. Educ. Research, 
1920, 2, 572-581. 

This article describes a group test for measuring the attainments 
in the fundamental subjects of second grade children. This 
limitation was a planned one for the reason, first, that the concrete 
nature of the subject matter of this grade made test formulation 
relatively easy, and second, because it is in this grade that the 
first serious attack is made upon the "tool subjects." 

The scale consists of four tests: spelling, reading vocabulary, 
arithmetic (46 addition, 30 subtraction combinations), and silent 



286 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

reading. The time allotment for the complete test is 25 minutes. 
The scoring is easy and objective. Norms are presented based 
upon the results of 320 second-grade children in three cities. 

KOHS (Portland, Ore.) 

303. GAULT, R. H., Picture Completion. /. of Applied PsychoL, 

1920,4, 310-313- 

An attempt was made to score picture completion records 
obtained from 118 delinquents. The I. Q. of 74 of these 118 were 
almost uniformly distributed over the range of 65 to 79.9 inclusive. 
In the completion test there is a possibility of 369 moves. The 
118 cases made 360 of them as opposed to 349 made by Pintner 
and Anderson's normal subjects. Arbitarily a value of 100 was 
assigned to certain parts (pictures) in the test. The remaining 
61 situations were turned over to each one of eight instructors or 
advanced students with the request that each position be rated. 
When these ratings were brought together, in many instances the 
values assigned to a final position varied so little among members 
of the group that a simple average was accepted as final value. 
When a divergence was great, discussion was obtained and the 
simple average gave us the accepted final weight. A correlation of 
the standings with the intelligent quotients was calculated the 
Pearson coefficient being .41. 

MULHALL ACHILLES 

304. DUNLAP, K., and SNYDER, A., Practice Effects in Intel- 

ligence Tests. /. of Exper. Psychol., 1920, 3, 396-403. 
To determine the possible effects of "coaching," a college class 
of 44 men were tested four times on the Army "Alpha," approxi- 
mately three weeks elapsing between each test. The results are 
recorded in graphs and tables. The investigators found that there 
was a definite general improvement from first to second, and from 
second to third (every case in the third round showing superiority 
to the first), with a general drop in the fourth. Reports from the 
testees stated that taking the first, second and third test was 
interesting, but that the fourth was a bore. This drop, the authors 
believe, is due in a measure to lack of sufficient incentive for in- 
creased effort, and the somewhat greater difficulty of the section on 
"General Information" in the fourth form. But the lessened inter- 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 287 

est is the major cause for the decline. A consideration of the rela- 
tive ratings of the different individuals in both the first and third 
tests show a comparative uniformity for the first quartile and a fluct- 
uation in the fourth. In fact, in the three lower quartiles, there was a 
marked tendency to move forward or backward. This would 
indicate that if the lower men had had previous practice, and the 
higher men had not, a single examination would have given unfair 
ratings. Since, therefore, coaching on these intelligence tests is 
distinctly possible, and since a group of applicants would obviously 
vary in the amount of such practice acquired before taking the 
test, pains must be taken to have all candidates coached effectively 
or not at all. 

SCHWESINGER (Radcliffe) 

305. PETERSON, H. A., and KUDERNA, J. G. Army Alpha in the 
Normal Schools. Sch. fcf Soc., 1921, 13, 476-480. 

Army Alpha was given to 393 students at the Illinois State 
Normal University. A comparison of normal schools and colleges 
was then made. Grouping the Illinois State Normal, Kansas 
State Normal, the State Normal at St. Cloud, Minnesota and that 
at Winona, Minnesota, together, the median score for men was 
about 135. In 13 colleges the median was 137 for men. College 
women ranked from 6 to 8 points higher than normal school women. 
Freshmen in the college of liberal arts, University of Illinois, excelled 
freshmen in the Illinois State Normal University by 14 points. 
The difference was due to normal school students being "at present 
a less highly selected group." High school graduates considerably 
out-ranked non-graduates. The rural environment of most of the 
non-graduates seemed to account for this difference. High corre- 
lations were found between test scores and scholarship marks in 
6 normal schools and colleges. Cases with high scores and low 
scholarship were largely explained by lack of effort or initiative. 
Superior scholarship records together with inferior test scores were 
explained by (i) the test scores being wrong, (2) over-grading, (3) 
the students' having special abilities, or (4) the students' compen- 
sating for inferior intelligence by industry, cooperation, etc. It is 
considered that mental tests may be of decided value in determining 
the ability of students and in "facilitating reclassification." 

GAW (Boston Psychopathic Hospital) 



288 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

306. TERMAN, L. M., Intelligence Tests in Colleges and Universities. 

Sch. y Soc., 1921, 13, 481-494. 

The value of a university's product is determined as much by 
the quality of the raw material as by instructional methods. Evi- 
dence has shown that colleges differ in the quality of students. 
For any university whose attendance is artificially restricted the 
selection of the ablest candidates is one of its most important 
problems. In discussing intelligence tests as an aid in this direction 
it need not be assumed that intelligence can be accurately measured. 
Intelligence tests are a method of predicting an individual's probable 
success in certain kinds of intellectual work. The value of the 
prediction is judged wholly in terms of correlation coefficients or 
other quantitatively objective evidence. The writer has prepared 
graphs and tables to show the value and limitations of the available 
intelligence tests in predicting various kinds of successes. The 
graphs were based on army mental test data and on the results of 
Binet and group tests with school children. The school data 
showed that for grammar school and high school pupils the scores 
of certain intelligence tests give a correlation of .75 to .80 with the 
best available composite criteria of educability. The results of 
similar tests in colleges and universities show correlations that are 
much lower (rarely above .5). A collection was made of all the 
available correlation coefficients which show the results of recent 
experiments with intelligence tests in colleges and universities. 
The Thorndike test (an extension and modification of the army 
test) correlates with university marks from .50 to .65. Anything 
above .50 is an improvement on a standard system of admitting 
students. However, the significance of a given correlation co- 
efficient is a relative matter. The value of the intelligence test is 
chiefly that it furnishes data not duplicated by any of the other 
criteria. It tells the grade of work we have a right to expect and 
furnishes a starting point for investigating the causes of failures, 
etc. Poor students are a great expense, lower the standards of 
accomplishment, waste the time of the professors, etc. The writer 
suggests that each student be tested at the time of matriculation 
and that it might be advisable to allow the exceptionally able 
candidate who is short in some of the usual entrance requirements 
to enter the university by the test route-. In this way the best 
students would be attracted and the weakest discouraged from 
entering. The desirability of establishing a personnel bureau at 
Stanford is strongly recommended. The functions of this bureau 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 289 

would be: (i) Preparing and administering tests of general intelli- 
gence and analyzing the results so that they could be used in the 
study of failures, in vocational guidance, in the selection of students 
for scholarships, etc. (2) To conduct research with tests of special 
aptitude such as science, art, etc. (3) To work out, with the assis- 
tance of the professors in the various departments, "achievement" 
tests for determining the progress the students are making in 
getting the subject matter of their courses. These should in time 
replace the usual examinations. (4) To make a systematic study 
of the methods of securing trait ratings of students by their in- 
structors, first, by ascertaining the human traits most amenable to 
accurate rating, and secondly, by finding what traits correlate 
highest with success in different academic and vocational lines. 
(5) To cooperate with the appointment office by supplying certain 
kinds of data necessary for making intelligent recommendations for 
positions. (6) Other lines of investigation such as the relation of 
interests to ability, the relation of high-school success to success in 
life, etc. 

JONES (Radcliffe) 

307. FERRARI, G. C. La grande riforma pedagogica dei Bolsce- 
viki. Riv. di Psicol., 16, 1920, 319-326. 

In the midst of the general havoc brought about in Russia by 
the Bolschevists, it is somewhat of a surprise to learn that these 
same people, under the guidance of Vassiliewitch, more generally 
known by the name Lunatcharsky, are preparing a complete and 
radical reform of education, with the object of bringing it within 
reach of all. Since 1918 a National Education Council has been 
established to organize education on Soviet lines. With the 
unification of the scholastic system, all grades of teaching from the 
kindergarten to the university will follow an harmonious devel- 
opment. There will no longer be primary, secondary or high schools, 
but a continuous and progressive system common and obligatory 
and free for all from the ages of 7 to 16. 

Beyond this period there follows a course of university extension. 
Special provision by means of civic and political education is made 
for the preparation of youths to take a directive part in the scho- 
lastic organization. Institutions for higher education and uni- 
versities will be to a certain extent autonomous. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 



290 MENTAL EVOLUTION 

308. SALVONI, M. La Scuola di educazione del' attivita spontanea. 

Riv. di. Psicol., 16, 1920, 307-318. 

Educational reform is required in which the laws and facts of 
affective and genetic psychology will replace the inefficient empiric- 
ism actually in vogue. Greater attention must be paid to interior 
motives, to their guidance, and to the development of initiative 
and spontaneous activity. The main object should be to give the 
young a coherent autonomous personality, an energetic will, a spirit 
of initiative, and a lively sense of social relations, ideals and duties. 
The young will not acquire these gifts effectively and with stability 
unless they are the final outcome of a natural process of the de- 
velopment of interior forces. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

309. SALADEN 1 !, R. L'alunno aritmetico. Riv. di PsicoL, 16, 

1920, 81-100. 

A methodological contribution to the differential psychology of 
school children showing special aptitudes for arithmetic. A group 
of fifteen boys and girls of ages varying from 7 to 12 years, formed 
the material for the experiments. To each was given a series of 
tests from which a valuation was obtained in general intelligence, 
capacity of attention, logical memory, intuition, numbers, rapidity 
of and precision of movement, aptitude for the task imposed. 
The following provisional conclusions were arrived at: 
Children showing special arithmetical ability are in general 
pupils of marked intelligence; above the average of a lively dis- 
position, are quite conscious and pleased with their arithmetical 
capacities. The capacity is frequently hereditary, and not in- 
frequently associated with artistic ability. Lastly the arithmetical 
ability is not incompatible with marked anthropological variations, 
nor with a delicate physical constitution, nor with the presence of 
slight signs connected with motility and sensibility. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

12. MENTAL EVOLUTION 

310. JANKELEVICH, S. L'heredite des caracteres acquis dans ses 

rapports avec le probleme du progres. Rev. Philos., 1920, 
90, 273-294. 

The current conception regards progress as a function of change 
(betterment) in external conditions. It really should be regarded 



MENTAL EVOLUTION 291 

as conditioned by change (betterment) in man as well. Progress 
in this respect seems blocked, however; for all the theories and 
findings of Weissmann, de Vries and Mendel point toward the 
immutability of species and the non-acquisition of new charac- 
teristics hereditarily transmissible. Man has not changed phys- 
ically or intellectually since he became a distinct species, and he 
is not likely to change in time to come. If progress is not possible 
in that which concerns the physical structure and intellectual 
organization of man, can we admit the possibility of moral progress? 

The -statement is sometimes made that we have advanced 
morally because we have abolished certain forms of strife and 
cruelty. This is not, however, a mark of moral progress. It only 
means that we have mitigated certain forms of human suffering, 
for most of which, by the way, man is himself responsible. The 
proof of our lack of progress is that we revert to the old forms 
whenever new conditions remove the artificial barriers we have 
erected. 

The moral superman is an impossibility just as is the physical 
and intellectual superman. To depend upon a problematic moral 
evolution for human betterment is equivalent to depending upon 
physical evolution for the cure of physical ills. Disease is a product 
of environmental conditions, and only by improving these can man 
keep well. Likewise, immorality is a product of external social 
life, and only by making an environment which will make im- 
morality useless will man become immune to evil. 

KITSON (Indiana) 

311. GUYER, M. F., Immune sera and certain biological problems. 

Amer. Natural, 55, 1921, 97-115. 

The first part of the paper deals with the history and uses of the 
precipitin test in detecting species differences between the proteins 
of various animals, and mentions the use of this test in determining 
the nature of blood stains, in detecting adulterations in chopped 
meats, etc. Since the discovery of "species specificity" has come 
the discovery of "organ specificity." Materials such as leucocytes, 
nervous tissue, spermatozoa and crystalline lenses form lytic or 
toxic substances when injected into the blood of a foreign species. 
These substances are more or less specific for the antigen used in 
the immunizing process. This entire field of research opens up the 
vital question: Is it not possible that a serum so constructed that 



292 MENTAL EVOLUTION 

it will single out and destroy a certain element of an adult organ 
will also effect the representatives of that adult element lying in 
the germ plasm? In other words is this not a new way of getting 
at the old problem of the inheritance of acquired characteristics? 
With these problems in mind experiments were performed on rabbits 
and fowls. The lenses of newly killed rabbits were pulped and 
diluted with normal salt solution. The resulting emulsion was 
injected into several fowls, once weekly for four or five weeks, and 
in doses of 4 c.c. A week or ten days after the final injection blood 
from the fowls was injected into female rabbits at about the tenth 
day of pregnancy. At about this period in the life of the foetal 
rabbit the lens is developing rapidly. Although the eyes of the moth- 
ers remained unaffected, apparently, the eyes of 9 or more out of 61 
young rabbits born under these conditions showed some form of 
defect. 48 control rabbits obtained from mothers injected with 
unsensitized fowl serum showed no such eye-defects. This anomaly 
is transmitted to subsequent generations. As far as the experiment 
informs us the effect lasted through as many as 8 generations with 
but the single original treatment. The imperfection tended to 
become worse in succeeding generations. The acquired imper- 
fection seemed to have the general characteristics of a Mendelian 
recessive. The author concludes that this inheritance must have 
been passed on through the germ-plasm of the defective male. 
Young thus obtained by breeding transmit the defect as effectively 
as do individuals of the original defective strain. The question as 
to how this effect is produced has not been solved. This experiment 
however evidently demonstrates that specific antibodies can induce 
specific modifications in the germ-cell. After several attempts 
antibodies were produced in a pregnant rabbit by injections of 
pulped rabbit lens directly into the blood of the mother. In 
similar fashion a given male rabbit will develop antibodies against 
his own spermatozoa if he is injected intravenously with the latter. 
Experiments with typhoid vaccine yield evidence of inherited 
immunization. It is suggested that if such facts can be obtained 
experimentally with lens extract one might expect the same for 
other tissues and also that induced changes in the blood serum may 
lead to progressive as well as to regressive evolution and Lamarck's 
theory of use and disuse may after all apply in a way to the glan- 
dular system. Whether or not there exist blood conditions which 
will produce constructive changes rather than destructive changes 
remains to be ascertained. 

WHEELER (Oregon) 



MENTAL EVOLUTION 293 

312. FERRARI, G. C., Che cosa pensano i cani che parlano? Riv. 

di PiscoL, 16, 1920, 61-80. 

The author reviews the experiments of Kindermann on a group 
of dogs trained to learn and carry out certain processes involving 
apparently arithmetical calculations, and the use of language. 
This is an interesting fact perhaps not yet clearly explained, but 
which as yet tells us nothing new concerning the psychic life of 
these curious animals. Certain facts cannot be ignored, which 
make the hypothesis improbable that phenomena of intelligence 
are concerned, and show rather that it is a question of pure mech- 
anism or cerebral automatism. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 



BOOKS RECEIVED 

LANGFELD, H. S. The Esthetic Attitude. New York: Harcourt, 

Brace and Howe, 1920. Pp. xi + 287. 
CHILD, C. M. The Origin and Development of the Nervous System. 

Chicago: University Press, 1921. Pp. xvii + 296. $1.75. 
GALLOWAY, T. W. The Sex Factor in Human Life. A Study 

Outline for College Men. New York : American Social Hygiene 

Association, 1921. Pp. 142. 
HEYMANS, G. Einfiihrung in die Metaphysik. Leipzig: Barth, 

1921. Pp. vi + 363. 56 M. 
END, H. Lane. Activism. Princeton: University Press, 1920. 

Pp. 208. 
STERN, W. Die Intelligent der Kinder und Jugendlichen und die 

Methoden ihrer Untersuchung. Leipzig: Barth, 1920. Pp. 

xi + 335. 48 M. 
KLAGES, L. Fom We sen des Bewusstseins. Leipzig: Barth, 1921. 

Pp. 94. 12 M. 
HAMBURGER, M. Fom Organismus der Sprache und von der Sprache 

des Dichters. Leipzig: Felix Meiner, 1920. Pp. vii + 189. 

26 M. 
BRUHN, W. Theosophie und Anthroposophie. Leipzig: Teubner, 

1921. Pp. 108. 
JACOBSOHN-LASK, L. Ueber die Fernald'sche Methode zur Prufung 

des sittlichen Fiihlens und uber ihre weitere Ausgestaltung. Leip- 
zig: Barth, 1920. Pp. 84. 22 M. 
GELLHORN, E. Uebungsfdhigkeit und Uebungsfestigkeit bei geistiger 

Arbeit. Leipzig: Barth, 1920. Pp. 77. 18 M. 
KIRSCHMANN, A. Grundziige der psychologischen Massmethoden. 

Berlin: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1920. Pp. 351-475. (Hand- 

buch der biologischen Arbeitsmethoden, Abt. VI, Heft 2, 

Lieferung 8.) 28 M. 
AGUAYO, A. M. El Vocabulario de los Ninos Cubanos. University 

of Havana, 1920. Monografias Paidologicas, No. I. Pp. 29. 
DELGADO, H. F. Necesidad de Introducir la Psycoligid en la In- 
struction Medica. Madrid: El Siglo Medico, 1920. Pp. 13. 
294 



BOOKS RECEIVED 295 

BEAULAVON, G., & PARODI, D. (Trans.) Berkeley:!? La Siris. 
(Les Classiques de la Philosophis, IX.) Paris: Armand^Colin, 
1920. Pp. viii -f 159. 

BALDWIN, B. T. et al. Studies in Experimental Education. Balti- 
more: Johns Hopkins Press, 1920. Pp. xii + 75. $1.25. (The 
Johns Hopkins University Studies in Education, No. 3.) 

MITCHELL, T. W. (Editor). The British Journal of Psychology. 
Medical Section. Vol. I, Part I, October 1920. Cambridge: 
University Press. Subscription price per volume of 350 pp., 
25 s. 

University of Illinois Bulletins: 

Vol. XVI, No. 5. BUCKINGHAM, B. R. Bureau of Educational 

Research. Pp. 24. 15 cents. 
Vol. XVII, No. 9. Bureau of Educational Research.' Pp. 78. 

50 cents. 

Vol. XVII, No. 26. BAMESBERGER, V. C. Standardized Re- 
quirements for Memorizing Literary Material. Pp. 93. 
50 cents. 
Vol. XVII, No. 28. HOLLEY, C. E. Mental Tests for School 

Use. Pp. 91. 50 cents. 
Bulletin of the Massachusetts Department of Mental Diseases, Vol. 

IV, No. i. 
Report of the Surgeon General of the U. S. Army to the Secretary of 

War. Washington; Gov't Printing Office, 1920. Pp. 755. 
STINCHFIELD, S. M. A Preliminary Study in Corrective Speech. 
Univ. of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare, Vol. I, No. 3, 1920. 
Pp. 36. 

WILLIAMS, J. H. A Survey of Pupils in the Schools of Bakersfield, 

California. Whittier State School: 1920. Bull. No. 9. Pp. 43. 

PORTEUS, S. D. A Study of Personality of Defectives with a Social 

Ratings Scale. Vineland, N. J.: Publ. of the Training School, 

1920, No. 23. Pp. 22. 

ROBACK, A. A. Roback Mentality Tests for Superior Adults. 

Copyright 1920 by A. A. Roback. 
BEESON, M. F. Educational Tests and Measurements. Colorado 

State Teachers College Bulletin, 1920, Series XX, No. 3. Pp. 

66. 

BEESON, M. F. The Value of Standardized Educational Tests to 
the Teacher. Educational Reconstruction, 1919, Series I, No. 
3- Pp. 14- 



296 NOTES AND NEWS 

WATTS, F. An Introduction to the Psychological Problems of In- 
dustry. London: Allen & Un win, 1921. Pp. 240. 12/6. 

SHAND, A. F. The Foundations of Character. London: Macmillan, 
1920. Pp. xxxvi + 578. 2d ed. 2O/-. 

FELEKY, A. The Musician's Mind. New York : Pioneer Publishing 
Co.: 1920. Pp. 108. 

TOWN, C. H. Analytic Study of a Group of Five and Six-year-old 
Children. Iowa City: Univ. of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare, 
1921; First Series, No. 48. Pp. 87. 

RICHARDSON, M. W. Making a High School Program. Yonkers- 
on-Hudson: World Book Co., 1921. Pp. vii + 27. $.75. 

Bulletin of the Massachusetts Department of Mental Diseases, Vol. 
IV, No. 2, April, 1920. Pp. 138. 

NOTES AND NEWS 

DR. SHEPHERD I. FRANZ has resigned as professor of physiology 
at the George Washington University Medical School. 

DR. K. G. MILLER has been made Assistant Professor at the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

PROFESSOR R. S. WOODWORTH of Columbia University has 
recently been elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences. 

DR. J. E. ANDERSON of Yale University has recently been pro- 
moted to an Assistant Professorship. 

IT is announced that, at the exercises in commemoration of the 
one hundredth anniversary of the opening of the Bloomingdale 
Hospital on May 26, 1921, at White Plains, N. Y., the following 
will make addresses on psychiatric topics: Dr. P. Janet of Paris, 
Dr. R. G. Rows of London, Drs. L. F. Barker and A. Meyer of 
Baltimore. 



Vol. 1 8, No. 6 June, 1921 

THE 

PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN 



i. GENERAL 

313. TITCHENER, E. B., Wilhelm Wundt. Amer. J. of PsychoL, 

1921, 32, 161-178. 

In his Eeitrdge zur Theorie der Sinneswahrnehmung of 1862, 
Wundt set forth three ideas of first-rate importance which sum- 
marize his principal contributions: the idea of an experimental 
psychology, the idea of a social psychology, and the idea of a 
scientific metaphysics. These ideas were developed in his later 
writings. Wundt's work was at the same time both systematic 
and provisional. Although constantly changing his evidence of 
observed fact and his minor perspectives, as well as some of the 
larger theoretical considerations, he succumbed to the temptations of 
the systems after about 1874 and showed little inclination to revise 
his conceptual schemata. Wundt's achievements in the domain 
of experimental psychology consisted of the writing of an ency- 
clopedic work of reference, the foundation of the first psychological 
laboratory, the establishment of a magazine of experimental 
psychology, and the introduction of demonstrational methods into 
the lecture-room. Wundt is the first figure in the history of thought 
whose temperament is that of the scientific psychologist. He is 
the founder, not of experimental psychology alone, but of psy- 
chology. 

(There is appended a note on " Portraits of Wundt.") ' 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

314. ENGLISH, H. B., In Aid of Introspection. Amer. J. of PsychoL, 

1921, 32, 44-4H' 

Text-books of laboratory psychology fail to give the student 
instructions in the technique of introspection as a scientific 
method. The present paper, which is addressed primarily to the 

297 



298 GENERAL 

student, aims to give such an account. Introspection involves, 
first of all, description of an experience in terms that resist further 
analysis. In addition to analytic description, processes that are 
rapidly changing need also to be described in terms indicating the 
sequences and order of the past processes. This description may, 
if necessary, be sacrificed to catch some fleeting and elusive experi- 
ence. Interpretation of the experience should be included but 
sparingly, and always labeled as such, confining the report to the 
observer's experiences and avoiding the "stimulus error." "Puta- 
tive recollection" is to be avoided. Description must necessarily 
be in terms of the attributes of mental process, which are sepa- 
rately discussed. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

315. PICARD, M., The Unity of Consciousness. /. of Philos., 1921, 

18,346-356. 

Great interest has always centered in the study of the unity of 
consciousness since the rise of modern psychology. James says 
"as a feeling feels, so is it." Stong claims that consciousness is 
something adventitious or on the other hand something added to 
the psychic states. James also says that the child's first conscious 
experience is "one great blooming buzzing confusion." It is 
possible for psychic states to exist in an "unfused" form. Atten- 
tion modifies psychic states. Sensation is better defined as a 
"psychic state" rather than a conscious state. As a momentary 
expedient do we have integration of brain states and all neural 
activities of the brain are not correlated with the conscious state. 
Also specious fusions are possible. In short consciousness is a 
psychic concomitant of neural activities of a selective character 
and the selection is a device to supplement reflex actions where 
complete integration is impossible. 

GARTH (Texas) 

316. WOODBRIDGE, F. J. E., Mind Discerned. /. of Philos., 1921, 

18, 337-346. 

The mind studied in psychology is the mind which remembers, 
imagines, perceives, reasons, etc., and above all is found in animal 
bodies, being biographical rather than transcendental, having 
genesis and origin. Its definition is biological, being looked upon 
in the way that life is regarded. It cannot be disembodied. The 
bodies of animals are the habitations of minds. Though they 



GENERAL 299 

who deal with psychology say that the natural history of mind 
keeps pace with the natural history of animal bodies, they have not 
succeeded in finding out when mind definitely enters body. The 
mind does not leave a body and enter on some appointed day. 
Seeing, thinking, etc., grow just as do digesting, walking and 
reproducing, it would seem. If animal bodies cease to be, digestion 
ceases to be. But this would not cause such chemistry to cease to 
be. Likewise thinking would cease if all animal bodies ceased and 
we should say that that which made thinking possible would not 
cease to be, for it is characteristic of the world when animal cannot 
exist. So mind in the transcendental sense has no genesis. 

GARTH (Texas) 

317. PERRY, R. B., A Behavioristic View of Purpose. /. of P kilos., 

1921, 18, 85-105. 

A determining tendency is a general response-system which has 
as its objective completion or self-renewal. The behaviorist has 
concluded that introspection is a poor place to begin in collection of 
data. Almost all recent progress in the motor-affective field has 
been due to disregard for introspection and parallelism. The unit- 
instinct of James is being discarded by some and Freud's "com- 
plex" is being adopted as is his "libido," having been freed from 
its excessively sexual meaning. Most human action instead of 
being "born outright" develops from some other implicit or partial 
state. It must be that synaptic resistances are lowered not only by 
past history but by present systematic readjustment and an organ- 
ism in fact not only acts on its environment but even determines its 
own experience and fortune. 

GARTH (Texas) 

318. KANTOR, J. R., The Primary Data of Psychology. /. of 

P kilos., 1921, 1 8, 256-269. 

We may think of the problem as an attempt to understand the 
nature of (i) stimulus, (2) response and (3) a segment of behavior. 

Taking the last of these first, we may consider that the psycho- 
logical unit maybe called a "pattern of response," which though 
variable has a certain amount of uniformity. So-called illusions 
are simply situations in which reaction systems are called forth by 
appropriate stimuli. Besides the highly variable series of reactions 
we have the orderly and logically temporal series of reactions. As 
to stimulus, it is any object which can call forth a response in the 



300 GENERAL 

organism. And we may crude; classify all stimuli into natural, 
artificial and social. It is iriportant to differentiate between 
objects and media of stimulation. We must in an objective study 
of human reactions study the stimuli and their setting for this will 
give an understanding of their inter-relations. There are stimuli 
for calling forth overt responses and those for inducing implicit 
responses. 

Under the head of adjustment unit we must consider simple 
acts which unite to form large wholes, anticipatory and consum- 
inatory phases, and their integration. All the salient features of 
the response system are given by the writer in a table of nine items. 
Finally it may be said that psychological phenomena are the actions 
of a highly organized individual. The data of the science are 
therefore dynamic which are subject to precise natural description. 
But we may not hope to be as exact as those who deal with physical 
formulations. 

GARTH (Texas) 

319. PEARSON, K., Notes on the History of Correlation. Biomet- 

rika, 1920, 13, 25-45. 

In the main, this article is a brief history of the Biometric 
School, with particular emphasis upon the work of Galton. Certain 
historical misconceptions, for which Pearson himself was responsible, 
are here corrected. To mention one only, Bravais should not be 
regarded as a contributor to the mathematical theory of correlation, 
as is implied in the frequently used phrase "Bravais-Pearson 
correlation coefficient." 

BROWN (Michigan) 

320. PEARSON, K., The Fundamental Problem of Practical Sta- 

tistics. Biometrika, 1920, 13, 1-16. 

If an "event" occurs p times in n trials, and we have no a priori 
knowledge of its frequency in the "total population of occurrences," 
what is the probability of its occurring r times in another series of 
m trials? Bayes' Theorem, reached after the assumption of "equal 
distribution of ignorance," has been rejected by Boole, Venn, and 
others, as a solution of this problem, because of this assumption. 
Pearson shows that Bayes' Theorem does not depend upon "equal 
distribution of ignorance," since the same result is reached if any 
continuous distribution is assumed. He then gives a development 
of the theorem, analogous to that of Laplace but more general, 



NERVOUS SYSTEM 

with results again emphasizing the extreme limitations of the 
"normal" curve. The familiar "probability integral" ("normal" 
curve) is only a very special case of the incomplete Beta-function, 
which is the general probability integral. 

BROWN (Michigan) 



321. Editorial (PEARSON, K.), On the Probable Errors of Frequency 

Constants. Part III. Biometrika, 1920, 13, 113-132. 
Parts I and II of this series dealt with probable errors of mo- 
ments. This part deals with probable errors of medians, quartiles, 
and other constants involved in the grade or rank treatment of 
data. The general formulae, valid for any form of frequency 
distribution, are not likely to be practically usable to any extent. 
The special case of the normal distribution is treated at length 
(the normal curve is not discussed extensively because of any 
supposition that it is a universal law of distribution, but because 
of the mathematical difficulties arising in the discussion of other 
types of distribution) with results demonstrating the relatively 
great unreliability of medians, quartiles, etc. Formulae are given 
for determining more accurately than by the usual methods these 
constants, provided it is valid to assume normal distribution in the 
sampled population. But this will not often be, or, at least, be 
known to be the case, and means and standard deviations are 
indicated, by contrast, as the most reliable and most universally 
valid constants. 

BROWN (Michigan) 



2. NERVOUS SYSTEM 

322. USHER, C. H., Histological Examination of an Adult Human 
Albino's Eyeball, with a note on Mesoblastic Pigmentation 
in Foetal Eyes. Biometrika, 1920, 13, 46-56. 
Total absence of pigment in the eye cannot be used as a defi- 
nition of human albinism, since four out of six eyes belonging to 
individuals determined as albinos "by the usual clinical characters" 
were found to have pigment. The absence or imperfect develop- 
ment of the fovea occurring in albinotic eyes may be the chief cause 
of defective vision and nystagmus in these cases. 

BROWN (Michigan) 



302 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

3. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

323. KIESOW, F., Osservazioni sopra il rapporto tra due oggetti 

visti separatemente coi due occhi. Arch. ital. di Psicol., 

I, 1920, 3-38. 

The author first discusses heteronomous doubling of images and 
the apparent paradox of the seeming transparency of the near 
object while the subject knows that it is actually solid. The 
experimental part of the paper deals with retinal rivalry which is 
the explanation given the first proposition. By means of the 
stereoscope both chromatic and achromatic stimuli are employed. 
The author finds that complete fusion is obtained if one eye is 
stimulated with white and the other with grey, but the resulting 
mixture is not the same as that obtained with a mixture of the 
same proportions on the color wheel. A certain amount of rivalry 
is obtained if the grey is darkened. Using the Kirschmann method, 
Kiesow works out the limen for rivalry. In the case of colors 
which are next each other in the spectrum, complete fusion was 
obtained in most cases. As the colors are more and more widely 
separated greater rivalry ensues. The author then set out to 
discover the relation between rivalry and the brightness of the 
colors employed. He finds that in the achromatic series the 
rivalry is developed slowly while in the chromatic series it develops 
relatively more rapidly. From these observations, Kiesow con- 
cludes that differences in brightness may be the cause of the slow 
development of the rivalry in the achromatic series but this does 
not explain the slow development in the chromatic series. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

324. FERREE, C. E., RAND, G., and BUCKLEY, D., A Study of Ocular 

Functions, with Special Reference to the Lookout and 
Signal Service of the Navy. /. of Exper. Psychol., 1920, 

3, 347-356. 

Fitness for lookout and signal service work in the Navy, and 
for night flying in aviation depends to some extent upon keenness 
of discrimination at low degrees of illumination. There is a wide 
range of individual differences in the minimum illumination required 
for the discrimination of the test object, both before and after 
dark adaptation. This range reaches 657 per cent. The two eyes 
of the same observer require a different amount of light, ranging 



SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 33 

from 19 to 54 per cent, of the amount required for the better eye. 
In only six per cent, of the cases was discrimination with the better 
eye more acute than with both eyes together. 

BELL (New York University) 

325. BILLS, M. A., The Lag of Visual Sensation in its Relation to 
Wave Lengths and Intensity of Light. Psychol. Mono., 
1920, 28, No. 5, 101 pp. 

In an excellent monograph from the Bryn Mawr laboratory, 
Bills directs attention to the rise of the visual sense with time, 
need for the study having become increasingly evident from studies 
in methods of photometry carried on by Ferree and Rand. The 
author first discusses the various direct methods used in the deter- 
mination of the lag, by such men as Swan, Charpentier, Lough, 
Broca, Sulzer, Martius, Buchner, and Berlina, and also men like 
Exner, Lamansky, Kunkel, Diirr and MacDougall, who used an 
indirect method. Conclusion is drawn that results differ regarding 
the time required for different color sensations to reach their 
maximum, for colorless sensations to reach maximum, and for the 
effect of the intensity of light on the time required. Bills attempts 
to reexamine these older methods so far as possible, and to so 
standardize the determination of the relative lag of colored and 
colorless sensations, that these can be reproduced at will. The 
apparatus employed makes possible, (a) obtaining two stimuli 
and varying their intensity and (b) the presentation of these stimuli 
to the eye with controlled exposure time. The spectroscope 
apparatus earlier described by Ferree and Rand satisfies the first 
demand, a unique lens system, exposure apparatus and stimulus 
box, the second. The equality of brightness method, just noticeable 
differences, and several new methods were employed. Of these 
latter, the one where the sensation in its rise towards the maximum 
is graded in terms of just noticeable differences, these just noticeable 
differences being produced by changes in the time of exposure 
with the intensity of light kept constant throughout, produces the 
best results and is apparently the most promising for general 
laboratory purposes. 

Quite apart from methodological interests the research finds a 
different rate of rise of sensation for different wave lengths and for 
white light showing the retina not only selective in the amount of 
its response to wave length but also in the lag it shows in giving its 
full response. With the highest intensity of light used, the order 



304 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

of rate of rise by the best method, from fastest to slowest up to 
within two just noticeable differences of the maximum for green, 
was green, yellow, white and red, with blue not being employed. 
With the lowest intensity of light used, the order was yellow, red 
blue, green and white. With increase of intensity of light there 
was a decrease in the time required to produce the maximum re- 
sponse, this decrease being more rapid for green and blue and 
slower for red and yellow. PECHSTEIN (Rochester) 

326, WINFIELD, M., and STRONG, C., The Hering Color-Blindness 

Apparatus and the Normal Rayleigh Equation. Amer. J. 

of Psychol., 1921, 32, 425-428. 

Matches of spectral red and green to yellow, the normal Ray- 
leigh equation, upon the Hering color-blindness apparatus, were 
obtained from one hundred subjects picked at random in order to 
determine the capabilities of the instrument and the range and 
distribution of the matches among normal O's. The instrument 
was found to be accurate and readable to within i, but a change 
of less than this amount frequently destroyed a match. The 
amounts of G required to equate R to Y by the 100 normal O's 
varied from 45 to 52, with an average of 48.48. The mv's from 
the averages of the ten matches taken for each O were small, 
averaging 0.7. Nine cases fell beyond 52, but they were all 
abnormal. RICH (Pittsburgh) 

327. THALMAN, W. A., The After-Effect of Seen Movement when 

the Whole Visual Field is Filled by a Moving Stimulus. 

Amer. J. of Psychol. , 1921, 32, 429-441. 

Wohlgemuth reported an experiment upon the after-effect of 
movement when the whole visual field is filled by objective move- 
ment, with negative results, but neglected these results in relating 
his theory to the facts. His observations were repeated and his 
apparatus found to be unsuited to the problem. Yet even with it 
the after-effect was reported in a large percentage of cases. A 
large cylinder was constructed to meet the requirements of complete 
visual stimulation, and it was found that when the whole visual 
field is filled by an objectively moving stimulus the after-effect 
was observed. In producing the after-effect, position of fixation 
and, within limits, rate of objective movement were irrelevant 
factors, and the conditioning factor was the duration of stimulation. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 



SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 305 

328. BISHOP, H. G., An Experimental Investigation of the Positive 

After-image in Audition. Atner. J. of. Psychol., 1921, 32, 

305-325- 

The experiments aimed to find out if there is a positive auditory 
after-image, analogous to the positive after-image in vision. The 
sources of tone were Stern variators, with tube transmission, and 
vibrating telephone receivers. A signal was given at the instant 
at which the vibrations ceased, and the observers instructed to 
report any tonal sensation following the signal. The tones from 
the variators were stopped at first by cutting off the air, and later 
by breaking the path of conduction, while the tones from the 
telephone receivers were stopped by breaking the current through 
the receivers. No positive after-image of tone was found. With 
all forms of apparatus used a "modified ending" of the tones 
frequently occurred. This "modified ending" is probably a 
compound effect, due in part to tonal Abklingen, in larger part to 
the objective conditions of the experimental arrangement. Its 
intensity depends upon intensity of stimulus; its vividness on 
insistence upon pressure in the ear, which increases with intensity 
and duration of stimulus. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

329. ELRINGTON, G. A., L'espressione delgi intervalle musicali. 

Arch. ital. di Psicol., I, 1920, 77-93. 

Using an Appum Tonmesser, a series of musical intervals was 
presented to eafch of five subjects, who were requested to write down 
immediately, what the tones seemed to convey in the way of ideas, 
sentiments and the like. In the analysis of the results, the intervals 
were grouped according to the respective distances of the tones 
composing them. A series was thus obtained ranging from the 
minor second to the twelfth. Each group of intervals was seen to 
have a fairly definite character, more marked in some than in others. 
There seems to be a considerable degree of uniformity among the 
subjects, in their reactions to the intervals. The specific responses 
to the tones contain principally affective elements. Expressions of 
pain, sorrow, joy, restlessness, anxiety, order, doubts and the like 
were given in the protocols. The distance separating the com- 
ponent tones seems to be the factor to be considered.. The greater 
the distance the more difficult appears to be the interpretation of 
the interval. In a series of experiments complete introspections 
were taken from three of the subjects and these furnish details of the 



3 6 SENSA TION A ND PERCEPTION 

attitude of the subject to the interval presented, and of the mental 
processes involved in coming to a decision. Wide individual differ- 
ences were here found. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

330. RICH, G. J., A Note on "Vocality." Amer. J. of PsychoL, 

1921, 32, 446-447- 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

331. TUNG, S., The Integration of Punctiform Cold and Pressure. 

Amer. J. of PsychoL, 1921, 32, 421-424. 

Simultaneous excitation of punctiform cold and pressure was 
first produced by stimulating with a cold-paint spots that responded 
both to pressure and to cold. Two qualities of cold were distin- 
guished, a superficial "wet" cold and a "just cold" deep and 
penetrating. Discrete pressure and cold spots were then stimulated. 
A "wet" cold frequently resulted, but its duration was too brief 
for qualitative description. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

332. BRADDOCK, C., An Experimental Study of Cutaneous Imagery. 

Amer. J. of PsychoL, 1921, 32, 415-421. 

The observers were first given sensory cutaneous experiences 
and then asked to "think of" the one of these experiences. They 
were later asked to realize familiar situations in which an image of 
pressure, cold or warmth might be expected to appear. Cutaneous 
images appeared rarely, and then were undoubtedly tied and not 
free. Many experiences reported as images were probably sensory, 
the sort of pressures and temperatures sensed when one attends 
keenly to a given part of the skin. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

333. LAIRD, D. A., Subcutaneous Sensations. A. Jour, of PsychoL, 

32, 1921, 302-304. 

An accident resulted in laying bare the muscles of the fingers. 
The sensations resulting from direct stimulation of the muscles 
were carefully observed and compared with those obtained by 
pressure upon the anaesthetized skin. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 



FEELING AND EMOTION 307 

334. GEMELLI, A., TESSIER, G., and GALLI, A., La percezione della 

posizione del nostro corpo e del suoi spostamenti. Contri- 
bute alia psicofisiologia dell'aviatore. Arch. ital. di PsicoL, 
I, 1920, 107-182. 

A study of the perception of the position of the body in space 
and of its displacements with a view of obtaining positive criteria 
of practical utility in the selection of aviators. Data were sought 
as to the capacity of the individual to estimate the direction and 
the amount of the displacement of the body. The subject could 
be moved at different speeds to either side, forward, backward or 
in a circular direction. The reaction times for the making of the 
judgments and the amount of error were electrically recorded. 
In the first part of the experiment, the subjects corrected the 
displacement by means of a special device. Introspective accounts 
were also furnished. The second group of experiments had to do 
with displacements from the vertical. Displacements were more 
easily perceived when they had a lateral rather than a longitudinal 
direction; and forward rather than backward. Rotating move- 
ments were very inexactly estimated. The reaction times are 
more rapid for lateral than for longitudinal and rotating move- 
ments. Differences in the rapidity of the movements influence the 
results tremendously. The delicacy of the perception of the 
displacement is greatly reduced when the body of the subject is 
immobilized so as to exclude the participation of the kinaesthetic 
sensations and of those coming from movements of the head. The 
influence of kinaesthetic sensations is not so evident in the case of 
rotary movements. Finally these results are discussed in the light 
of the theory of the function of the labyrinthine sensations. They 
agree with Bourdon that it is not possible to attribute the perception 
of the displacement of the body solely to the functions of a specific 
organ. The phenomena turns out to be very complex and sen- 
sations from many parts of the body enter into it. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

4. FEELING AND EMOTION 

335. BUSCAINO, V. M., Rapporte tra stato subiettivo e manifes- 

tazione somatiche netta dottrina delle emozione. I centri 
encepalici dei reflessi emotivi. Riv. di Psicol., 16, 1920, 
167-177. 

The author brings forth a great deal of clinical and experimental 
evidence in support of the somatic theory of the emotions as opposed 



308 FEELING AND EMOTION 

to an intellectualistic or a cortical variation theory. In tracing 
the history of the somatic theory he finds that the elements of such 
an explanation go back to Aristotle and are found clearly in 
Schopenhauer and Thomas Hobbes, hence, attributing this theory 
to James and Lange is erroneous. The author then advances a 
somatic theory the principal variation of which with the existing 
explanations is the emphasis of cerebral but sub-cortical emotional 
reflexes. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

336. WASHBURN, M. F., and GROSE, S. L., Voluntary Control of 

Likes and Dislikes; The Effects of an Attempt Voluntarily 
to Change the Affective Value of Colors. Amer. Jour, of 
Psychol.j 1921, 32, 284-289. 

The 53 observers were asked to judge the affective value of 
each of 1 8 colors upon a scale of 7 judgments ranging from "very 
pleasant" to "very unpleasant.'* They were then asked to attempt 
to like an unpleasant or dislike a pleasant color, and make a new 
judgment. Two months later they were again asked to make 
single affective judgments. In all but 6.3 per cent, of the experi- 
ments, the observers were able to change their judgments of the 
colors, the extreme judgments being the most difficult to change. 
It was easier to change in the direction of unpleasantness than in 
that of pleasantness, but the latter changes were the more permanent 
of the two. The most frequent method of bringing about the 
change was to imagine the color in some new context. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

337. Pi CARD, M., The Coordinate Character of Feeling and Cog- 

nition. /. of P kilos., 1921, 18, 288-295. 

It is said that feeling states are abolished when attended to. 
This cannot be the case. Wohlgemuth found that the more a 
feeling is attended to the clearer it becomes. Also he finds feelings 
are localizable. The relation of feeling to cognition must be 
discovered by introspective methods for there are no two neural 
bases to which cognition and feeling may separately be referred. 
There is no doubt that introspection discloses a pleasure or dis- 
pleasure tone in any conscious state or both. Likewise cognition 
is always present. On this footing of "ever present" they are 
coordinate and this is more significant than arguments adduced 
for attention and localizability. 

GARTH (Texas) 



FEELING AND EMOTION 309 

338. YOKOYAMA, M., The Nature of the Affective Judgment in 

the Method of Paired Comparisons, Amer. J. of Psychol., 

1921, 32, 357-369- 

The introspective reports from a study of affection by the 
method of paired comparisons were analysed with a view to raising 
the question as to whether this method gives anything more than 
affective meanings. Pleasantness and unpleasantness may be 
meanings for any of the four observers; for two observers they are 
always meanings, and for the remaining two they are occasionally 
meanings. Organic sensory content is the sine quo non of P and U 
except in advanced stages of degeneration. Conscious P and U 
drop away from the affective perception in the course of its decay, 
concomitant with the diminution or disappearance of the sensory 
organic contents of consciousness. P and U are, thus, most uni- 
versally and definitely stateable as meanings, and are, on the side 
of process, predominantly sensory. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

339. GRIFFITTS, C. H., Results of Some Experiments on Affection, 

Distribution of Associations and Recall. /. of Exper. 
PsychoL, 1920, 3, 447-464. 

Are disagreeable experiences repressed and agreeable ones more 
frequently recalled? What relation has this to the mood and 
temperament of the individual? In the present experiment lists 
of 50 and 100 words (nouns and adjectives) were presented to each 
of 60 subjects. As each word was pronounced the subject was to 
wait until it suggested some previous experience, to write down 
some word as a clue to that experience, and to indicate whether 
the experience was pleasant, unpleasant, or indifferent. After the 
experiment was completed and about an hour had been devoted to 
other work, the subjects were unexpectedly asked to write as many 
of the stimulus words as they could remember. In every case 
there were more pleasant than unpleasant associations. Adjectives 
have a greater recall potency than nouns. There is no evidence of 
repression of stimulus words arousing unpleasant associations, but 
it is true that a greater per cent, of the words arousing pleasant 
associations were recalled than of those arousing unpleasant asso- 
ciations. The ratio of pleasant to unpleasant associations showed 
a correlation of .47 with self-estimates of cheerfulness. 

BELL (New York University) 



310 MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

5. MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

340. ANTONINI, G., L'educazione della volonta. Riv. di PsicoL, 

16, 1920, 178-188. 

Education, both in the family and in the school, must be freed 
from its traditional pedantry and placed on a footing which will 
develop the individual's own experience, critical faculties and 
power of acting for himself. To educate the will the positive 
acquisitions of physiology and of experimental psychology, which 
have already begun to inform modern pedagogy, need to be applied. 
The author sketches a program which may be effectively carried 
out. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

341. DEL GRECO, F., II "momento" nella genesi delle nostri azioni. 

Riv. di PsicoL, 16, 1920, 154-166. 

The author considers the precise importance of the "moment" 
in the genesis of human actions. Motives for action are analysed 
and the bases for action are found to be exceedingly complex. The 
author concludes that, taking all sides of the problem into con- 
sideration, a conceptual synthesis is possible but very difficult. 
The difficulty is that human personality, which turns out to be one 
of the very largest factors, cannot be analysed or broken into parts. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

342. RONCAGLI, V., Richerche sperimentali col metodo del Labi- 

rinto. Arch. ital. di Psicol., I, 1920, 57-76. 
Maze experiment on one adult and an abnormal and normal 
human child for learning capacities and capacity for retention. 
Four types of maze were employed of progressingly increasing 
difficulty. Learning periods were divided into two groups with 
68 days interval between. Introspections reveal that in the normal 
subject, learning is of a semi-automatic character, use is made 
most frequently of motor images. The sense of error is an impor- 
tant factor. In the abnormal subject, little profit is derived from 
previous mistakes. For him the learning is more or less of a chance 
character like the learning of animals. In the normal subject, 
orientation is voluntary while in the abnormal subject it is in- 
voluntary. As compared with the normal, the abnormal subject 
learns more slowly, is less attentive, his memory is less exact and 
less continuous and he retains the solution less well. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 



MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 3 11 

343. GATEWOOD, E. L., Individual Differences in Finger Reactions. 

Psychol. Mono., 1921, 28, No. 4, 43 pp. 

The investigation has to do with the speed and accuracy of 
finger reactions of the two hands in response to visual stimuli, the 
experimentor believing such an investigation of importance for 
the improvement of piano instruction. The apparatus employed 
is a complex form of the reaction time mechanism with elaborate 
electrical connections. Fifteen right-handed adults are employed 
as subjects, some being expert piano players. The results of several 
thousand reactions show that individuals differ both in speed and 
accuracy. There are some individuals who with unlimited practice 
will not attain the speed and accuracy others show at the initial 
trial. With very few exceptions, subjects agree that greatest speed 
is attained when using two hands, i. e., one finger on each, and the 
lowest speed is obtained when both fingers used are members of 
the left hand. The same is true for accuracy. Trained subjects 
(those having a considerable amount of piano and other similar 
practice) show less difference between fingers than do the untrained 
subjects. PECHSTEIN (Rochester) 

344. ARPS, G. F., Work with Knowledge of Results versus Work 

Without Knowledge of Results. Awareness and Partial 
Awareness as Factors Conditioning Efficiency. Psychol. 
Mono., 1920, 28, No. 3, 41 pp. 

Arps' object is to determine "whether a condition of relatively 
complete awareness of results is more or less favorable than a 
condition of partial awareness." In ergograph experiments various 
series of ascending and descending, known and unknown weights 
are employed. The rates for both the known and unknown series 
are recorded as well as the amount of work. In both cases the 
conditions with knowledge of results exceed those without knowledge 
of results. Arps holds that will power is inadequate to explain the 
efficiency differences, these more probably being explainable in 
that the conditions in the known work produce greater functional 
changes in the central nervous system than the unknown conditions 
do, hence resulting a better maintenance of attention and increased 
muscular efficiency. When work is long continued and to the 
point of exhaustion sudden recovery occurs, a plausible explanation 
assignable being the attainment of a functional grouping of the 
neurones connected with the group of muscles involved in lifting 
the ergographic load. PECHSTEIN (Rochester) 



312 ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 

345. SNODDY, G. S., An Experimental Analysis of a Case of Trial 

and Error Learning in the Human Subject. Psychol. 

Mono., 1920, 28, No. i, 78 pp. 

Snoddy makes a detailed analysis of trial and error learning in 
the case of tracing a six-pointed star by mirror reflection. It is 
pointed out that the two important objective factors in learning 
are varied instructions given to the learner and the controlled 
temporal distribution of practice. Analysis of learning records 
reveals the fact that in every respect mirror tracing of this type is 
of the true trial and error sort, with the learner soon abandoning 
any attempt to reason out the true directions of the grooves. "The 
study revealed at every point the behavioristic nature of this type 
of learning." It is shown that the mental image of a movement 
in mirror tracing cannot control a movement; that the value of 
the instructions given the learner depends upon the type of practice 
under which the learner is working; that recess period practice 
makes accuracy possible, and series practice makes speed possible. 

PECHSTEIN (Rochester) 

6. ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 

346. GEMELLI, A., and GALLI, A., Richerche sull'Attenzione. Nota 

Prima. Un nuovo metodo perto studio delle oscillazione 
dell'attenzione. Arch. ital. di Psicol., I, 1920, 39-56. 
The authors describe a new method for studying the fluctuations 
of attention. Simple optical stimuli pass before the subject at the 
rate of about 200 every 30 seconds. The reaction time for the 
recognition of each stimulus is taken by means of graphic records. 
From these data, the authors are able to obtain information re- 
garding the subject's capacity for maintaining attention to an 
optical stimulus. Individual differences and types of attention are 
evident from this work. ELRINGTON (Washington) 

347. MORGAN, J. J. B., The Effect of Fatigue on Attention. /. of 

Exp. Psychol., 1920, 3, 319-333. 

Five high school students, who had no knowledge of German, 
learned the English equivalents of 850 German words in one sitting 
of about four hours. Each pair of words was presented four times. 
Two days later recognition, recall and retention tests were given to 
determine the persistence of the associations. The curve of 
learning efficiency remains practically level. There is a slight drop 



ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 3 J 3 

in the middle, followed by a slight rise at the end. Of the material 
learned in the latter part of the experiment eighteen per cent, less 
is retained than of that learned in the first part. Recognition of 
the material used in the early part of the learning period is much 
superior to that of material used in the latter part. This indicates 
that adaptation to fatigue involves a narrowing of neural activity 
to the specific process demanding adaptation. 

BELL (New York University) 

348. THIELE, N., Wie begegne ich den Gefahren meines Berufs? 

Praktische Psychol., 1921, 2. 

This is purely a case study in which the testimony and obser- 
vations of about seventy-five individuals are reported verbatim 
with brief comments by the compiler. It has a certain suggestive 
value for applied psychologists, but its implications are not clearly 
indicated and no practical conclusions are drawn. 

LINK (New York) 

349. PRESSEY, S. L., The Influence of Color upon Mental and 

Motor Efficiency. Amer. J. of Psychol., 1921, 32, 326-356. 
The subjects of this experiment were given a number of non- 
visual tests in a room illuminated at various times by three hues 
(blue, green and red) at each of three intensities. The tests used 
were tapping, pulse and respiration, estimates of pressure, jugments 
of the pleasantness of touch substances, multiplication of one-place 
by two-place numbers, free association, immediate memory for 
nonsense syllables, and continuous choice reaction. Introspective 
reports of the effect of the colors were also obtained. Results with 
the tapping, multiplication and continuous reaction tests suggest 
a decrease in function under dim, and an increase under bright 
light, but the remaining tests failed to show any effect of brightness. 
The objective measurements showed no effect of hue, independent 
of brightness, upon the function tested. The introspective reports 
showed marked variability and also a decrease in affective reaction 
to both hue and brightness, with habituation. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

350. AUSTIN, S. D. M., A Study in Logical Memory. Amer. J. of 

Psychol., 1921, 32, 370-403. 

This investigation was undertaken to see if certain of the laws 
established for the recall of nonsense material held for sense or 



3 H ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 

logical material as well, with special emphasis upon the effect of 
distributed repetitions and the influence of time, curve of forgetting. 
Each of the five observers was given two kinds of logical material 
with which he was relatively unfamiliar but in which he was inter- 
ested to some extent, the material differing from observer to 
observer. All material was learned for five repetitions, an 1 memory 
was tested both by the percentage of ideas freely recalled and by 
the percentage recalled under questioning. Divided repetitions, 
within limits, proved more effective than cumulative repetitions, 
especially when the material was tested two to four weeks after 
learning. For immediate recall, cumulative repetitions proved as 
effective as repetitions that were distributed. The forgetting of 
logical materials is rapid at first and then proceeds more slowly, as 
with nonsense syllables. RICH (Pittsburgh) 

351. BORING, E. G., Consciousness in the Siamese Twins. Amer. 

J. of Psychol., 1921, 32, 448. 

Bolton's account of the Siamese Twins suggests an overlapping 
of consciousness which is not unlike the overlapping of two hyster- 
ically separated consciousnesses. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

352. BODE, B. H., Intelligence and Behavior. /. of P kilos., 1921, 

18, 10-17. 

Bearing in mind that attention may be coexistent with con- 
sciousness, we may distinguish between conscious and mechanical 
behavior if we grant that intelligent behavior (conscious) is "for- 
wardlooking." The psychic is an aspect in causation. We may 
not get off the plane of mechanistic naturalism unless we find a new 
interpretation to conscious behavior. There seems no escape 
from the mind-body problem if mind is what it has been supposed 
to be in the past, otherwise the road may lead around the psycho- 
physical, as James suggests, instead of through it. 

GARTH (Texas) 

353. PERRY, R. B., The Independent Variability of Purpose and 

Belief. /. of P kilos., 1921, 18, 169-180. 

Common sense assumes the independence of these two factors, 
purpose and belief. Interest and belief have in common an antici- 
patory set or "supposition" which may be qualified as a belief or 
a purpose. The former of these is a supposition to which one has 



ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 3 1 5 

committed himself, a belief; and the latter is a situation in which 
the matter has gone past the point of being merely a belief but has 
now become an anticipation and is correlated with a specific occa- 
sion. We may have the case in which (i) belief is fixed a.nd purpose 
varies, (2) stability of purpose and variability of belief, and (3) a 
positive tendency to response which never finds expression. 

GARTH (Texas) 

354. KANTOR, J. R., An Objective Interpretation of Meanings. 

Amer. J. of Psychol., 1921, 32, 231-248. 

The objective psychologist regards a meaning as an act or 
adjustment of the person which conditions another and following 
reaction. When we develop a differential reaction to an object 
in a given setting, we have appraised and evaluated it from the 
standpoint of behavior. This reaction may be either explicit and 
observable or implicit and non-observable. It may be a reaction 
to present stimuli or a detached reaction system functioning in 
memory and thought processes. Images are to be considered as 
detached reaction systems and may thus be meanings. The 
meaning-reactions are representative (similar to one performed on 
a previous occasion) or substitutive (purely symbolic). Between 
the two extreme types stand the language responses. Concepts 
are reaction systems that make use of large segments of past 
experience. Language is to be considered essentially as a deter- 
miner of action, and it thus functions efficiently as a meaning- 
reaction. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

355. COMSTOCK, C., On the Relevancy of Imagery to the Processes 

of Thought. Amer. J. of Psyckol., 1921, 32, 196-230. 
These experiments were designed to answer the question of the 
relevancy of the imagery reported in the analysis of conscious 
attitudes. In the first part of the investigation, the observers 
were given problems to solve, and required to report the experiences 
upon which the solution was based. Imagery, which was always 
found to be relevant, was used in all save a few sensori-motor 
responses. In the second part of the work, the experimental 
situation was simplified, and similar results obtained. The third 
section of the experiment involved the introduction of irrelevant 
material into a problem in sorting or reading, and showed that a 
marked irrelevancy is characterized by feeling accompanying the 



316 ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 

inhibition set up; and that where the irrelevancy is less marked, it 
tends to be overlooked because of the set for relevant meanings. 
In the final portion of the work, vivid imagery was set up by means 
of ideation of pictures, solution of completion tests, or imaginal 
reaction to three words, and the solution of a logically irrelevant 
problem was superimposed upon this imagery. If the imagery 
could be used as a whole or in part, it remained; otherwise it dropped 
out. All of the experimental work led to the conclusion that there 
is no irrelevant imagery. When imagery is present, it is relevant. 

RICH (Pittsburgh) 

356. RAYNER, H., Temperament. /. of Ment. Sci., 1921, 67, 

151-162. 

Temperament is a subject which formerly occupied an important 
place in medical literature. Recently, however, it has been greatly 
neglected. Medico-psychologists have tried to define it, but 
without any attempt at practical application in treatment or prog- 
nosis. 

Maudsley pointed out that it would be of vast service "to set 
forth in formal exposition the quick process by which the shrewd 
and experienced man of the world intuitively judges the character 
of those he has to do with, and refers them in a moment, instinc- 
tively, to their proper classes in his mind." 

The author summarizes and discusses the conception of tem- 
perament as held by Hippocrates, Galen, Richerand, Georg, Wundt, 
Lotze, Comte, Perez, Ladd, Armstrong-Jones, James Ward, Lay- 
cock, and Jonathan Hutchinson. 

The conclusion is that "temperaments are not dependent on 
the organization of the brain or nervous system, or even of its 
autonomic portion, nor on the endocrine glands, but are due to 
somatic elements. That these somatic characters are not so 
organic as to be inevitably inherited, but are modifiable by pro- 
tracted variation of nutrition within the limits of normality, either 
during gestation or in after-life, and probably also even under 
certain conditions of disease." LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

357. PECHSTEIN, L. A., Massed w. Distributed Effort in Learning. 

/. of Educ. PsychoL, 1921, 12, 92-98. 

The question of massed vs. distributed effort is studied in 
connection with that of learning by wholes and by parts. Motor 
learning of mazes by rats and humans provided the material for 



ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 3*7 

the following conclusions: (i) When the problem is short, massed 
effort is more economical. (2) In connecting short maze problems 
already learned, massed effort is more economical provided the 
problems were originally learned that way. (3) The longer and 
more difficult the problem, the more advisable is it to break up 
the problem into smaller units. These units should be learned by 
massed effort, and should later be connected by massed effort. 
That is, division of difficult material into parts with massed effort 
in learning them is most economical. An explanation of these 
conclusions is offered in terms of two principles called elimination 
and mechanization. The first term includes more than elimination, 
namely, detecting critical points in the problem, careful study of 
details, etc. The second includes the formation and strengthening 
of the right bonds. POFFENBERGER (Columbia) 

358. SKAGGS., E. B., The Relative Value of Grouped and Inter- 

spersed Recitations. /. of Exper. PsychoL, 1920, 3, 424-446. 
Reading and attempting to reproduce what has been read has 
been found by several investigators to be a more economical method 
of learning than mere reading alone. The question arises what is 
the most favorable combination of readings and recitations? Four 
different combinations were used in the experiment, and both 
nonsense syllables and poetry were employed as learning material. 
In all cas6s the interspersed method, in which a reading is immedi- 
ately followed by an attempt at recitation, gave the best results. 

BELL (New York University) 

359. O'BRIEN, F. J., A Qualitative Investigation of the Effect of 

Mode of Presentation upon the Process of Learning. 

Amer. J. of PsychoL, 1921, 32, 249-283. 

The observers learned to complete mastery series of four-letter 
words or nonsense-syllables. Twelve modes of presentation were 
employed, involving various combinations of visual, auditory, 
vocimotor, and manumotor presentation. Introspective reports 
were taken of the processes of learning, immediate recall, and recall 
after 24 hours. Of the seven observers, one was of the extreme 
motor type, one of the extreme visual type, and the others of 
mixed types. The process of learning was found to consist of 
three distinct stages: (a) the orienting stage; (fc) the stage of at- 
tempted anticipation; and (c) the anticipatory stage. All of the 
O's found it necessary to employ vocimotor imagery during the 



318 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

first stage, and the O's of the motor type had to use it throughout 
the process of learning. If the O was instructed not to use voci- 
motor imagery, he either attempted actively to inhibit it, thus 
interfering with or preventing learning, or set himself to use some 
other form of imagery. The words or syllables were usually 
grouped in learning. Manumotor imagery did not aid either 
learning or recall. During auditory presentations, writing the 
material helped O only in making definite the auditory perception. 
The modality of imagery used in learning depended primarily upon 
O's ideational type, only secondarily upon the mode of presentation. 
A visual kinaesthetic, or rhythmic schema usually preceded the 
recall of difficult words. Visual imagery proved unsuitable for 
rapid anticipation, and under such requirements usually gave way 
to vocimotor imagery. RICH (Pittsburgh) 

7. SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

360. LEUBA, J. H., The Meaning of "Religion" and the Place of 

Mysticism in Religious Life. /. of Philos., 1921, 18, 57-67. 
To say whoever seeks the welfare of society is religious would 
be to fail to recognize the difference in attitude psychologically of 
the adherents of any organized religion from that of the devoted 
atheistical worker. If "religion" were used as a word denoting all 
social forms of conduct we should need a new word for those forms 
involving belief in superhuman beings. Magic is to be differentiated 
from social behavior and religious behavior. Mystical experience 
is not at the root of all religions; it is just one type of religious 
relation. Mysticism finds some difficulty in existing in a highly 
organized religious environment because of its individualism. The 
old Romans were practically free from mysticism and regarded 
their gods objectively. 

GARTH (Texas) 

361. DOCKERAY, F. C., and ISAACS, S., Psychological Research in 

Aviation in Italy, France, England, and the American 
Expeditionary Forces. /. of Comp. Psychol,, 1921, I, 115- 
148. 

Psychology well needs to thank its stars that the World War 
came, and that it brought demands, situations, problems, apparatus, 
contacts of national and international scope, herds of men gathered 
together, and dynamic interest in technical and practical pursuits 
of a psychological nature. It meant the salvaging of a great many 



SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 3 1 9 

experiments in psychology, not that the reviewer believes the 
experiments in question deserved their temporary interment, but, 
because of various tendencies, so many workers in the field had 
lost faith in quite a few very reputable and very valuable experi- 
ments and the technique they entail. Reference is here being made 
most specifically to the reaction-time experiment for one, salvaged 
by the workers on aviation problems. And new experiments with 
new techniques were fashioned and new combinations of old tech- 
niques were instituted. What experiments were designed and 
performed to meet the requirements attending the classification of 
aviators and prospective aviators in Italy, France, England, and 
this country during the war are admirably and extensively described 
by Dockeray and Isaacs in this article, the summary being an excel- 
lent review of the foreign and domestic literature on the subject. 
The writers begin by describing the work of the psychologists, 
Gradenigo, Saffiotti, Azzi, Gemelli, Romagna-Manoia, Aggazzotti, 
Galeotti, Cacciapuoti, Herlitzka, Malan and Bilancioni, of the 
laboratories in Rome, Turin and Naples. Various techniques were 
established to test visual, auditory, and tactual reaction-times; 
choice reactions and choice reaction-times; nervous exhaustion and 
capacity for attention; emotional reaction, particularly in pulse, 
blood-pressure, volume, steadiness; effects of emotional stimulus on 
reaction-time and choice reactions; concentration of visual percep- 
tual attention; range of attention tachistoscopically manipulated; 
speed of visual perception; perception of muscular effort ; vertigo in 
changes in equilibrium, compensatory movements, ability to recover 
visual and motor orientation, and the condition of consciousness 
during vertigo and just following it. Many and exceedingly inter- 
esting results of the experiments, most of them obtained from 
numerous subjects, are cited, but they are too numerous and too 
well organized in the writers' summary to enumerate here. Two 
large results were the following: (i) Practically all of the best 
pursuit pilots belonged to the sensory reaction-time type, and ex- 
hibited a keen perception of the position of the body, low visual 
reaction-times, low choice reaction-times, and a low average devia- 
tion iii reaction-time. Resistance to influences of emotional stimuli 
was not always present or necessary, some of the best pilots being 
quite susceptible to emotional conditions. (2) Practically all of the 
best slow machine, bombing, aviators were motors in reaction-time; 
and Caproni pilots exhibited resistance to emotional stimuli. 

In France, most, if not all, of the work on aviators was done by 
Camus and Nepper. Tests of reaction-time, especially as to the 



320 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

effects of nervous stress, shock, and drugs on reaction-time, were 
made, and also tests of an emotional nature similar to those made by 
the Italians but with correlations with reaction-time results. On 
the basis of these two sorts of tests, candidates were divided into 
five classes, the first three of which were considered acceptable 
for admission to service and the groups four and five were rejected. 

The British research was confined almost entirely to physio- 
logical experiments and the corresponding data, such as pulse, 
blood pressure, vital capacity, etc., although manometer tests of 
volition, the MacDougall dotting test of speed and accuracy of 
eye-hand-motor coordination, tests of tremor and giddiness, and 
studies of flying temperament all have a psychological flavor and 
value. The work was effected through the guidance of Head, 
Rivers, Fletcher, Greenwood, Hill, Sherrington, Spearman, Flack, 
Dreyer, BIrley, McDougall, Heald, and Bowdler. Deserving of 
special mention were the British studies of vertigo and fainting, and 
the stress placed on such tests as walking a straight line heel to toe, 
turning on one foot, standing on one foot for fifteen seconds, 
balancing a rod on a flat board, etc. 

The article under review ends with a comprehensive exposition 
of the work done in the American Expeditionary Forces, at Issoudun 
and Tours, on returning tried-out aviators and students in the 
aviation camps. The research consisted in tests of mental and 
behavior capacities and the effects produced in them by deprivation 
of oxygen in rebreathing; tests in reaction-time; differences in 
reaction-time exhibited by Chasse fit and unfit pilots and Moniteurs; 
correlations of training department ratings with reaction-time 
scores; steadiness tests much like the Whipple metal punching 
board steadiness test. The most ingenious test was that of the 
aviator's ability to visually observe a great many objects in their 
true orders and arrangements and immediately to reproduce his 
impressions accurately on prepared maps or graph sheets; the 
object was of course to try to reproduce as nearly as possible the 
conditions, demands, and difficulties encountered by the cloud 
pilot who did reconnaissance work over and behind the enemy lines, 
and who by his job was required to observe quickly, in detail, 
accurately, and widely, and who had to manipulate his machine 
for a return journey, and for safety as well, while trying to retain 
the observations he had made. In this experiment a modified 
tachistoscopic slide apparatus was used; the observer manipulated 
the exposure time of the slide but the experimenter kept records of 



SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 321 

this time and also of the time required for the reproduction as well 
as the observer's estimate of the correctness of his recall. A 
recognition device was inserted after a given slide was noted and 
the observer had to state, in regard to each of twelve slides, whether 
it was the same or different from the one he had noted previously. 
Some very interesting results and correlations are given. Finally, 
personality ratings of aviators were made by an investigator, 
himself an aviator of flying status, living with the aviators in their 
bivouacs and following them in their haunts. No general rules 
resulted however from such personality studies, except the state- 
ment that quiet, methodical men were among the best flyers, and 
that intelligence, the power to make quick adjustments to a new 
situation, and good judgment were essential in the career of an 
aviator. The nervous and high-strung individuals or the tempera- 
mental were the least reliable because they frequently became 
psychotic under stress. 

The article contains a short but valuable bibliography of the 
most up-to-date published works dealing with psychological 
experimentation in aviation problems. 

CROSLAND (Oregon) 

362. MENZEL, M., Beitrage zur Psychotechnik der Schreibmachine 
und ihrer Bedienung. Praktische Psychol., 1921, 2. 

A systematic investigation of typewriting, the first of its kind 
in Germany, was undertaken at the instigation of the Prussian 
Department of Commerce under the immediate direction of the 
Institute of Business Psychology at the Commercial College in 
Berlin. In the present study thirty-six girls between the ages of 
fourteen and seventeen were used as subjects. Twenty-four of 
these were being trained as touch operators, twelve as sight oper- 
ators. The study covers a period of twenty weeks with a total of 
one hundred and sixty hours of actual practice. Performance 
graphs show that the sight students did faster work in copying 
during the first ten days, after which they were gradually surpassed 
by the touch operators. The difference between the two groups 
was maintained until near the end of the study when the sight 
operators almost overtook the touch operators. A study of greater 
duration will be necessary before the final outcome can be deter- 
mined. 

A further study made with five groups, totaling one hundred 
subjects, was made in which it was discovered that the performance 



322 SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

of the right hand was only eighty-four and three-tenths per cent. 
(84^5- per cent.) as efficient as that of the left hand. The distri- 
bution of the letters copied was such that it was possible to determine 
exactly how much work was done by either hand. It was also 
discovered that words in which the letters go from one hand to the 
other only once or twice can be written more quickly than words 
which require more than two changes between both hands. It 
was concluded that the chief handicap of touch operators is the 
weakness of the fourth and little finger, a weakness^which does not 
seem to be overcome readily even with considerable practice. 

LINK (New York) 



363. SCHORN, M., Begutachtung von Reklameplakaten und 
Inseraten. I. Versuch einer objektiven Bewertung von 
Reklameplakaten. Praktische Psychol., 1921, 2. 
This study defines the two chief objects of the applied psychol- 
ogist in the field of advertising as: (i) The development of a tech- 
nique which will make it possible to study the sales value of par- 
ticular advertisements. (2) The expression of the results of such 
a study or studies in numerical terms. The present article describes 
three studies made under the supervision of W. Moede in which 
these two purposes were kept definitely in mind. The advertise- 
ments in question were shown to a heterogeneous group of forty-five 
people, for a period of two minutes, and each individual was then 
asked to report what he had seen. The elements mentioned were 
then enumerated, and the frequency with which they were men- 
tioned was computed in terms of percentage and plotted graphically. 
By this method it was made possible to determine the relative 
value of the various elements in the advertisements used, and to 
determine whether the suggestions which the advertisements were 
intended to convey actually received the desired attention. With 
the advertisements in question it was found that the most fre- 
quently mentioned elements were those of secondary importance 
from the standpoint of the advertiser whereas the principal ideas 
which the advertisements were meant to convey were among those 
least frequently mentioned. 

Supplementary but less objective methods used in connection 
with the same advertisements substantially confirmed the results 
obtained by the numerical method described. 

LINK (New York) 



SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL 323 

364. MINER, J. B., Standardizing Tests for Vocational Guidance. 

Sch. and Soc., 13, 1921, 629-633. 

Miner discusses two phases of the problem of standardizing 
tests in order to make them useful for vocational placement: (i) 
Measurement of the occupational types. (2) Measurement of 
most stable workers within an occupational group. He shows 
how types of sales ability may be differentiated by means of an 
intelligence test similar to Army Alpha. The central tendencies 
and the quartiles for the groups tested are as follows: (i) Counter 
salespeople (one-priced articles), 36, 57, 70; (2) wholesale salesmen 
to local retail stores (order takers), 59, 89, 121; (3) insurance 
salesmen, 82, 112, 138; (4) salesmen requiring training at a technical 
college, 124, 139, 155. The range of possible scores in the test is 
from o to 184. Not only must we place the individual in the 
occupation for which he is best fit, but we must also take into 
consideration his standing in the tested aptitude for that occupation 
insofar as this is prognostic of his stability at that work. Those 
who do not remain in an occupation may have shown the greatest 
aptitude or the poorest aptitude, depending on the occupation. 

(Boston Psychopathic Hospital) 



365. ADAMS, H. F., The Effect of Climax and Anticlimax Order of 

Presentation on Memory. /. of Applied PsychoL, 4, 1920, 

330-338. 

The question whether the order in which the mixed sizes were 
presented to the subject had any effect upon the memorability of 
the series. "If a firm advertises four times with mixed sizes of 
advertisements, is it more effective upon memory to present the 
larger-sized advertisements at the beginning or end of the series?" 

Dummies were prepared and used by 463 subjects. It is 
concluded that the anti-climax order is more effective than the 
climax order. E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

366. OTIS, A. S., The Selection of Mill Workers by Mental Tests. 

/. of Applied Psychol., 4, 1920, 339-341. 

Four hundred employees were tested in a mill. The conclusion 
drawn is that intelligence is not only not required in a modern silk 
mill for most operations but may even be a detriment to steady 
efficient routine work. What qualities are required remain to be 
sought. Whether they are measurable is doubtful. They may be 
stolidity, patience, inertia of attention, regularity of habits, etc. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 



367. ROBACK, A. A., and GROETZINGER, M., The Applied Psy- 

chology of Names. /. of Applied Psychol., 4, 1920, 348-360. 
The question asked is, "Is there any general rule that can be 
applied as to the way the combination of names should appear in 
advertisements, on letter-heads or in any form of publicity? " The 
data indicate (i) that a combination of names possesses a greater 
immediate memory value if the more familiar component of the 
combination appears last, and the less familiar first; (2) other 
things equal, the unfamiliar element shows a greater memory gain 
than the familiar component. This suggests that eventually the 
unfamiliar will become a more effective stimulus than the latter. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

368. MUDGE, E. L., The Common Synaesthesia of Music. /. of 

Applied Psychol., 4, 1920, 342-345. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 



8. SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

369. DE SANCTIS, S., I metodi onirologici. Riv. di Psicol., 16, 1920, 

1-30. 

The author discusses the methods for the study of dreams. He 
insists that the scientific method for their study is the same as 
that employed in general and differential psychology, namely, 
introspection. Introspection may be of two sorts: auto-intro- 
spection or the testimony of the subject, or hetero-introspection 
which is induced. Both procedures must be controlled by external 
observation and experiment. Auto-introspection is the method 
employed by Freud and the author discusses a number of factors, 
such as the improvement in remembering dreams with practice. 
The author discusses the results of recording his own dreams. The 
hetero-introspective method seems to be important for bringing to 
light the affective aspects of the dreams. There follows a long 
laudatory summary of the work and methods of Freud. Among 
the experimental findings de Sanctis finds that it takes an appre- 
ciable time for the dream conscious to become fixed; that there 
does not seem to be any "immediate memory" for dreams. The 
work of the day before does not seem to influence dreams while, 
up to a certain point, it does influence sleep. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 3*5 

370. RIGNANO, E., Una nuova teoria sul sonno e sui sogni. Riv. 

di PsicoL, 16, 1920, 31-41. 

A new theory of sleep is advanced. The non-affective character 
of dreams is pointed out. The nervous elements involved in the 
intellectual processes during the day have intermittent periods of 
rest, they are not active all of the time. Hence their activity can 
persist during sleep. The nervous elements underlying the affective 
processes (including attention and will) never rest during the day 
and, therefore, there is need for complete suspension of activity 
during sleep, in order that its energy may be restored. Dreams 
are described as being entirely devoid of feeling characters. They 
are apparently emotional but analysis discloses that only the 
somatic elements of the emotion are present. The rapidity with 
which dreams are forgotten and the incoherence and illogical 
character of them are also discussed. 

ELRINGTON (Washington) 

371. THOMAS, C. D., Newspaper Tests. /. Soc. Psychical Res., 

1921, 20, 89-107. 

A discussion of a series of items termed Newspaper Tests 
covering a period from October 10, 1919, to February 4, 1921, 
giving a numerical analysis of 33 of the tests. 

BROOKE (Pennsylvania) 

372. BAGBY, E., The Psychological Effects of Oxygen Depriva- 

tion. /. of Comp. PsyckoL, 1921, I, 97-113. 
Under an authorization of the War Department to the Medical 
Research Board, in 1917, Lieutenant Bagby and his colleague, 
Lieutenant Isaacs, acting as assistants to Major Knight Dunlap, 
investigated the mental and behavior phenomena induced in avia- 
tors by the deprivation of oxygen in re-breathed air. The Hender- 
son Re-Breathing Apparatus was employed. Twelve preliminary, 
control types of experiment were done, and consisted of tests of 
visual acuity, auditory acuity, reaction-time to changes of pressure, 
steadiness in aiming, rapidity of tapping, knee-jerk irritability, 
immediate and delayed memory of from five to nine consonants, 
memory of associated digits and color-names, visual memory of 
positions of colored lights, serial attention reactions, Dunlap's addi- 
tion test of attention, and tactile discrimination and sorting of cards 
having different shaped openings. In these preliminary experi- 
ments the investigators were influenced by certain limitations, 



326 SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 

such as the necessity of making rapid classifications of aviators 
involving not more than thirty minutes per man, the advisability 
of not using graphic records of results because of the length of time 
necessary for grading and statistical treatment and because in 
graphic records no means is afforded for the registering of com- 
pensatory reactions, the necessity of preventing fatigue by having 
short and easy tasks, the necessity of obtaining pulse and blood- 
pressure readings from the observer at two-minute intervals during 
the examination, requiring that the observer's left hand be free for 
the circulation tests and also that his mouth be free for gripping the 
mouth-piece of the re-breathing machine, leaving only one hand and 
both feet free for reactions, and the lack of pioneer work on which 
these investigators could rely. The preliminary experiments 
brought to light such results as the following: (i) The gradual 
depletion of oxygen produces tremor, muscular incoordination, and 
over-discharge, which effects grow progressively greater as re- 
breathing proceeds. (2) Low oxygen tension results in the diminu- 
tion of the ability to carry on several discrete acts which involve a 
rapid shifting of attention, presumably because the distractibility 
of the observer is lowered instead of raised, with the consequent 
effect that simple, mechanical operations, done singly, are better 
executed than under normal air conditions, viz. : , simple sensory and 
motor acts. However, in the final stages of asphyxiation, concen- 
tration on any task is nigh impossible. (3) The muscular condition 
of the left hand, under normal conditions, was firm, but under 
conditions of oxygen deprivation became first relaxed, then tense, 
and finally twitchy. (4) Asphyxiation, in its earlier and later 
stages, seems to remove certain inhibitions or repressions in the 
observer, for he shows resentment to all stimuli and perhaps actually 
swears and tries to break the apparatus or becomes silly and winks 
and smiles at the experimenter and gives way to uncontrollable 
laughter. (5) After a preliminary effect of asphyxiation, the ob- 
server can pull himself together somewhat and can improve the 
quality of his reaction, and then he wants to rest and becomes 
oftentimes quite inert; this increased efficiency can be regarded as 
a true illustration of a "spurt." 

The standard test which was devised and performed was planned 
to offset the "spurt" effects, to register at once decreased motor 
control, and to demonstrate the increasing restriction of attention, 
although not attempting to indicate the aviator's constitutional 
resistance to low oxygen tension. This standard test was very 



SPECIAL MENTAL CONDITIONS 3*7 

complex in procedure as well as in the apparatus used, involving 
the presence of both physiologist and psychologist, both of whom 
were required to "be on the job," to properly control the experi- 
ment, to get down accurate and quick records, and to prevent 
serious results from asphyxiation and exhaustion. As in the 
preliminaries, the re-breathing apparatus and the apparatus for 
pulse and blood pressure were employed; in addition, elaborate 
and complicated sets of apparatus were worked by both the psy- 
chologist and the observed re-agent. The re-agent had three sets 
of tasks to attend to and to perform, tasks which the reviewer 
presumes were similar to the tasks the aviator must perform in all 
altitudes: to touch with stylus a certain button whenever a certain 
light appeared, to adjust by switch the amount of current in an 
ammeter to correspond to an indicated reading, and to adjust the 
speed of a motor to a prescribed speed by means of a rheostat 
arrangement worked by pedal by the re-agent's foot. An automatic 
distributor flashed the lights in sequence. The psychologist by 
his own rheostats and ammeters and switches varied the ammetric 
readings, and changed the speed of the motor, to stimulate the 
prescribed reactions in the re-agent. The psychologist also kept 
records, by an elaborate but ingenious set of symbols, of the re- 
actions of the re-agent and jotted down data concerning the effici- 
ency and the progress of inefficiency of his subject. After the 
data had been obtained a set of objective rules were followed as to 
the scoring, and tentative ratings, ranging from A through C, were 
applied to the results and the aviator received his rating. A 
standard period of 25 minutes, with 7 per cent, oxygen, representing 
the standards for the highest types of aviators, was employed 
and deviations in quality of reactions and the approach to collapse 
during this standard time and with 7 per cent, oxygen were used 
as bases for the rating. 

The author tells us that the results of the preliminary experi- 
ments were verified on a score of psychological observers and that 
as many as 7,000 avaiators have been submitted to the standard 
re-breathing test. 

CROSLAND (Oregon) 

373. FROEBERG, S., Effect of Smoking on Mental and Motor 

Efficiency. /. of Exper. Psychol., 1920, 3, 334-345. 
The difficulty in experiments of this sort is to avoid suggestion. 
To accomplish this an ingenious device was resorted to whereby 



328 NERFOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

the alkaloid decomposition products, which are supposed to be the 
active agents of tobacco smoke, were filtered out, leaving the 
aroma of the smoke unchanged. In the unfiltered smoking ap- 
paratus absorbent cotton was used to equalize the "pull." There 
was little difference in taste between the filtered and the unfiltered 
smoke, but the filtered smoke was slightly less visible than the 
unfiltered. This enabled one subject to detect the difference, and 
necessitated the rejection of his records. Cigars were used, and 
the smoking period was approximately thirty minutes. Three 
motor tests and five association tests were used. The results from 
six subjects were included. There was a marked decrease in 
steadiness and coordination, but little difference in speed of move- 
ment. The association tests showed slight increases or decreases 
after smoking, but in only one case was the change as much as 
three P.E. Smoking, therefore, seems to have no definite effect 
upon the association processes of the normal adult. 

BELL (New York University) 

9. NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

374. PORTEUS, S. D., A New Definition of Feeble-Minded. Train- 

ing Sch. Bull., 18, 1921, 7-10. 

"A feeble-minded person is one who by reason of mental defects, 
other than sensory, can not attain self-management and self-support 
to the degree of social sufficiency," is the definition proposed. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

375. MOTT, F., The Influence of Song on Mind and Body. /. of 

Ment. S., 1921, 67, 162-172. 

It was observed during the Great War that musical memory 
usually returns earlier than other forms of memory in cases of 
shell-shock amnesia. Stammerers and stutterers can frequently 
sing without an appearance of their defect. Words associated with 
music are more stably organized in the mind owing to the musical 
origin of language. Two psychological laws of association, con- 
tiguity and similarity, probably account for this fact. 

Herbert Spencer concluded, like Diderot, that the cadences 
used in emotional speech afford the foundation from which music 
has been developed. Darwin concluded that musical notes and 
rhythm were first acquired by the male and female progenitors of 
mankind for the sake of charming the opposite sex. 



NERFOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 329 

It is probable that an inarticulate language of emotion preceded 
articulate language. It is consequently dependent upon a more 
stable preorganised mechanism, represented in both halves of the 
brain, while articulate language has its center on one side of the 
brain only. 

There is a close similarity of emotional language between the 
men of all races, past and present. 

Music arouses in us various emotions, but, according to Darwin, 
not terrible ones of horror, terror, or rage. Music reacts on the 
collective or group mind as well as on the individual and its beneficial 
effects in peace or war become contagious. 

The author takes up the history of song in Britain; the Bards, 
the folk songs, songs of the Elizabethan period, and lyric songs. 

He says that the quality of the voice is inherited, while articulate 
expression, like handwriting, is acquired by imitation. 

Voice production in singing can be used to excellent advantage 
as a general hygienic and educational measure. This has been 
proved by the author's experience at the Maudsley Neurological 
Clearing Hospital. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 



376. DEVINE, H., A Study of Hallucinations in a Case of Schizo- 
phrenia. /. of Ment. Sci.j 1921, 67, 172-186. 

This is the history of a case of schizophrenia which for a year 
remained inaccessible and then suddenly began to talk freely of 
his hallucinations. The method of study was purely conversational. 

The patient had hallucinations for 18 years. He heard voices 
which commanded him to do various things. He attributed these 
voices to supernatural powers which he termed "Immortal 
Strengths." 

The author says that the problem of hallucinations may be 
approached at the outset by regarding them from the point of 
view of mental dissociation. Certain mental processes occur which 
the individual does not recognize as his own. They come into 
consciousness unbidden and the individual is unable to ro regulate 
control them. In some cases hallucinations appear to consist of 
isolated, unsystematized and fragmentary mental elements. In 
other instances they are highly organized into a system which 
produces a veritable duplication of personality. This case belonged 
to the latter category. 



330 NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISORDERS 

went "rolling around in his brain." This power was not a benefi- 
cent one, however. These "Strengths" were utterly evil, mocking 

The "Immortal Strengths," in this case, assumed the role of 
an elderly-father-bishop sort of personality which the patient said 
spirits, without a single redeeming feature. They imposed ex- 
tremely complex penalties on the patient not because of their 
disapproval of his actions but to gratify their own delight in the 
infliction of punishment. 

The author states that the whole symptom complex in this case 
would seem to be the reaction to a perverted organic need and the 
clinical facts suggest that the primary disorder is much more 
probably to be located in the autonomic system than in the brain. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

377. READ, C. S., Familial Care of the Insane. /. of Ment. S., 

1921, 67, 186-195. 

A description of the administration of familial care of the insane 
in the Colony of Gheel, Belgium, together with a brief history of 
its establishment and existence for some hundreds of years. 

The main features of the Gheel system are: (i) Its naturalness 
as compared with that of public asylums. (2) The personal liberty 
which is enjoyed by the patient, and which must condone so largely 
to his happiness and contentment. (3) The superior economy in 
treatment. (4) The economisation of the labor of patients for 
their own benefit medically and for those who support them pe- 
cuniarily. (5) The constant association of the insane with the sane 
and the humanizing influence of the association of women and 
children. (6) The diffusion of the insane in separate dwellings as 
contrasted with barrack life in asylums. (7) The good effect 
toward recovery and the tendency to obviate early and advanced 
dementia. (8) The recognition of the important principle of 
individuality in treatment. 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

378. BRYCE, W. H., Some Considerations in Psycho-therapy. /. 

of Ment. S'., 1921, 67, 195-205. 

The whole question of the position of psycho-therapy at the 
present moment is rather difficult, not as to results of treatment, 
but because of an absolute want of coordination amongst the 
various schools. 



INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 331 

Sidis says fear is everything. Freud says sex is everything. 
Adler says the feeling of inferiority is everything. Jung apparently 
postulates no one basal ultimate cause, but uses the conception of 
our divertible life-force or energy. 

The next course will be either for one school to remain pre- 
dominant, absorbing the others, or for an amalgamation to take 
place, embracing as much from each as has stood the test of 
utility; and "It almost seems," says the author, "as if the latter 
will be the contribution of this country to analytical psycho- 
therapy." 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

379. MONRAD-KROHN, G. H., On the Possibility of a Biological 

Conception of so-called Functional Nervous Disorders. /. 
of Meni. Sci., 1921, 67, 205-209. 

The aim of the article, as stated by the writer, is "to prove that 
the distinction between organic and functional nervous disorders 
is unfounded and misleading and to show that a biological con- 
ception of the functional disorders is possible." 

He mentions the fact that intra-vitam biochemical methods 
are only in their infancy and says that functional nervous disorders 
rarely lead to early death, thus infrequently affording post-mortem 
investigation. Although the central nervous system is not acces- 
sible for direct inspection intra-vitam it is not impossible that 
changes of a transitory organic nature take place in its different 
parts. 

He concludes, "We arrive, then, at the conclusion that the 
'functional* disturbances are in all probability dependent on 
transitory, high-level lesions of organic nature; that these may 
possibly sometimes be the result of faulty functions (thus indirectly 
the result of psychic influence) but probably more often not; that 
suggestion in these cases is but a form of re-education; and that 
thus there is no fundamental gap between functional and organic 
disorders." 

LEAMING (Pennsylvania) 

10. INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

380. WRIGHT, W. K., McDou gall's Social Psychology in the Light 

of Recent Discussion. /. of. Philos., 1921, 18, 141-151. 
This book has reached it fourteenth edition and is proving to 
be as important in this science, so the reviewer thinks, as was 



33 2 INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 

James' work in general psychology. There are three "nodal 
points" in the conception of Social Psychology, viz., instincts, 
sentiments, and development of character and volition. Thorn- 
dike's viewpoint is evidently mechanistic and he certainly can have 
little sympathy with the psychological and philosophical positions 
held by McDouigall. Woodworth says that McDougall's system 
does not alccount sufficiently for good will, comradeship, and co- 
operation of equals. The reviewer, however, believes the only 
serious omission in McDougall's list has been indicated by Wallas 
and that is a lack of regard for desire for knowledge and intellectual 
interest in general. 

GARTH (Texas) 

381. New Jersey's New Institution. Training Sch. Bull., 18, 1921, 

27. 

The Trustees of the Baron de Hirsch Fund which formerly 
maintained an Agricultural College at Woodbine, N. J., about sixty 
miles south of Philadelphia have given the institution to the State 
of New Jersey. It is purposed to make this a colony for male 
idiots and imbeciles. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

382. ELDERTON, E. M., On the Inheritance of the Finger-Print. 

Biometrika, 1920, 13, 57-91. 

The finger-print data collected by Galton has been submitted 
to statistical analysis in accordance with biometric methods of 
attacking inheritance problems, after an attempt to interpret it 
from the Mendelian point of view. But one may suspect that 
such an attempt betrays some degree of incapacity to work from 
the Mendelian point of view, when the nature of the data is taken 
into account. The standard methods of classifying finger-prints, 
followed in the main by the author, appear to be based upon logical 
rather than morphological considerations and the results, though 
indicating an approximate agreement with results from other 
biometric studies of inheritance, are not wholly convincing. 

BROWN (Michigan) 

383. BUXTON, L. H. D., The Inhabitants of the Eastern Mediter- 

tanean. Biometrika, 1920, 13, 92112. 

A study of cephalic, upper facial and nasal indices and stature 
and pigmentation data leading to the conclusion that for the most 



INDIVIDUAL, RACIAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 333 

part the people of the Eastern Mediterranean represent a combi- 
nation "probably of comparatively early date of Alpine and 
Mediterranean both of which stocks are found sporadically in a 
comparatively unmixed state in some parts of the area." 

BROWN (Michigan) 

384. MURCHISON, C., College Men Behind Prison Walls. Sch. 

and Soc., 13, 1921, 633-640. 

Out of 3429 white male criminals examined in the penitentiaries of 
Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, 72 were college men, whereas according 
to chance there should not have been more than 25. These college 
men averaged 155 in Army Alpha, the best score being 205. Their 
average age was six years greater than that of the rest of the crim- 
inals. They committed a smaller variety of crimes than the rest 
of the criminals. They were more stable in their interests than 
other college men and criminals. Their average earnings before 
conviction were about twice those of all the other criminals. They 
did not tend to commit crimes of violence, but committed more 
than their share of crimes against the laws of nature and crimes of 
cunning and deceit. More than half of them were clerks, musicians, 
and salesmen, whereas these occupations are represented by only 
14 per cent, of the graduates of Miami University. Murchison 
accounts for the large percentage of college men in these prisons 
by showing that college students are tending to take courses which 
would lead to cheap jobs as clerks or salesmen instead of to the 
great professions, and for this he blames the colleges. 

FREYD (Boston Psychopathic Hospital) 

385. STANLEY, L. L., Narcotic Drugs and Crime. Jour. Crim. Law 

and Crim., 1921, 12, 110-115. 

With the greater public attention which narcotic drug addiction 
has commanded since probihition was established, clinics have been 
conducted in New York and certain other cities but with disap- 
pointing results. Hubbard is quoted from the New York Public 
Health Report to the effect that the clinic tended to increase the 
number of addicts, that death does not result from the sudden 
withdrawal of a narcotic drug from healthy adults, and that the 
suffering caused by the sudden deprivation is not as severe as may 
appear on the surface. Very few are known to be cured by ambu- 
latory treatment which is described as vicious in principle and in 
effect. Self-administration is too harmful to be recommended 



334 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

under any circumstances and if hospitals are available there is no 
excuse for drug dispensaries. The Harrison Law has a negligible 
effect in stopping the traffic. The British government maintains 
the opium trade and releases by auction each month thousands of 
pounds of opium. Smuggling on a large scale is repeatedly dis- 
covered at San Francisco. The writer suggests, in remedy, engen- 
dering shame in countries engaging in the traffic, government 
manufacture of opium, and world-wide international agreements 
to stop smuggling and promiscuous production. 

KELLEY (Boston Psychopathic Hospital) 

386. KEEDY, E. R., Criminal Responsibility of the Insane. A 

Reply to Professor Ballantine. Jour. Crim. Law and Crim., 
1921, 12, 14-34. 

The writer defends a previous explanation of a proposed bill, 
criticized by Professor Ballantine, which provides against the con- 
viction on a criminal charge of any person suffering from such 
mental disease that he did not have the particular state of mind 
that must accompany such an offense to constitute a crime; provides 
for a special verdict, if justified by the evidence, that the accused 
committed the offense but was at the time not legally responsible 
because of mental disease; and further, for an inquisition ordered by 
the court to determine whether the prisoner at that time is a 
menace to public safety, entailing commitment or immediate 
release according to the findings. Most crimes involve a mental 
state as an element thereof. This element varies with different 
crimes and includes general as well as specific intent; and anything 
which negatives this element is a defence to the crimes charged. 
The proposed statute is based upon the fundamental principle that 
crime has not been committed when the necessary mental element 
is lacking; embodies no medical or psychological theories; does 
away with legal definitions of insanity; assigns proper functions to 
the legal and medical professions; and in providing a practical test, 
obviates the introduction of special tests and terminology which 
becloud issues under the present system. 

KELLEY (Boston Psychopathic Hospital) 

ii. MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

387. Franzen, R. The Accomplishment Quotient. Teachers Coll. 

Rec., 1920, 21, 432-440. 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 335 

Urges the use of an accomplishment quotient, analogous to the 
Intelligence Quotient, for measuring and stimulating achievement 
in school. The argument is that a child of I.Q. no should surpass 
the norm for his age in reading, spelling, etc., by 10 per cent. 

GATES (Teachers College) 

388. RUML, B., Reconstruction of Mental Tests, /. of Philos. t 1921, 

18, 181-184. 

There is apparently considerable unrest among psychologists and 
others at work in the field of mental tests. We cannot ignore ex- 
isting conditions which are due to inadequate instruction in statis- 
tics for students doing work in mental tests and to careless editing 
of psychological and educational periodicals. Approval must not 
be given to various statistical tricks which may at times be expedient 
but are nevertheless bad method. Practical efficiency must not be 
the criterion but those methods which can alone be genuinely 
productive in a scientific sense are the ones to seek. Neither must 
we ignore the necessity for analysis and isolation of variable 
factors which tendency finds its expression in the "omnibus" tests 
and the like. This point of view as well as concern only for the 
expeditious limits the possibility of significant contributions to 
psychological science from the mental test field. The best advance- 
ment in the field of mental tests cannot come if we consider mental 
testing a "technical science" and not a "descriptive science." It 
is better to contend that there be "no problem that does not test 
out an hypothesis," than otherwise. 

GARTH (Texas) 

389. DOLL, E. A., Mental and Physical Growth. Training Sch. 

Bull., 17, 1920, 157-164; 18, 1921, 1-6. 

The paper deals with the physical growth, mental growth and 
physiological explanations. The biological law of Montessori is 
accepted, "Growth is not only increase in volume, but is also an 
evolution in form." Her second law is also accepted, "The more 
essential parts vary less than the accessory parts in the course of 
their transformations." 

The second part of the article is concerned with functional 
development physiological, psycho-physical, educational, eco- 
nomic, and moral functions. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

390. JOHNSTONE, E. R., On Institutional Management. Training 

Sch. Bull., 17, 1920, 165-171. 

The advantages of staff meetings in an institution are discussed. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

391. JOHNSTONE, E. R., On Institutional Management. Training 

Sch. Bull., 18, 1921, 28-31. 

The advantage of an "Association" in connection with every 
institution public or private is explained. Persons who will give 
of time and interest are needed by any institution. Through an 
association the members feel it is their institution. They visit it, 
bring their friends and extend the influence of the institution to 
many others. It is urged that "Associations" such as the one 
Vineland has had since 1888 be formed in other institutions. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

392. DOLL, E. A., Criminal Psychology. Training Sch. Bull., 18, 

1921, 17-26. 

The psychological study of the criminals' intelligence is hardly 
more than ten years old. Most of the early studies which showed 
a relation between mental condition and crime were made by 
psychiatrists and therefore it is not unnatural that a relation was 
established between crime and constitutional mental defect of 
pathological nature. More recently the studies conducted by 
psychology have emphasized the place of intelligence in crime. 

The thesis that a large amount of juvenile delinquency is the 
result of the defective judgment and feeble inhibition is established. 
It is unwarranted to imply that what is true of juvenile delinquency 
is also true for adult criminals. In the case of the adult criminals 
we must seek some other psychological factor than intelligence. A 
man may be a criminal because of physical constitutional inferiority, 
because of mental deficiency or because of personal defects. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

393. ANDERSON, J. E., A Comparison of Two Methods of Giving 

the Number Series Completion Test. /. of Applied Psychol., 
4, 1920, 346-347- 

The evidence from 85 cases of Yale freshmen is that the cross- 
out method of giving the number series completion test (as developed 
by Pressey) is superior to the regular completion method as meas- 
ured by the criterion of correlation with college standing. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 337 

394. DERRICK, S. M., A Comparative Study of the Intelligence of 
Seventy-five Whites and Fifty-five Colored College Students 
by the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale. /. of 
Applied PsychoL, 4, 1920, 316-329. 

Seventy-five white college students were tested in the University 
of South Carolina. Fifty-five colored students were tested at 
Benedist College and Allen University. Due to the scarcity of 
colored college students, a few colored men in two upper classes of 
high school were tested. The white students ranged in chrono- 
logical age from 16 to 25, range of I.Q. 91 to 128, average 112; the 
colored men ranged in chronological age from 16 to 35, range of 
I.Q. 76 to 125, average 103. A short bibliography is appended. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 



395. GIBSON, S. M., A Decision Study of 150 Young Men and 
Women. /. of Applied Psycho!., 4, 1920, 364-374. 

Seventy-five men and seventy-five women were given a Decision 
Test, the decision and the time of decision for each item was re- 
corded. The "decisions'* were classified into four grades. Each 
group of subjects took more time for decision on harder situations 
than on easier ones. The average time for women is greater than 
for men, the women had fewer mistakes than the men. On Grade 
I only one mistake occurred among the women and seven among 
the men; Grade II women 16 mistakes, men 32; Grade III women 
83, men 99; Grade IV women 135, men 164. The mistakes were 
distributed through most of the groups 72 men, 71 women. 

The correlations indicate higher accuracy with slower times 
and higher ratios, and lower accuracy with quicker times and 
lower ratios. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 



396. GORDON, E., and BAKER, H. J., Intelligence Tests and Aca- 
demic Standing. /. of Applied PsychoL, 4,1920, 361-363. 
Forty-four college students taking courses in elementary 
psychology were given the Stanford revision of the Binet test and 
the correlation of the I.Q. and grade in other subjects was obtained. 
The coefficients tend to be positive, but low. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

397. DOLL, E. A., The Growth of Intelligence. Psychol. Mono., 
1920, 29, No. 2, 130 pp. 

Doll here presents the first thorough investigation yet made of 
the growth of intelligence. The original data were obtained by 
applications of the Binet scale, chiefly the Goddard revision, 
through a period of ten years at the Vineland Training School. 
The literature of intelligence testing and the data of other investi- 
gators have been freely drawn upon. The report consists of a 
theoretical discussion of the problem; data and their interpretations 
concerning feeble-minded and superior children; a critique of the 
I.Q. 

The preliminary discussion suggests serious modifications of the 
accepted curve of intellectual growth, and presents tentative 
curves for average normal, feeble-minded, and superior cases. 
13.5 years is suggested as superior to 16 years for the average adult 
level of intelligence. 

Data are presented for 203 cases of feeble-minded subjects 
tested at intervals through a period of 3 to 8 years. Objective 
rules are developed and followed for scoring incomplete exami- 
ations. Conclusions are drawn that feeble-minded subjects reach 
their final age of arrested mental growth before 15 years of life 
age; that this age of arrest is a function of the final mental level 
attained; that the rate of growth prior to the final level of arrest is 
a decreasing variable and is a function of life age. 

Superior children show great individual variability in their 
rates of intellectual growth. Between the life ages of 9 and 13 
their rate of growth is low when mental age and degree of acceler- 
ation are high, and vice versa. 

In the case of normal individuals, Doll's final theoretical growth 
curve shows an increasing rate of growth from birth to life age 7.5, 
and a decreasing rate of growth from 7.5 to 13.5, when the adult 
level is reached. This curve is supported more by theoretical 
considerations than by experimental data. 

The I.Q. fails in revealing significant changes in rate of growth. 
Terman's contention that the I.Q. is approximately constant for 
life ages 4 to 16 is vigorously attacked, and its usefulness as a 
measure of prognosis is challenged. It is contended that there is 
no sufficient means of prediction of intellectual growth in advance 
of repeated examinations. 

The most valuable features of this study are the theoretical 
discussion of intellectual growth, the mass of data on the feeble- 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 339 

minded, and the critique of the I.Q. The attack upon the 
constancy of the I.Q. in the case of normal individuals needs 
experimental justification. This research should stimulate further 
investigation in its field. 

PECHSTEIN (Rochester) 

398. REAMER, J. C., Mental and Educational Measurements of 

the Deaf. Psychol. Mono., 1921, 29, No. 3, 130 pp. 

After devoting some time to the history of the education of 
the deaf and psychological investigations with regard to the deaf, 
Reamer directs attention to the standardization of tests, employing 
both a non-language or mental scale, and an educational scale, all 
these being adaptations of well-arranged and standardized scales. 
Children in fifteen state institutions and eleven public day schools 
are given the two tests, with statistical results being computed 
largely in percentile form. Mental and educational indices are 
struck. Marked differences between the two point out individuals 
or schools either making proper use of the mental calibre of pupils 
or wasting good material. Charts for the use of teachers and 
superintendents of the blind are drawn up, and considerable com- 
parison is made of manual and orally taught blind students, the 
congenital deaf and the adventitiously deaf, partial and totally 
deaf, etc. No significant sex differences either in mental ability 
or educational attainment are found between deaf boys and deaf 
girls. The average difference in mental ability between hearing 
and deaf children is found to be about two years; in educational 
ability, the deaf child is retarded about five years when compared 
with the hearing child, with an average grade retardation of about 
three and a half grades. The mental and educational retardation 
is assigned to the language handicap. 

This monograph is of extreme value for teachers of the deaf 
and, paralleling the work of Best and Hint for the blind, furnishes 
valuable chapters in the psychology of the sense organ deprivatee. 

PECHSTEIN (Rochester) 

399. ROOT, W. T., A Socio-Psychological Study of Fifty-three 

Super-normal Children. Psychol. Mono., 1921, 29, No. 4, 

134 PP- 
The investigation aims to trace out some of the factors, both 

social and psychological, found with a group of children purported 
to be superior. The psychological aim calls for the employment of 



34 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

the Stanford Revision of the Binet test and a large number of 
psychological tests, with an endeavor to determine the mental 
differences marking the superior child. The social aim demands 
the evaluation of the cultural conditions of the home, social and 
educational factors which have been operative in producing a 
superior type of adjustment, all in the light of school data and health 
data. Children from seven to twelve years with I.Q.'s of 135 or 
more were required, as well as thirteen to fifteen years with I.Q.'s 
of 1 20 or more. Control groups were established. The superior 
group surpasses the normal group both in the Binet and psycho- 
logical tests, these tests correlating .778 for the superior group. 
Great individual differences among the superior children are shown, 
both in speed and accuracy. High quantitative scores tend to 
accompany high qualitative scores. Various character traits of 
endurance, zeal, critical attitude towards the work, etc., are shown. 
The superior children are moral to a high grade and are good 
conformists. The school records are excellent, superior health 
characterizes the group as a whole, and the home influences are 
unusually sound. 

In endeavoring to account for the high I.Q.'s and mental ages, 
the writer is of the opinion that, "given average native ability, 
a sum total of factors, consisting in superior training, health, social 
milieu, etc., could readily inflate practically all performances; that 
superiority of the present group in health and in certain phases of 
training and environment is in most cases a fact beyond dispute, 
while native ability much beyond average is a matter of speculation." 
He doubts whether there is anything in the nature of any of the 
tests used to warrant assertion of superiority beyond immediate 
cleverness. He conceives genius as possessing merely the same 
characteristics we all possess, only in a markedly superior degree; 
and while it seems to him that the evidence warrants attributing 
some superior innate ability to a very great majority of the cases 
presented here, more than that he cannot say. Genius is conceived 
as being the result of a peculiarly fortunate blending of ability, 
temperament, character, opportunity and the stamp of social 
approval. 

The monograph makes sane and stimulating reading for psychol- 
ogists not already too overburdened by the extensive literature so 
rapidly appearing in this field. 

PECHSTEIN (Rochester) 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 341 

400. GARRISON, S. C., Fluctuations of Intelligence Quotient. Sck. 

and Soc., 1921, 13, 647-648. 

The Binet-Simon test (Goddard revision of 1911) was given to 
94 children in the third, fourth, fifth and sixth grades in' 1917-18. 
Three years later 62 of these children were retested by the Stanford 
revision. These children are from the better classes, and form 
rather a selected group. An error of one or two points is present in 
most of the I.Q.'s from the first test, because exact dates on which 
tests were made are not available. The examiners in both series 
of tests had practically no previous experience in testing. The 
chronological ages, mental ages and I.Q.'s from the two series of 
tests were compared, showing the I.Q.'s in the later case to average 
1.4 points higher than in the former, with an average difference of 
4.66 between the I.Q.'s for the two dates. It was found that most 
of the large differences occur with very high or low I.Q.'s. In the 
higher ages a greater difference was found between the results of 
the two tests. "These two facts may be partially explained by the 
fact that the upper ages in the Goddard revision of the test are 
unreliable. For the ages where both revisions are reliable, there is 
a rather close correlation." 

GAW (Boston Psychopathic Hospital) 

401. MADSEN, I. N., Some Results from a Testing Program in 

Idaho. Sch. and Soc., 1921, 13, 668-671. 

The report is concerned with the results of three types of mental 
tests, i.e., (i) Haggerty Intelligence Examination, Delta 2; (2) 
Monroe Silent Reading; and (3) Monroe Arithmetical Reasoning 
Tests: applied to three classes of Idaho schools, i.e., larger and 
smaller city schools, and rural schools. The tabulation shows 
higher scores for the larger as compared with the smaller city schools 
in the first and second tests. The results of the reasoning test, 
however, tend to favor the smaller city schools. No rural school 
figures are given for the Haggerty. In the other two tests the rural 
schools rank somewhat below the other two classes. Study of age- 
grade distribution has been found valuable in reclassification. In 
general, the results focalize the question whether the reported 
differences may be essentially due to environmental or mentality 
differences, or both. 

NEWHALL (Wesleyan) 

402. MYERS, C. E., MYERS, G. C., and LAYTON, S. H., Group Mental 

Testing in Altoona, Pa. Sck. and Soc., 1921, 13, 624-628. 



342 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

The Myers Mental Measure has been given to 6,774 elementary 
school children of Altoona, Pa., in an endeavor to show the in- 
dividual differences existing among them. The struggle in the 
past has been for uniformity in teaching and disciplinary methods. 
It is now realized that every child is different, and that for his 
adjustment in the school accurate diagnosis of capacity and interest 
should be made. 

That this test is of value in measuring the learning capacity of 
children is proved by the results of the survey. Only 19 of the 
6,774 children failed to score. It is shown that for comparing 
grades and school systems, the raw score is more desirable than the 
intelligence quotient, while for classification within each grade, the 
intelligence quotient is the more desirable. Tables are made 
showing that the older children in the upper grades are of relatively 
low intelligence, that the farther on in a grade a given child of a 
given age has progressed, the higher will the rating be, and that 
the older a child is within a given grade, the lower will his intelligence 
quotient be. 

Some recommendations made are that opportunity classes be 
organized for the subnormal and supernormal children, that the 
intelligence quotients of all entering children be determined, and 
that promotions take place as often as necessary for each child. 

PROUTY (Wellesley) 

403. BELL, J. C., Group Tests of Intelligence. An Annotated 

List. /. of E due. PsychoL, 1921, 12, 103-108. 
The author presents a bewildering array of group tests of 
intelligence (thirty in all) that have been published within the last 
two years. Most of these tests are named after the authors, 
although in some cases there are Greek letter, names of cities and 
names of states. A cursory examination suggests that the content 
of all of them is very much alike. There is a real need for com- 
parison, analysis and evaluation of this material. 

POFFENBERGER (Columbia) 

404. FREEMAN, F. N., The Interpretation and Application of the 

Intelligence Quotient. /. of E due. Psychol., 1921, 12, 313. 

"The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relationship between 

the I.Q. as a measure of the mental capacity of the individual and 

the facts of mental development." The I.Q. as a measure of ability 

fits the Binet scale. Its application to other tests rests on two 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 343 

assumptions, namely, that the rate of mental development regularly 
decreases with advancing age and that the curves showing develop- 
ment of individuals of differing mental level diverge with advancing 
age. The writer presents evidence which casts suspicion upon the 
truth of both of these assumptions. 

POFFENBERGER (Columbia) 

405. PINTNER, R., and MARSHALL, H., A Combined Mental- 

Educational Survey. /. of E due. PsychoL, 1921, 12, 32-43; 

82-92. 

To determine whether a child is accomplishing in school what 
his capacity warrants, to determine whether a school system is 
accomplishing the results that the intelligence of its students 
warrants requires that the mental and educational survey be 
combined. The authors predict that such a measure will show 
the greatest wastage among the better pupils and among the better 
schools. The use of a short educational test and a non-language 
mental test (elsewhere described) is discussed. A new measure 
known as "The Difference" expresses the relation between per- 
formance in the mental and the educational tests. "The corre- 
lation of the same group of cases between mental and educational 
indices is .62, which shows that on the whole educational attainment 
tends to go with mental ability, but that there is plenty of room 
for improvement, and therefore plenty of work for the psychologist 
to do in helping to adjust the child to the work he requires." The 
authors discuss the results obtained from the use of the combined 
mental-educational survey in 56 schools. Charts are presented 
showing how records are to be interpreted, in studies of classes, 
schools and school systems. Reasons are given for discrepancies 
between education and mental status, and remedies suggested for 
the various conditions. 

POFFENBERGER (Columbia) 

406. CHASSEL, C. F., and CHASSEL, L. M., A Survey of the Three 

First Grades of the Horace Mann School by Means of 
Psychological Tests and Teachers' Estimates, and a Statis- 
tical Evaluation of the Measures Employed. /. of Educ. 
Psychol., 1921, 12, 72-82; 243-253. 

This is an investigation of methods of classification and pro- 
motion in school grades, which should provide more homogeneous 



344 MENTAL DEFELOPMENT IN MAN 

groups. Five measures were employed, as follows: Individual 
examination (Stanford Revision), Pressey Primer Scale, Meyer 
Tests, and ratings by teachers in maturity and reading ability. 
The results of each of these tests were expressed in terms of mental 
age and a composite score was obtained by averaging these mental 
ages. The survey showed a wide range of mental age within any 
one division of the first grade, and much overlapping among the 
three divisions. It showed very clearly also the tendency to 
promote on the basis of chronological rather than mental age. 
The composite score was taken as the basis for formation of the 
three divisions of the first grade for the following year. 

The methods of obtaining the composite score are discussed in 
detail, and the coefficients of correlation showing the relation 
among the five measures making up the composite score are given. 
The most interesting figure is the correlation of .77 between the 
Stanford Revision and the group tests and teachers' estimates 
combined. Does this mean that a group test and teachers' esti- 
mates may make individual tests unnecessary? A correlation of 
.72 between Stanford Revision and teachers' estimates might 
suggest a further reduction of the measure to teachers' estimates 
alone. Some importance is attached to chronological age, general 
health, nervousness, etc., in making grade assignments. 

POFFENBERGER (Columbia) 



407. KOHS, S. C, The Block-Design Tests. /. of Exper. PsychoL, 

1920, 3, 357-376. 

This article develops an interesting point scale of intelligence 
on the basis of a performance test consisting of block designs built 
up from the colored blocks manufactured by the Embossing Com- 
pany. Seventeen designs of increasing complexity were used with 
a time limit on each varying from i}^ to 4 minutes. The actual 
working time of the test is 30 to 40 minutes. Both time and moves 
are recorded, and the results are reduced to a single score by a 
system of points. The maximum score is 131 points. Norms 
(more or less theoretical?) have been worked out from o at five 
years to 131 at twenty years. The correlations between Binet 
scores and Block-Design scores range around .80 (a remarkably 
close agreement for different types of mental tests). The corre- 
lation between teachers' estimates and the Block-Design I.Q. is 
only one-half as high as that between teachers' estimates and the 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 345 

Binet I.Q. The proposed test seems to be easily administered, 
easily scored, and capable of use in a large variety of different ways. 

BELL (New York University) 

408. DUNLAP, K., and SNYDER, A., Practice Effects in Intelligence 

Tests. /. of Exptr. Psychol., 1920, 3, 396-403. 
A class of forty-four men, most of them college seniors, was 
tested four times at intervals of three weeks by four forms of the 
Army "Alpha" composite test. The second, third and fourth trials 
give nearly the same results, but these are from 20 to 50 points 
above the results for the first trial. The practice effect is much 
greater for the lower half of the class than for the upper. The 
scores on the fourth trial were uniformly slightly lower than those 
on the third. The authors account for this on the ground that the 
students were beginning to get bored with the testing. They 
showed this by the manner in which they took the test. It would 
seem, therefore, that in single intelligence tests the duller subjects 
are handicapped by the novelty of the situation much more than 
the brighter ones, and that as a result their scores are relatively 
much lower than they would be if a considerable amount of practice 
were afforded the entire group. 

BELL (New York University) 

409. STRATTON, G. M., McCoMAS, H. C, COOVER, J. E., and 

BAGBY, E., Psychological Tests for Selecting Aviators. /. of 

Exper. Psychol., 1920, 3, 405-423. 

The new tests reported in this article are for muscular strength 
and endurance, rapidity of complex reactions, judgment of curves, 
learning and recall of pathways, and judgment of relative speed. 
In the judgment of curves there is a tendency to overestimate the 
distance. The distribution of the scores is very wide. In the 
estimate of relative speeds an interesting illusion developed, in 
that the speed of the slower moving object was always overestimated 
with respect to that of the faster. The correlations between the 
tests and aviation ratings were positive, but very low. This was 
due partly to the variability of the test scores and partly to the 
fact that the aviation ratings were influenced to a considerable 
extent by military, personal, social and other considerations, that 
were not directly connected with ability to fly. 

BELL (New York University) 



34 6 MENTAL DE VELOPMENT IN MAN 

410. DOUGLASS, C. E., Setting Up School Standards. Educ., 41, 

1921, 485-493- 

"We cannot standardize, we cannot regulate (Hereditary 
Abilities), but if we are gifted with a modicum of common sense 
or scientific spirit we can and will classify and teach youth as it is, 
and not as idealized we will educate what we get and not what 
we are supposed to have received." This article is a plea for school 
standards which ought to be determined "(i) by the educational 
aims, (2) by the demands of society as to the degree and the kind 
of proficiencies desired, (3) by the kind and degree of mental 
abilities of students." 

"Social needs will determine both the kind and the degree of 
proficiency in the fundamentals which we should attain. In the 
acquisition of these tools of learning, scientifically derived standards 
give sane balance in subject-matter and method and leave the 
largest possible amount of time free for growth in the efficient use 
of these tools." 

This article is a thoughtful presentation of the need of defining 
educational aims, which are related to social needs and which take 
into account practical considerations. Differentiation in the 
course of study, revision of teaching method and educational 
guidance, based on a knowledge of the pupils' capabilities, should 
make for a much better realization of our educational aims. 

MAXFIELD (Harrisburg) 

411. UHRBROCK, R. S., Vocational Psychographs. Educ., 41, 

1921,510-515. 

An inadequate treatment of the subject without originality or 
suggestion. 

MAXFIELD (Harrisburg) 

412. MULFORD, H. J., The Child Mind. Amer. J. of Psychol., 

1921,32, 179-^95- 

The child-mind is to be understood in terms of its physical 
basis, the child-brain. The human brain is the seat of conflict 
between the Past and the Present, between heredity and environ- 
ment, between reflex action and mind. An examination of the 
development of the brain through the various pre-human forms 
shows the path through which man's brain has developed. The 
child-brain is, m structure and activity, an animal brain, but it is 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 347 

born to be developed into a man-brain. The child-mind, then, is 
a primitive mind, just as the child-brain is a primitive brain. In 
the development of the child-mind and the child-brain into a man- 
mind and a man-power brain, the two factors of heredity and en- 
vironment are in conflict. The problems of the child-mind are a 
result of this conflict. RICH (Pittsburgh) 

413. ABBOTT, A., and TRABUE, M. R., A Measure of Ability to 

Judge Poetry. Teachers Coll. Rec., 1921, 22, 101-127. 
Two series of 13 sets, each set containing 4 poems, are presented, 
the merit of each poem being known from judgments of experts. 
Each series forms a measuring scale for ability to judge poetry. 
Data obtained by its use in schools and colleges are given. 

GATES (Teachers College) 

414. BRIGGS, T. H., KELLY, T. L., and others, Sixteen Spelling 

Scales. Teachers Coll. Rec., 1920, 21, 337-391. 
These authors have supplemented the Ayres List of one thousand 
words most frequently used in correspondence, by securing the 
second and third thousand. The words are printed with the 
frequency of occurrence on a basis of 100,000 running words. The 
spelling difficulty of each was determined by methods described 
and 16 lists of 20 words each, of equal spelling difficulty are arranged 
in sentences for spelling tests in high schools. 

GATES (Teachers College) 

415. McCALL, W. A., A Uniform Method of Scale Construction. 

Teachers Coll. Rec., 1921, 22, 31-51. 

The author proposed that the mean performance of twelve- 
year-olds be taken as a reference point and that 5 S.D. be 
considered the zero point. The scale is then built up by the use 
of fractions of the S.D. of the twelve-year-olds as units. Various 
tables to assist in computation are presented. 

GATES (Teachers College) 

416. BRIGGS, T. H., An English Form Test. Teachers Coll Rec. t 

1921, 22, 1-12. 

Two forms of a test consisting of 20 sentences each without 
capital letters, commas, apostrophes, and end punctuations. Stand- 
ard achievements by pupils of Grades VII, VIII and IX are given. 

GATES (Teachers College) 



348 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

417. JUDD, C. H. Analysis of Learning Processes and Specific 

Teaching. Elem. Sch. /., 1921, 21, 655-664. 
Describes and recommends certain types of analytical work in 
studying the learning process in the case of school subjects. 

GATES (Teachers College) 

418. GRAY, W. S., The Diagnostic Study of an Individual Case in 

Reading. Elem. Sch. /,, 1921, 21, 577-594. 
An elaborate study of a case of backwardness in reading by 
means of the photographic records of eye movements, and various 
educational and psychological tests. The remedial measures are 
described. 

GATES (Teachers College) 

419. GERMANE, C. E., The Value of the Corrected Summary as 

Compared with the Re-reading of the Same Article. Elem. 
Sch. /., 1921, 21. 

Students, Grades V-IX, recall from 4 per cent, to 20 per cent, 
more of an article when read and re-read than when the original 
reading is followed by writing summaries or outlines and checking 
these against the original. 

GATES (Teachers College) 

420. ANDERSON, C. J., and MERTON, E., Remedial Work in Silent 

Reading. Elem. Sch. /., 1921, 21, 336-348. 
Describes the use of standardized tests in locating the causes of 
backwardness in reading and various pedagogical devices for 
successfully remedying the difficulties, where ordinary instruction 
had failed. 

GATES (Teachers College) 

421. PRESSEY, S. L., An Attempt to Measure the Comparative 

Importance of General Intelligence and Certain Character 
Traits in Contributing t,o Success in School. Elem. Sch. /., 
1920, 21, 220-227. 

By the use of the technique of partial correlations it appears 
that various traits described under "school attitude" influence 
school success about as much as intelligence. A rating scale for 
"school attitudes" is proposed. The study was based on 116 
Seventh Grade pupils. 

GATES (Teachers College) 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 349 

422. PARKER, S. C., Problem Solving or Practice in Thinking. 

Elem. Sch. /., 1920, 21, 16-25, 98-111, 174-188, 257-272. 
A series of articles on the thinking process written especially 
for teachers. In Section I, the importance of problem solving in 
social life and its appeal to children's interests are considered. 
Samples of useful problems are given. Section II presents illus- 
trative school lessons for stimulating thinking. Section III is a 
biographical study of how eminent men think they think. Section 
IV presents rules for training pupils in problem solving. The 
general treatment of thinking is very similar to that presented by 
Dewey in "How we Think." 

GATES (Teachers College) 

423. WIRTS, K. E., An Echo from One Special Class. Training 

Sch. Bull., 18, 1921, 11-14. 

Work in a special class of the Comenius School, Omaha, Neb., 
is described. 

E. MULHALL ACHILLES 

424. PRESSEY, S. L., Suggestions Looking toward a Closer Contact 

with Practical Problems in Work with Educational Tests. 

Sch. and Soc., 1921, 13, 711-716. 

The intention of this paper is to call attention to three current 
methods of statistical procedure whose applicability to educational 
tests is questioned. The first criticism is of the organization of an 
educational test, according to the difficulty of the items. Results 
from a test so organized are often interpreted as if child's under- 
standing of the subject had been tested, whereas, actually, an item 
may have been hard not because it was important for understanding 
of subject, but because it was of so little importance the teacher 
did not stress it; or again it may have seemed easy because it was an 
item of common knowledge. The second criticism is of the use of 
the median or some other measure of central tendency for sum- 
marizing the results from a group. Methods of summarizing test 
data should take account of the fact that educational administration 
is interested in minimal requirements for passing rather than 
median achievement of a class. Comparison of schools as to 
passing point by means of tests would be of practical importance, 
whereas median score of a given class would be of but incidental 
interest. Finally, a statement of the standing of a given case in 



35 MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 

terms of percentile rank, deviation from median, or otherwise in 
terms of the results on the same test is not nearly as helpful as would 
be some statement as to whether his score has in actual practise 
been made by pupils whom it was found desirable to pass. Method 
chosen should indicate for various scores the extent to which such 
scores have been earned by those prepared for the next grade. 
LOWDEN (Boston Psychopathic Hospital) 

425. THORNDIKE, E. L., The Constitution of Arithmetical Abilities. 

/. of E due. PsychoL, 1921, 12, 14-24. 

When the mental functions involved in arithmetical learning 
are reduced to their lowest terms, they are found to consist of 
elementary bonds or connections. The problem of teaching arith- 
metic becomes the problem of choice of bonds to be formed, the 
discovery of the best order in which to form them and of the best 
means of forming them. Numerous illustrations are furnished of 
the type of bonds required for the simple arithmetical operations. 
The formation of right habits (bonds) should precede, and in the 
case of dull pupils, supplant deductive reasoning, for with all save 
the brighter pupils, the bonds are more needed for an understanding 
of the definitions than the definitions are needed for the formation 
of the bonds. "The economical way to get an understanding of 
arithmetical principles is not, usually, to learn a rule and then apply 
it, but to perform instructive operations and, in the course of per- 
forming them, 'to get insight into the principles." 

POFFENBERGER (Columbia) 

426. PRESSEY, L. W., and PRESSEY, S. L., A Critical Study of the 

Concept of Silent Reading Ability. /. of Educ. Psychol., 

1921, 12, 25-31. 

"Is either the form or the content of the matter read an im- 
portant conditioning factor in silent reading?" The tests of 
general silent reading ability are badly mislabeled, because the 
nature of the material read is a dominant feature in the situation. 
This is shown by a comparative study of four reading scales made 
from the material of current scales and representing general (two 
scales), scientific and poetry material. The highest correlation 
between scales (exclusive of the two general ones which gave a 
coefficient of .85) was .56 for the scientific and poetry material and 
the lowest was .3 1 for general material and poetry. The results of 
this study indicate a need for a reformulation of the silent reading 
problem. POFFENBERGER (Columbia) 



MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAN 35 1 

427. HENMON, V. A. C., An Experimental Study of the Value of 

Word Study. /. of Educ. PsychoL, 1921, 12, 98-102. 
An experimental study was made of the effectiveness of an 
intensive study and analysis of words as compared with the regular 
high school work in English composition and literature. Two 
groups of students, one receiving the first and the other receiving 
the second form of training, were given 5 tests which should measure 
improvement in ability to use words discriminatingly, to define 
them accurately, and read difficult prose understandingly. The 
tests were Terman's Vocabulary, Thorndike's Visual Vocabulary, 
Trabue Completion Scale L, Thorndike's Intelligence Examination 
Part III, la and ib, and a special list of 25 words. In all of these 
tests the word study group made better records. The author then 
raises the question as to the ultimate value of the two methods of 
training, finds it dependent upon what the purpose of courses in 
English is thought to be, and this in turn dependent upon one's 
educational philosophy. 

POFFENBERGER (Columbia) 

428. BURTT, H. E. Sex Differences in the Effect of Discussion. 

/. o/Exper. Psychol, 1920, 3, 390-395. 

Munsterberg has stated on the basis of experimental evidence 
that men profit more from discussion of a doubtful objective 
situation than do women. As a by-product of another investigation 
the author offers interesting evidence on this point. In an experi- 
ment in which the subject lied or told the truth about an imaginary 
crime a group of persons judged his veracity by his observable 
reactions during the examination. After five minutes' open 
discussion a second judgment was made. Judgments were obtained 
from 156 men and 88 women. The men and women were members 
of the same college class. There was a considerable tendency to 
change one's decision as a result of the discussion, but the change 
was in the wrong direction about as often as in the right. There 
were no sex differences observed in the ability to profit by the 
discussion. There was a constant tendency to consider too fre- 
quently that the subject was lying. The author suggests that 
the difference between his results and Miinsterberg's may be due 
to the fact that in the latter case the women were an unselected 
group of undergraduates, while the men were a selected group of 
graduate students. 

BELL (New York University) 



3S 2 MENT4L EVOLUTION 

12. MENTAL EVOLUTION 

429. WHEELER, G. C., The Photo tropism of Land Snails. /. of 

Comp. Psychol., 1921, I, 149-154. 

It had been stated by one investigator (Yung) that the struc- 
turally well-developed eye of the land snail, Helix pomatia L., is 
functionally blind, although at least one other previous investigator 
had believed that this species is phototropic. Wheeler set for 
himself the task of ascertaining whether or not the land snail, 
Helix aspersa Mull., prevalent in Georgia, is phototropic. Ten 
individuals were used in the experiment, but two of them were 
later disregarded, one being indifferent and the other being too 
sluggish for experimental work. A wooden box, painted black on 
its inside (situated in a dark room), contained suspended a 12- 
candle-power electric lamp; in front of the lamp, at a distance of 
15 cm., there was a black card-board screen or diaphragm containing 
an aperture, 2.5 cm. in diameter, to admit light to the snail situated 
another 5 cm. beyond the aperture on a level with it. Between 
the lamp and the black screen was suspended a white sheet of 
paper whose function was to distribute equally the light through the 
aperture and on the snail. The axis of the snail's body was arranged 
perpendicular to the direction of the light rays. A turn toward 
the light was considered a positive tropism and a turn away from 
the light was considered a negative tropism; no movement, or a 
turn away and back again, or a turn toward the light and then 
away, were considered indifferent reactions. With all eight 
individuals, very definite and highly numerous negative photo- 
tropisms were found. In order to further substantiate his results, 
the investigator dissected both eyes from each of several individuals, 
and the blind individual at once became indifferent to the light. 
Then the experimenter dissected one eye, in some individuals the 
right, in other individuals the left; and, on the blind side, that is, 
when the blind side was toward the light, the organism was indif- 
ferent; and, when the good eye was toward the light, the organism 
became at once negatively tropic. Further experiments were 
conducted to find out whether or not these snails were being in- 
fluenced by the heat emanating from the electric lamp; it was 
discovered that not only were they indifferent to the heat of the 
lamp but were also indifferent to a greater amount of heat trans- 
mitted into the box by a steam pipe for the purpose. 

CROSLAND (Oregon) 






Vol. 18, No. 7. July, 1921 

THE 

PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN 



GENERAL REVIEWS 

HUMAN INSTINCTS 

BY E. N. HENDERSON 

Adelphi College 

Recent papers on instinct have emphasized the problems of (i) 
the nature of the instinct, (2) its relation to the so-called "uncon- 
scious" aspect of mental life, and (3) the method of its modification. 

i. On the nature of instinct the question as to whether it is to 
be regarded as a sensori-motor reaction or group of reactions of a 
specific sort or as a general tendency, disposition, function, need, 
or purpose constantly recurs. The latter, or teleological, point of 
view characterizes those who approach the subject from the stand- 
point of dynamic or social psychology. The former more analytical 
and mechanical conception finds favor especially with those who 
pride themselves on being "objective psychologists." Kantor (6) 
declares that the instinct is "the functioning of a connate potential 
reaction system which is organized from simple psycho-physiological 
dispositions to react to stimuli." This reaction system involves 
cognitive, conative, affective, muscular, neural and glandular 
factors. In this definition he discovers, he thinks, a workable 
compromise between the "inert structuralism" of Thorndike's 
view and the "mystic potencies" of McDougall. Thorndike's 
"specific" theory requires that man act exactly like the animal. 
It leaves no room for the development of behavior. He analyzes 
and catalogues only instincts and neglects "instinctive behavior." 
The latter is particularly characteristic of man. It is a growth 
from original responses. Into its constitution is engrafted the 
results of previous experience. This involves a modification not 

353 



354 E. N. HENDERSON 

only of reactions but also of cognitive and emotional content. It 
comes to have an "end," which is not there in the beginning but is 
"gratuitously imposed on the situation" as a result of experience. 
Thus we excape McDougall's "metapsychological" speculative 
instincts, and at the same time get a description of the facts of 
human development. One wonders whether Kantor has really 
escaped these permanent instinctive dispositions. What else 
constitutes the bond of unity which guides his developing instinctive 
behavior? If an instinct is a function, must it not when understood 
be seen to have an end which is not "gratuitously imposed" from 
without, but is all along directive in its development? 

The instinctive, psychical disposition finds its most elaborate 
exposition in Drever's work on Human Instincts. In a recent 
article (2) he develops the theory. The psychical includes dis- 
positions and experiences. The former are unconscious, but they 
afford the basis for the psychical integration which is the essence 
of conscious life. Tolman (n) calls these dispositions "determining 
adjustments." He regards behavior as made up of (i) independent 
reflexes which act mechanically, (2) subordinate acts which include 
an enormous number of reactions which go into larger groups 
dependent on the general "set" of the organism, and (3) determining 
adjustments which control the subordinate acts. The last con- 
stitute the instincts. They are active when conduct is variable, 
and direct the choice of the subordinate acts that shall prevail. 
They are the basis of purpose, which is present wherever there 
is an apparent struggle toward their satisfaction. This view, 
Tolman holds, is identical with that of Perry (9), except that the 
latter regards learning as the criterion of purpose, while he looks 
upon the struggle toward satisfaction, even though there may not 
be learning, as purposive. Perry contends that Watson's attempt 
to explain learning by the laws of frequency and recency is unsuc- 
cessful. The controlling impulsion of an aufgabe, an instinctive 
propensity, a "set of the mind," as Thorndike calls it, is necessary 
to bring any experimental process to a conclusion. The docile 
organism possesses as springs of action (i) more deep seated, 
sustained and general propensities and (2) more superficial, tran- 
sitory and specific ones. The former, we may presume, constitute 
the fundamental instincts. They lie behind all purposive, or 
teleological, activity. 

Much of the difficulty in regard to the nature of instinct springs 
from the fact that the term has for a long time meant a type of 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 355 

motor reaction rather than a subjective attitude or physiological 
disposition which renders its possessor uneasy until its cravings are 
satisfied. James's definition of instinct as a tendency to act may be 
partly responsible for this, although the use of the term in descrip- 
tions of animal behavior inevitably fixes attention on the outward 
activity as the essence of the instinct. James's list of instincts, it 
will be remembered, includes items as far apart as crying, biting or 
sneezing on the one hand and curiosity and sociability on the other. 
Dunlap (5), after pointing out the variety of usages which may be 
found for the term, suggests that we abandon it and substitute 
instead the expression "instinctive activity." He holds that 
ideological classifications of instincts in social psychology "stack 
the cards" in favor of certain explanations. The physiological 
classification he holds to be the only one possessing scientific 
validity. 

2. The subject of Instinct and the Unconscious was treated in a 
symposium held at a joint meeting of the British Psychological 
Society and the Aristotelian Society: The discussion was opened by 
Rivers (10), who proposed as a criterion of instinctive behavior an 
"all or none" quality. "All or none" reactions are not graduated 
in their intensity by a perception of the magnitude of the emergency. 
They occur, if they occur at all, in an immediate and uncontrolled 
manner. They are probably initiated in the thalamic region, and 
may be called protopathic in contrast to the epicritic reactions. 
This original, instinctive, protopathic activity is overlaid and sup- 
pressed by the epicritic, graduated type of behavior which results 
from the growth of experience and the development of the cerebrum. 
It survives in a dissociated and unconscious form, to again crop out 
when controlling forces are weakened as in sleep, hypnotism or ill- 
health. Myers (8) points out that in the normal developed indi- 
vidual the "all or none" character is found only in certain spinal 
reflexes. When, however, cerebrum is separated from thalamus 
reflex action becomes diffuse, gradeless, exaggerated, "all or none." 
It follows that instinct is not wholly separated from intelligence, 
as Rivers thinks, but that protopathic elements in consciousness 
are fused with rather than dissociated from epicritic ones. They 
may when incompatible oppose and banish each other, but this is 
not the ordinary relation. In dreams, sleep or loss of control the 
person does not become wholly protopathic, or "all or none." 

Jung (5) begins by agreeing with Rivers as to the "all or none 
character" of instinctive activity when considered biologically. 



356 E. N. HENDERSON 

However, he regards this criterion as psychologically inadequate. 
Instinct is an internal necessity. It is uniform and regular in its 
manner of operation, and in this respect differs from the "phobia" 
which is acquired by the individual, though like the instinct its 
control is unconscious. Jung distinguishes what he calls the 
"collective unconscious," which consists of the instincts and the 
"archetypes of apperception," the latter including Kant's a priori 
forms. The instincts motivate reasoning without our being a'.vare 
of it. Hence our rational conclusions are unconsciously predeter- 
mined by them. Similarly the "archetypes" lay the foundation 
for beliefs presumably rational, though often they may result in 
mere superstitions as in the ideas of magic power, spirits, demons, 
gods, etc. 

Drever defines instinct as "determinate conscious impulse 
which is not determined by previous individual experience and 
attitude." It tests back on innate psycho-physical disposition 
which is unconscious. It is also functionally dependent upon 
sub-personal or perceptual experience which is often regarded as 
unconscious in its control. Drever agrees with Rivers that instinc- 
tive action is by itself of the "all or none" character. He also 
agrees that it may continue to exist in the adult. In this respect 
he differs from Myers (8) and Wallas (12) who regard the acquired 
movements under the control of epicritic sensations as replacing 
instinctive action in the developed person. McDougall (7) disa- 
grees with the "all or none" criterion of instinctive activity since 
emotions which are instinctive have a variety of grades of expres- 
sion. He holds that instincts belong to the unconscious. They 
are based on the structure of the mind, and the nervous and bodily 
structure through which they operate are also innately laid down. 
They are the "great channels of creative energy." 

3. On the matter of the modification of the instinct two funda- 
mentally different views appear. One is that intelligent or epicritic 
conduct overlies and suppresses instinctive action. The other 
maintains that instinctive action persists though with modifications 
which are due to experience and which impose upon it a character 
finely graduated to the character of the circumstances. The 
former view is suggested by Rivers (10), the latter is insisted on 
by Myers, Wallas, Drever, McDougall and presumably Jung (5). 
Wallas interests himself in the method of controlling instinctive 
activities, and maintains that it is not, as Rivers thinks, by thrusting 
them into the unconscious but rather by lifting them up into 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 357 

consciousness to be encouraged or repressed according to their 
values. Hunter (4) defends the view that the modification of the 
instincts may take the form of sublimation. Woodworth had 
attacked this conception of Freud on the ground that it would 
involve the impossible consequence that the drive of the instinct 
should do work "foreign to its natural purpose." What really 
happens, he thinks, is that the supposedly sublimated impulse is 
inhibited by an antagonistic one. Hunter replies that sublimation 
is not a sudden outcome of an endeavor to control an unruly impulse, 
but an end-product of a slow process of modification in which the 
visceral acivity at the core of the original instinctive action remains 
but becomes associated with a new end socially more acceptable 
than that toward which the original instinct was directed. The 
visceral excitement may be of low intensity and not recognized by 
the subject in its new setting. 

Campbell (i) urges that a study of instincts and emotions would 
throw much light on disorders of the heart since the action of the 
heart has been shown by Cannon to have such an intimate con- 
nection with emotioilal conditions. A knowledge of a patient's 
instinctive and emotional history might be the clue to the diagnosis 
of any cardio-vascular difficulty under which he was suffering. 
Similarly a knowledge of heart conditions might throw light on 
psycho-pathological states. 

REFERENCES 

1. CAMPBELL, C. M. The Role of Instinct, Emotion and Personality in Disorders of 

the Heart. /. Amer. Med. Ass., 1918, 71, 1621-26. 

2. DREVER, J. Instinct and the Unconscious. Brit. J. of Psycho!., 1919, 10, 27-34. 

3. DUNLAP, K. Are there any Instincts? Psychol. Bull., 1920, 17, 40-41. 

4. HUNTER, W. S. The Modification of Instinct from the Standpoint of Social 

Psychology. Psychol. Rev., 1920, 27, 247-269. 

5. JUNG, C. G. Instinct and the Unconscious. Brit. J. of Psychol., 1919, 10, 15-25. 

6. KANTOR, J. R. A Functional Interpretation of Human Instincts. Psychol. Rev., 

1920, 27, 50-72. 

7. McDouGALL, W. Instinct and the Unconscious. Brit. J. of Psychol., 1919, 10, 

35-42. 

8. MYERS, C. S. Instinct and the Unconscious. Brit. J. of Psychol., 1919, 10, 8-14 

9. PERRY, R. B. Docility and Purpose. Psychol. Rev., 1918, 25, 1-20. 

10. RIVERS, W. H. R. Instinct and the Unconscious. Brit. J. of Psychol., 1919, 10, 

i-7- 

11. TOLMAN, E. C. Instinct and Purpose. Psychol. Rev., 1920, 27, 217-234. 

12. WALLAS, G. Instinct and the Unconscious. Brit. J. of Psychol., 1919, 10, 24-26. 



THE INHERITANCE OF MENTAL TRAITS 

BY ARTHUR I. GATES 

Teachers College, Columbia University 

At the time of the last review of inheritance of mental traits 
(1914) an active interest in testing the simple Mendelian formula 
by studies of the inheritance of feeblemindedness, insanity, consti- 
tutional defects, special abilities and disabilities was apparent. In 
1914, Thorndike (44), summarizing the earlier studies, questioned 
the usefulness of the simple Mendelian principles for explaining 
individual differences in intelligence on the assumption that more 
refined measures of the intellects of the "Kallikaks" for example 
would betray small and continuous variations within groups 
classified as "defective" and "normal." At about this time 
appeared a series of studies (30) embracing six volumes, from the 
English school of Pearson and his co-workers, showing that certain 
traits, -long supposed to be simple Mendelian units, were, in fact, 
finely graded. Pearson states for example that "albinism is a 
graded character, and we have every reason to believe that both 
in man and in dogs separate grades are hereditary." "Mendelism" 
it was asserted "is being applied wholly prematurely to anthropo- 
logical and social problems." Bringing up the dispute between 
Mendelian units and the Darwinian (Galton) notions of small 
variations continuously occurring, Heron (19), assistant director 
of the Galton Laboratory, in particular, criticised the tendency of 
American biologists in treating feeblemindedness as a unit char- 
acter. In a series of three articles (10), Rosanoff and Davenport 
defended their stand. Shortly, Pearson and Jaederholm (32) 
retorted by measures of the intelligence of school children in Stock- 
holm, and in a later article, Pearson (31), reviewing the conflict, 
suggested the need of more refined measures of intelligence before 
a solution could be attained. 

In 1914, Goddard's work (16), showing the results of careful 
measurements of intelligence, appeared. The author "confesses to 
being one of those psychologists who find it hard to accept the 
idea that intelligence ever acts like a unit character," but "since 
our figures agree so closely with Mendelian expectations and since 

358 



THE INHERITANCE OF MENTAL TRAITS 359 

there are few if any cases where the Mendelian formula does not 
fit the facts, the hypothesis seems to stand: viz., normal-mindedness 
is, or at least behaves like a unit character, is dominant and is 
transmitted in accordance with the Mendelian law of inheritance." 
From time to time articles have appeared attempting to square 
biological theory with the accumulating data. Collins (7), for 
example, assumes "many unit characters, which usually (but not 
always) cling together when transmitted." When they cling 
together in one group, the appearance is that of a single unit. 

On the whole, the dispute between the Galton school and the 
advocates of Mendelism has been largely due to mutual misunder- 
standing. Otis (28) has pointed out several quite different mean- 
ings attached to such terms as "unit characters," "lack of deter- 
miners," "feeblemindedness," etc. Morgan (25) believes that the 
Mendelian principles have fallen into disrepute chiefly because of 
failure to understand them. This author points out that Men- 
delism does not necessarily posit a single character for each 
trait, for example, Roman nose or feeblemindedness. Romanness 
of the nose is the result of many "units" or "factors" or "genes" 
which interact in various ways upon each other and upon "factors" 
relating to other traits. A later work (1919) (26) explains a modern 
theory in detail, which amounts to an enlargement and some 
modification of the original assumptions of Mendel. The ultimate 
elements "genes" or "factors" contained in but more numerous 
than the chromosomes contribute to each bodily trait. In the fly, 
Drosophila, for example, Morgan finds 50 different factors which 
affect eye color. Each part of the body is the product of many 
genes and "it may not be a very great exaggeration to say that 
every gene in the germ-plasm ... is instrumental in producing 
each and every part of the body." "The essential point here is 
that although each of the organs of the body may be largely a 
product of the entire germ-plasm, yet this germ-plasm is made up 
of units that are independent of each other in at least two respects: 
viz., in that each one may change (mutant) without the others 
changing, and in segregation and in crossing over, each pair is 
separable from the others." The nature of separation, crossing, 
sorting, linkage and interference of genes is discussed in detail. 
The monograph merits detailed study and promises much toward 
clearing up misunderstanding on the assumption of unit characters 
in explaining the inheritance of complex traits such as intelligence. 
No attempt is made to apply the theory to mental inheritance in 
man, however. 



360 ARTHUR I. GATES 

Other biologists have attempted this, but their efforts lack 
precision. Jennings (20), for example, says: "In man, with the 
24 diverse sets of characters, any single individual may produce 
4,096 different combinations of characters; and the number pro- 
ducible by two given parents runs up to more than 500,000." 
"Any combination is equally likely to occur" ... "as for mental 
characters, which depend on the interaction of many factors, . . . 
prediction is quite out of the question, save as a matter of general 
probability." "To be able to know beforehand from the character- 
istics of the parents which will be the characteristics of the offspring" 
has long been one of the dreams of science; but, "now we know 
that we never can know." "Who toiled a slave may come anew 
a prince in the next generation ; by the working out of recombinations 
in heredity." But, it is added "of course we know that gifted 
parents are much more likely to produce gifted children." 

Most workers perhaps agree with Otis (28); "whether feeble- 
mindedness (or any other trait) is best called a unit character or 
not is of no particular consequence. What we want to know is 
what we may reasonably expect from the mating of two given 
persons." 

Terman (41) gives no systematically arranged data on the point 
in his first book although the belief that native endowment is mainly 
responsible for intelligence as measured by the Stanford tests may 
be inferred repeatedly. The study of individual cases presented is 
convincing evidence. Terman states (p. 118), "exceptionally 
superior endowment is discoverable by the tests, however unfa- 
vorable the home from which it comes, and inferior endowment 
cannot be normalized by all the advantages of the most cultured 
home." The crucial test would be the constancy of the I.Q. since 
if intelligence as measured by the Stanford tests were subject to 
environmental influences, changes would be expected in re-tests. 
An examination of 435 I.Q. comparisons, made at intervals of from 
less than one year to more than five years, of children whose ages at 
the first test ranged from 3 to 15 years, shows (42) "that it makes 
little difference whether the child was bright, average or dull, how 
long an interval separated the tests or what the age of the child was 
at the earlier test." Fifty per cent, of the changes lie between the 
limits of a 3.3 decrease and a 5.7 increase, the average change being 
4.5 points in terms of I.Q. The correlation between the arrays of 
scores for the test and retest was + 0.933. Terman found that of 
59 children with I.Q.'s above 135 (av., 149.7), 53 P er cent - c ame 



THE INHERITANCE OF MENTAL TRAITS 3 61 

from fathers whose occupational status was class I (Taussig's 5 
occupational groups), 37 per cent, from class 2, 10 per cent, from 
class 3, none from classes 4 and 5. "The results indicate that 
parents of a grade of intelligence low enough to keep them in the 
unskilled or semi-skilled class are not likely to produce children of 
the grade of ability represented here." The group of 59 superior 
children were found to have 51 uncles "known to be superior," 37 
superior aunts, numerous cousins and remote relatives. Of 112 
parents for whom data was available, 52 (46.4 per cent.) were college 
graduates, 91 (81.2 per cent.) were graduates of high school. In 
the population at large the proportion of college graduates is prob- 
ably not more than one fortieth as high, and the population of high 
school graduates not more than one tenth as high. 

If the index of brightness obtained by other investigators 
remains similarly constant, the studies of intelligence as related to 
social status made by Soffiotti (37), Yerkes and Anderson (47), 
Bridges and Coles (i), Pintner (33), Streeter (40), Thorndike (39), 
Kornhauser (23) and others yield significant data concerning the 
inheritance of mental abilities. 

Miss Downey (14) finds that if both adults are "superior" 
according to Stanford-Binet index, 80 per cent, of the offsprings 
are "superior," whereas if but one parent only is superior, 33 per 
cent of the offspring are. Exact I.Q. measurements of children 
and their parents would undoubtedly lead to more exact principles 
of prediction. 

Cattell (4) has given two accounts of vital statistics of the 
thousand leading American men of science. The data regarding 
conditions unfavorable to abundant offsprings are analysed. Data 
concerning eminences among the relatives of scientific men have not 
yet been published. 

Several studies of heredity in the case of temperamental, 
emotional and instinctive traits have appeared. Davenport (n) 
attempted to formulate the carriers of traits which combine to 
form certain "temperaments" or "moods." There is in the germ- 
plasm a factor E which induces excitability and its absence, e, 
which results in calm, a factor C which produces cheerfulness and 
its absence, c, which permits a more or less periodic depression. 
These factors behave "as though in different chromosomes so that 
they are inherited independently of each other and may occur in 
any combination." This hypothesis is tested in 89 families em- 
bracing 629 progeny with the result that the author is "morally 
certain" that it fits the facts. 



362 ARTHUR I. GATES 

Davenport (12) also makes an initial effort to trace the inherit- 
ance of "nomadism" or the "wandering instinct." The histories 
of 616 people, members of 100 families, were examined, leading to 
the hypothesis that the wandering instinct is an inherited but sex- 
linked recessive trait, like colorblindness, being more frequent 
among males. Williams (46) studied the family histories of 24 
nomadic delinquent boys, and of 24 non-nomadic delinquent boys. 
Of the 312 relatives of nomadic boys on whom reports were secured, 
30.4 per cent, were nomadic, whereas but i .2 per cent of 3 1 8 relatives 
of non-nomadic deliquents showed this trait. Williams' study 
harmonized with that of Davenport in showing nomadism to be 
closely associated with "various kinds of periodic behavior." 

An effort to trace the heredity of "lack of emotional control" 
led Finlayson (15) to a study of 754 members of the Dach family 
in Pennsylvania. Of 1 53 who attained the age of 20 and concerning 
whom data were secured, 40 were reported to have shown no 
marked anti-social behavior (though judged to be of low intelli- 
gence), 72 exhibited sexual irregularities, heavy drinking and 
"various evidence of degeneracy," 41 were insane, in penitentiaries, 
or in some way markedly inferior and socially unfit. Twenty of 
these had served in public institutions. "Lack of mental ability 
and nervous instability" is judged to have been at the bottom of 
the degeneracy pictured. The "quick temper" or "lack of emo- 
tional control" observed is said to "corroborate Dr. Davenport's 
theory that quick temper is a Mendelian dominant for the trait 
does not skip a generation." 

Few studies of the inheritance of special functions have appeared. 
Miss Cobb (6) attempted to measure the resemblance between 
parents and offspring in arithmetical ability. Twenty children 
and their parents were measured by five of Courtis' Standardized 
Tests, Series A. The arithmetical profiles were obtained by corre- 
lation, . ^., the figures correlated were not absolute scores but 
relatives between scores for the various tests obtained for the child 
and for each parent. The coefficient of resemblance of child and 
the like parent was + 0.60; with the mid-parent + 0.49, with the 
unlike parent -f- O.oi. The author concludes that "this likeness is 
due to heredity." The coefficients between absolute scores, for the 
five tests, averaged + 0.54 child and like parent, + 0.32 child and 
mid-parent, + 0.08 child and unlike parent. Miss Downey (14) 
finds that certain special abilities (from pattern tests, etc.) appear 
very early and show a family resemblance, although her data are 
limited. 



THE INHERITANCE OF MENTAL TRAITS 

During 1918-19 the American Genetic Association made an 
appeal for information from twins. Six hundred pairs of twins 
responded. A rich field for study was here provided. The early 
reports (21) include measures of resemblance of height, hair, color 
gait, susceptibility to disease, but so far no exact measures of 
mental traits have been reported. Starch (38) measured 18 pairs 
of siblings who were university students with a battery of educa- 
tional and mental tests. These tests were grouped into those which 
were assumedly subject to school training which yielded an average 
coefficient of + 0.42, whereas a group less susceptible to school in- 
fluence (memory, cancellation, geometrical forms and tapping) 
yielded an average coefficient of + 0.38. Since the coefficients were 
not reliably different, resemblance was attributed primarily to 
heredity. 

Davenport (13) reports an extensive study of the heredity of 
the disease, Huntington's Chorea. Nearly all of 962 choreics were 
traced to a half dozen individuals, including three brothers, who 
migrated to America in the seventeenth century. Detailed data 
are not given but it is stated that "the method of inheritance of 
some of the elements of Huntington's Chorea has been worked out. 
In general, the choreic movements never skip a generation and in 
other respects show themselves clearly to be a dominant trait." 
Rosanoff (36) in a survey of mental disorders in Nassau Co., N. Y., 
reports, without detailed data, that "heredity appears as a highly 
important factor." Bryant (2), summarizing a study of 20,000 
cases, states that 50 per cent, of stammerers show speech defects 
among near relatives and if the stammering appears very early, 
he did not find "an instance unless some blood relative had pre- 
viously shown disordered utterance." 

There has been some discussion of the transmission of acquired 
traits of behavior. Thorndike (43), reviewing the evidence, 
concludes that "the evidence is against the transmission of acquired 
mental traits." Watson (45) states "although, as yet, the evidence 
in favor of the inheritance of acquired characters is inconclusive, 
it is of sufficient importance to make it impossible to disregard 
entirely the possibility that such inheritance has played a large 
role in adaptive evolution." Chase (5) after a study of conditioned 
reflexes argues that "modifications in forms of behavior attended 
by intense and thorough integration of the organism are likely to 
be inherited." 

A number of books, some of them popular, have appeared on 



364 ARTHUR I. GATES 

eugenics and kindred subjects. Conklin (8) gives a sane discussion 
of heredity and environment in the development of men, Pearl (29) 
points out the usefulness of experimental and biometric methods 
of research. Guyer's (18) treatment of eugenics could scarcely be 
accepted by leading biologists in its treatment of Mendelian traits. 
Coulter (9) presents a conventional text suited to high school or 
college classes and Castle (3) has written an advanced text chiefly 
of interest to animal breeders. 

REFERENCES 

1. BRIDGES, J. W., & COLES, L. E. The Relation of Intelligence to Social Status. 

Psychol. Rev., 1917, 24, 1-31. 

2. BRYANT, F. A. Influence of Heredity in Stammering. /. of Hered., 1917, 8, 46. 

3. CASTLE, W. E. Genetics and Eugenics, Cambridge, Mass.; Harvard Press, 1916. 

Pp- 353- 

4. CATTELL, J. McK. Families of American Men of Science. Sclent. Mo., 1917, 4, 

248-262; 5, 368-377- 

5. CHASE, H. W. On the Inheritance of Acquired Modifications of Behavior. Amer. 

J. of Psychol, 1917, 28, 175-190. 

6. COBB, M. The Inheritance of Arithmetic Abilities. ' /. of Educ. Psychol., 1917, 

8, 1-20. 

7. COLLINS, G. N. Nature of Mendelian Units. /. of Hered., 1914, 5, 425. 

8. CONKLIN, E. Heredity and Environment in the Development of Men. Princeton: 

Univ. Press, 1915. 

9. COULTER, J. M. Evolution, Heredity and Eugenics, 1916. 

id. DAVENPORT, C. B., & ROSANOFF, A. F. Eugenics Record Office, Bulletin No. u. 
Pp. 44. Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y., 1914. 

11. DAVENPORT, C. B. The Feebly Inhibited, Inheritance of Temperament. Washing- 

ton, D. C., 1915, 71-158. 

12. DAVENPORT, C. B. The Feebly Inhibited, Nomadism, or the Wandering Impulse 

with Special Reference to Heredity. Washington, D. C., 1915, 1-27. 

13. DAVENPORT, C. B. Huntington's Chorea in Relation to Heredity and Eugenics. 

Amer. J. of Insan., 1916, 73, 195-220. 

14. DOWNEY, J. E. Standardized Tests and Mental Inheritance. /. of Hered., 1918, 

9, 311-314- 

15. FINLAYSON, A. The Dach Family. A Study in the Hereditary Lack of Emo- 

tional Control. Eugenics Record Office, 1916, Bull. 15. Pp. 46. 

16. GODDARD, H. H. Feeblemindedness. Its Causes and Consequences. New York: 

Macmillan, 1914. Pp. 599. 

17. GODDARD, H. H. The Menace of Mental Deficiency from the Standpoint of 

Heredity. Bost. Med. y Surg. J., 1916, 175, 269-271. 

18. GUYER, M. F. Being Well Born. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1916. 

19. HERON, D. Mendelism and Use Problem of Mental Defect I A. Criticism of Recent 

American Works. London: Dulan, 1913. 

20. JENNINGS, H. S., & OTHERS. Suggestions of Modern Science Concerning Education. 

N. Y., 1918. 
21. Journal of Heredity, 1919, 10, No. 9. 



THE INHERITANCE OF MENTAL TRAITS 365 

22. KELSEY, C. The Physical Basis of Society. New York: Appleton, 1916. Pp. 

406. 

23. KORNHAUSER, A. W. The Economic Standing of Parents and the Intelligence 

of Children. /. of Educ. Psychol., 1918, 9, 159-164. 

24. LING, P. Feeblemindedness and Heredity. Fed. Sent., 1918, 25, 1-22. 

25. MORGAN, T. H. The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity. N. Y., 1915. 

26. MORGAN, T. H. The Physical Basis of Heredity. Lippincott, 1919. 

27. ORDAHL, G. Heredity in Feeblemindedness. Training Sch. Bull., 1919, 16, 2-16. 

28. OTIS, A. S. Heredity and Mental Defect. /. of Delinq., 1916, i, 87-100, 125-128. 

29. PEARL, R. Modes of Research in Genetics. N. Y.: Macmillan, 1915. 

30. PEARSON, K., & OTHERS. Drapers Co. Research Memoirs. Biometric Series, 

vols. I-VI. 

31. PEARSON, K. Mendelism and the Problem of Mental Defect III on the Graduated 

Character of Mental Defect and the Need for Standardized Judgments. London, 
1914. 

32. PEARSON, K., & JAEDERHOLM, G. Mendelism and the Problem of Mental Defect II. 

The Continuity of Mental Defect. London, 1914. 

33. PINTNER, R. The Mentality of the Dependent Child, together with a Plan for a 

Mental Survey of an Institution. /. of Educ. Psychol., 1917, 8, 220-240. 

34. PRESSEY, S. L., & RALSTON, R. The Relation of the General Intelligence of School 

Children to the Occupation of their Fathers. /. of Appl. Psychol., 1919, 3, 366- 

373- 

35. RICHET, C. Le Selection Humaine. Paris: Alcan, 1919. Pp. iii + 259. 

36. ROSANOFF, A. J. Survey of Mental Disorders in Nassau Co., N. Y. Natl. 

Comm. of Mental Hygiene, 1917. 

37. SOFFIOTTI, F. Contribute allo Studio dei Rapporti tra e'Intelligenzo e i Fattori 

Biologico-sociali. Riv. di Antrop., 1915, 18, fasc. I, 2. 

38. STARCH, D. The Similiarity of Brothers and Sisters in Mental Traits. /. of 

Educ. Psychol., 1917, 24, 235-238. 

39. STENQUIST, J. L., THORNDIKE, E. L., & TRABUE, M. R. The Intellectual Status 

of Children who are Public Charges. Arch, of Psychol., 1915, No. 33. 

40. STREETER, L. C. Existing Conditions relating to Defectives and Feeblemindedness 

in New Hampshire. Report of N. H. Children's Comm., 1916. 

41. TERMAN, L. M. The Measurement of Intelligence. Houghton Mifflin, 1916. 

42. TERMAN, L. M. The Intelligence of School Children. Houghton Mifflin, 1919. 

43. THORNDIKE, E. L. Educational Psychology, Vol. I, The Original Nature of Man. 

New York, 1913. 

44. THORNDIKE, E. L. Educational Psychology, Vol. III. New York, 1914. 

45. WATSON, J. B. Behavior, an Introduction to Comparative Psychology. Holt, 1914. 

46. WILLIAMS, J. H. Hereditary Nomadism and Delinquency. /. of Delinq., 1916, 

i, 209-230. 

47. YERKES, R. M., & ANDERSON, H. M. Social Status and Mental Capacity. /. of 

Educ. Psychol., 1915, 6, 137-150. 



SUGGESTION 

BY CLARA HARRISON TOWN 

Philadelphia, Penna. 

It is somewhat difficult to set a limit to the subject matter to 
be reviewed under the rubric suggestion. Suggestion is truly 
insinuating and has played such a real part in many practical fields 
during the last few years that its story is told largely in the literature 
concerning the psychology of testimony, business psychology, 
educational psychology, hypnotism, and above all in the discussions 
of modes of treatment of the war neuroses and psychoses. As these 
subjects are covered by other reviews in the BULLETIN, we shall 
include articles in these applied fields only when their primary 
stress is upon suggestion. 

The controversy concerning what suggestion and suggestibility 
really are still persists. Janet (23) presents a detailed history of 
the concepts suggestion and hypnosis, with a critical discussion of 
the various connotations of the term suggestion and a study of the 
psychic conditions which adhere in the state of suggestibility. For 
Janet suggestion and suggestibility are strictly limited conceptions, 
they refer not to that ease of imposing and receiving ideas prevalent 
to a greater or less degree with all normal individuals, but to a 
distinctly abnormal phenomenon depending upon a narrowing of 
mental activity combined with a certain strengthening of autom- 
atism. He defines suggestion as a special reaction to certain 
perceptions, which reaction consists in an activation more or less 
complete of the tendency initiated by these perceptions, this 
activation not being completed by the collaboration of the rest of 
the personality. Thus two conditions are indispensable accept- 
ance of idea without reflection and an automatic activation of said 
idea. 

This definition is similar to Baudouin's (6) which accentuates 
emphatically the second, the automatic phase. But while Baudouin 
holds that such a phenomenon is producible in ninety-seven or 
ninety-eight per cent, of persons, Janet reports that he has succeeded 
in producing hypnotic suggestion in only two hundred and fifty of 
some thirty-five hundred patients, and that the greater number of 

366 



SUGGESTION 36? 

these two hundred and fifty were suffering from hysteria. Unin- 
duced states of suggestibility Janet thinks occur only in hysterics 
and induced states occur rarely except in persons suffering from 
this condition. 

Janet limits the automatic activation of suggestion to acts 
which under normal conditions could be voluntarily controlled. 
Coue (6) and Baudouin, on the other hand, believe that the auto- 
matic activity of suggestion extends to the control of movements 
of the vital organs, and as a consequence they assert the almost 
unlimited therapeutic value of suggestion. Janet is of the opinion 
that both the dangers and the benefits of hypnotic suggestion have 
been much exaggerated. 

Babinski and Froment (3) also identify suggestibility and 
hysteria. They believe that hysterical symptoms cannot be 
produced by emotional shock unaccompanied by suggestion and 
also that treatment by suggestion is almost a certain cure for 
hysterical symptoms. They further hold that their views were so 
well sustained by successful treatment of war neuroses that the 
Neurological Society was led by them to request the State Depart- 
ment that no soldier suffering from a psycho-neurosis be brought 
before a medical board with a view to discharge from the army. 
They claim further that treatment by suggestion consistently failed 
when applied to disorders of an organic nature or of a physio- 
pathic nature. 

Bumke (12) discusses suggestibility in connection with hysteria, 
and finds it possible through its use to influence complex mental 
conditions which are quite beyond the patient's voluntary control, 
and also to influence organic movements. 

Suggestibility in relation to hysteria is also discussed by Gordon 
(20). Following McDougall, suggestibility is defined as a readiness 
to accept propositions with a conviction which is not justified by 
logic and reason and is considered as innately present in all persons, 
varying in degree with individual differences and with objective 
conditions. Gordon states that pathological suggestibility is not 
essential for hysteria, that hysterical symptoms may arise on a 
basis of normal suggestibility if the external stimuli are very 
intensive. Hysterical symptoms arise rather as the result of the 
interplay of subjective and objective conditions. 

Very interesting and stimulating is Baudouin's (6) presentation 
of the contribution of the New Nancy School to therapeutics, to 
education and to psychological theory. The contribution to thera- 



368 CLARA HARRISON TOWN 

peutics is a clear-cut method of treating disease, with a remarkable 
series of cures effected thereby. The contribution to education is 
several methods not so clearly defined. The contribution to psy- 
chological theory is a definite conception of the mechanism of 
suggestion, its clarity somewhat veiled by an involved terminology 
and by the author's notion of the meaning of will, which he con- 
founds with desire and effort. 

Suggestion for Baudouin means the subconscious realization of 
an idea and involves two processes the acceptance of the idea 
by the subconscious and a subsequent ideo-reflex by which it is 
activated. This ideo-motor reflex is in truth an extension of the 
theory of ideo-motor force to include the realm of organic move- 
ments, the psychical aspect of organic movements being in Bau- 
douin's opinion subconscious or unconscious. Coue, the founder of 
the New Nancy School, and Baudouin, the exponent of its teachings, 
believe that an idea dwelt upon by a person in a state of slight hyp- 
nosis has power to realize itself in movements of the vital organs. 
If in this state a dyspeptic dwells upon the idea of a normal function- 
ing of his digestive organs, this idea has power to initiate organic 
move nents which tend to correct the existing trouble. It is 
difficult to conceive of an idea having the power to initiate move- 
ments of a kind which have never had a conscious aspect, but it is 
pointed out that Delboeuf holds that at a certain level in the course 
of evolution the individual was conscious of the movements of his 
vital organs, and that only at a late level in the phylogenetic series, 
owing to the increasing complexity of the mental life, were the 
organic sensations relegated to the subconscious. From this notion 
it is but a step to the idea that control of the organic movements 
by ideation might be achieved by an arousal of racial organic 
memories. 

In practice at Nancy deep hypnosis is abandoned and emphasis 
is shifted from suggestion to auto-suggestion. A few initial experi- 
ments are employed to demonstrate to the patient the principle of 
ideo-motor force and he is informed that the same mechanism 
applies to the movements of the vital organs. A slight hypnosis 
is then induced and suggestions given, the patient being told that 
the realization of these suggestions depends entirely upon his 
holding the ideas in mind, not in the least upon the practitioner. 
He is further told that he can repeat the proceeding quite as well 
by himself; this tends to increase self-respect and self-reliance, and 
gives an educative character to the whole procedure. 



SUGGESTION 369 

Emphasis is laid upon the fact that organic diseases are amenable 
to this method of cure, remarkable cures are cited, and it is stated 
that working with as many as one hundred cases per day Coue 
succeeds in leading ninety-seven per cent, to recovery. 

There is an attempt to correlate this philsosphy with Freudian- 
ism on the one hand and with Bergsonianism on the other: while 
the Freudians deal with the subconscious in the affective field and 
the Bergsonians with the subconscious in the field of intellection, 
the Nancy School deals with the subconscious in the field of action. 

Raymond (37) treats in a popular manner the application of 
autosuggestion to self-education, adapting his teachings to adults 
who find themselves inefficient and ineffective. 

Several writers report cases supporting the contention of the 
Nancy School that organic processes are amenable to suggestive 
influence. Courtier (15) claims to have secured changes in cuta- 
neous temperature through suggested emotions. Hadfield (21) 
unexpectedly produced a blister by suggesting a touch on the arm 
by a red hot iron. This was followed by a series of apparently 
well-controlled experiments on the same patient which included: 
successful repetition of first experiment, suggestion of touch of 
iron with added suggestion of no pain result: no blister; real 
burn with iron with suggestion of no pain result: rapid healing; 
real burn with iron result: difficult healing. The author con- 
cluded that the suppression of pain in pathological conditions is a 
valuable therapeutic measure, and that such suppression can be 
obtained through suggestion. Tombleson (42) reports a series of 
eighty cases of war neuroses treated by hypnosis. All but one 
were cured or relieved sufficiently to return to aictive service. 
Hyperthyroidism was among the conditions relieved. 

Boriac (10) is most open-minded as to possible therapeutic 
effects of suggestion. He defines suggestion as obedience, in- 
voluntary or even automatic to the idea which has been suggested; 
its essence is the subject's inability not to do and not to believe 
that which is said to him. In hypnosis normal suggestibility is 
increased to the point where absurdities are accepted. He sees 
no reason to impose limits as to possible results. 

Army experience has much increased the interest of physicians 
in suggestion and hypnosis. Dr. Southard (40) gives an analysis 
of the literature of war neuro-psychiatric problems, and concludes 
that the problem of suggestion in its true nature remains the big 
problem of psycho-pathology and psychology. He proposes that 



370 CLARA HARRISON TOWN 

someone make a similar analytic study of previous case literature, 
and place side by side the precisely identical results obtained by 
physicians, ecclesiastics, charlatans, and others, and ventures the 
guess that the whole situation depends upon suggestion. 

A number of physicians discuss the value of suggestion and other 
psycho-therapeutic measures in general practice. Yellowlees (43) 
states "if we decide that a patient's illness is due to wrong habits 
of eating we try to teach him right habits of eating, if we decide 
that his illness is due to wrong habits of thinking we give him 
bromide." He then discusses methods of teaching right habits of 
thinking as a substitute for the bromides treating of persuasion, 
suggestion, mental analysis, and re-education. He accentuates as 
do Bonne (9), Robertson (39), and Mathewson (27), that psychic 
factors are present and should be treated in all cases of illness of 
whatever character. Potts (33), Bonne (9), and Podiapolsky (32) 
consider suggestion a powerful agent in relieving pain of all sorts; 
Bonne cites the pains of neuralgia and inoperative cancer, and 
Potts the chronic pains as being amenable to suggestion, while 
Podiapolsky finds that on persons with whom deep hypnosis can 
be produced (estimated as seventeen per cent, of cases) surgical 
operations can be performed during hypnosis, painlessly and without 
interrupting sleep. He cites cases so treated in army hospitals. 
Potts finds suggestion valuable in dealing with insomnia and the 
vomiting of phthisis. He advocates a careful analysis of develop- 
ment of mental symptoms followed by appropriate curative sugges- 
tions. Mathewson holds the neglect of psycho-therapy by the 
physicians as responsible for the flocking of the public to Christian 
Scientists, osteopathists and healers of all sorts. Ladell (25) cites 
the fact that the nervous breakdown and hysterical symptoms 
suffered by so many soldiers during the late war familiarized 
physicians with these conditions and the psychic methods by which 
they were cured, and pleads for a transference of this knowledge 
and these methods to civil practice where exactly similar conditions 
abound. He advocates a judicious combination of all psycho- 
therapeutic methods. McAree (28) writes that a knowledge of 
applied psychology is as important for the physician as a knowledge 
of physiology, that physicians are apt, while considering the body 
as a machine, to neglect the vital force or fuel which makes the 
machine operative. He describes the subconscious mind as studied 
in upwards of one thousand cases of hypnosis. Although making 
this plea for a knowledge of psychology the lack of a sound psycho- 



SUGGESTION 371 

logical basis in the writer's own equipment is betrayed by such 
statements as "psychologically the brain consists of two parts, the 
conscious and the subconscious." 

Bannister (4) reports a case of profound amnesia and confusion 
in a soldier cured by hypnosis in which a description of the explosion 
of an aircraft bomb, which event immediately preceded the onset 
of the mental symptoms, was evoked. During the hypnotic sleep 
appropriate suggestions were given and on awakening confusion 
had disappeared and memory returned. 

Jeffrey (24) describes a case of depression with confusion cured 
by a single hypnotic treatment. 

Gandy (18) cured a case of fear of motorcycles in a young 
child by giving the child appropriate suggestions during natural 
sleep. 

Dr. Cartell (14) displayed unbounded faith in the curative 
powers of suggestion in his treatment of a man suffering from 
uncontrollable sleeping attacks which overcame him at the most 
inconvenient and inopportune times. The man was easily hyp- 
notized but the symptom failed to disappear under hypnotic 
suggestion an3 the following almost unbelievably drastic measures 
were resorted to. Dr. Cartell presented the case before an assembly 
of physicians, patient being present, diagnosing it as a case of 
pressure on the brain caused by the thickening of a small portion 
of the skull. He read a report of a similar case (fictitious) which 
had been completely cured by the removal of the thickened portion 
of the skull. The patient, much impressed, demanded the oper- 
ation, which Dr. Cartell performed, and complete recovery ensued. 

Dr. F. X. Dercum (16) in a revised and partially rewritten 
edition of a former work devotes one section to suggestion. The 
discussion has not, however, been brought up to date, autosug- 
gestion, for instance, is disposed of in one paragraph describing 
abnormal states into which certain hypnotizable persons drift 
involuntarily! The modern therapeutic uses of autosuggestion 
are not mentioned. Suggestion is denned as conveying to or 
arousing in the mind of another an idea in an unobtrusive manner. 

Dr. Hart (22), discussing methods of psycho-therapy, recognizes 
three fundamental principles suggestion, persuasion, and analysis. 
Suggestion he finds an ambiguous term and as he holds that sug- 
gestion is based primarily upon an affective factor, he suggests the 
term affective therapeutics as a substitute. In defining suggestion 
he accepts McDougall's conception (29) "suggestion is a process 



372 CLARA HARRISON TOWN 

of communication resulting in the acceptance with conviction of 
the communicated proposition, in the absence of logically adequate 
grounds for its acceptance," adding that this acceptance is due to 
the fact that conflicting processes which are or should be present 
are inhibited by affective complexes. The communication of a 
proposition by a second party is an integral part of this conception, 
as is also the idea that the resulting action has nothing whatever 
to do with the process of suggestion. The definitions of both 
McDougall and Hart deny both postulates of the definition of 
Janet and also that of Baudouin and run counter to Babinski's in 
attributing to affective processes the main power. McDougall 
considers suggestibility an innate tendency which varies with 
individuals and with the same individual under different conditions. 
The more highly educated the individual, and the stronger his self- 
assertive instinct, the less his degree of suggestibility, which however 
varies according to the proposition suggested, his state of mind at 
the time of suggestion, and the prestige of the suggester. 

The Relief of Pain by Mental Suggestion (5) is a little book 
written by a clergyman describing a healing mission in New York 
City inspired by Dr. Worcester's Emmanuel Movement. The book 
is popular in form and recognizes suggestion both in the waking and 
hypnotic states as a potent factor in curing maladies. 

Emma M. Caillard (13) also writes from the faith cure stand- 
point. She holds that cures by suggestion are effected by means 
of the implied faith and that faith as a curative agent is only com- 
pletely efficacious when it uses autosuggestion as its tool. 

Myers (31) describes the use of normal suggestibility in the 
education of service men during the late war. Letter writing was 
taught by means of model letters purporting to be written by soldiers 
to relatives and friends. These letters contained opinions and 
facts which were desirable for the soldier's mental equipment. 
When the pupils had learned enough to write letters on their own 
accounts it was found content as well as form of model letters 
had been accepted. 

Bonne (9) also holds suggestion to be a power in the education 
of soldiers while Gordon (20) in discussing individual differences in 
suggestibility states that the army discipline develops in soldiers 
tendencies which increase suggestibility and ventures the opinion 
that this fact may account for the great prevalence of hysterical 
symptoms among the soldiers during the World War. 

Prideau (36) presents an analysis of the conditions productive 
of variations in the degree of suggestibility. These conditions he 



SUGGESTION 373 

groups as individual differences, time and conditions, system of 
ideas appealed to, personality of operator. He finds suggestibility 
strongest in children, in egoists, in persons whose associations are 
predominantly of the contiguity type, and in persons living in 
warm countries. He finds that the psycho-galvanic reflex always 
shows that exaggerated suggestibility is accompanied by low emo- 
tional response. He thinks that could the converse be shown (low 
emotional response is always accompanied by increased suggesti- 
bility) we should have in the galvanic reflex a measure of the degree 
of suggestibility. The varying suggestive force of different ideas 
is explained as depending on previous predilections; affective 
conditions are held responsible for the variation in suggestibility 
with conditions; and differences in suggestive power of various 
operators is explained as depending upon the affective relations of 
the two persons involved. Affective states play an important 
role in Prideau's conception of suggestion. He explains sudden 
cures of hysterical symptoms by suggestion, by the substitution of 
one affective state for another. Abnormal states of suggestibility 
he considers as differing only in degree from normal suggestibility. 
W. Brown (u) presents an extensive experimental study of 
individual and sex differences in suggestibility, made at the Univer- 
sity of California. Tests were conducted by graduate students and 
subjects were students who were ignorant of the nature and purpose 
of the experiments. The experiments embraced several series 
testing the effect of suggestion on sensation, perception of change, 
memory of position, color preference; the Binet tests of progressive 
weights and progressive lengths; the fidelity of report test, the ink 
blot test, the size-weight, and the Miiller-Lyer illusions. Indi- 
vidual differences in suggestibility were not indicated by the results. 
Women were found to be more suggestible than men. 

Suggestibility, with and without prestige, is studied by Aveling 
and Hargreaves (2), by means of seven tests, some of which involve 
the personal suggestion of the experimenter and some of which do 
not. They find that the personal or prestige suggestions result in 
much contra suggestibility, while individual differences in suggesti- 
bility are marked, and that the impersonal or non-prestige sugges- 
tions give results the reverse of these. Suggestibility is found to be 
general rather than particular in nature and to be much influenced 
by environmental conditions and mental equipment. Correlations 
with many character traits and mental abilities are worked out, 
but no striking correlations found. 



374 CLARA HARRISON TOWN 

Langfeld (26) studied with five subjects the power of judging 
the emotions from facial expression. He used a series of one 
hundred and fifteen photographs each expressing a given emotion. 
The effect of suggestion on the judgments was studied by a sub- 
sequent presentation of the same pictures with a simultaneous 
statement of the emotion pictured. Marked individual differences 
were noted in the results of both series of tests, and there was no 
correlation between ability to judge of emotion and suggestibility. 

REFERENCES 

[Note: Titles marked with an asterisk (*) were not available to the reviewer, and 
are given here only for the sake of completeness.] 

1. *ARCHER, R. L. What is Suggestion? /. of Exper. Fed., 1919, 5, 7-17. 

2. AVELING, F., & HARGREAVES, H. L. Suggestibility with and without Prestige in 

School Children. Brit. J. of Psychol., 1921, 12, 53-75. 

3. BABINSKI, J., & FROMENT, J. (Trans, by J. D. Rolleston.) Hysteria or Pithiatism 

and Reflex Nervous Disorders in the Neurology of War. London: University of 
London, 1918. 

4. BANNISTER, H. S. Notes on a Successful Case of Treatment by Suggestion. 

Royal Nav. Med. Service, London, 1917, 3, 116. 

5. BATTEN, L. W. The Relief of Pain by Suggestion. N. Y.: Moffit, Yard, 1917. 

Pp. 157- 

6. BAUDOUIN, C. (Trans, by E. & C. Paul.) Suggestion and Auto-suggestion. N. 

Y.: Dodd, Mead, 1921. . 

7. *BERNHEIM, H. Automatism and Suggestion. Paris: Alcan, 1917, 157. 

8. *BERNHEIM, H. Des douleurs crees par autosuggestion, douleurs psychos-ner- 

veuses. Progres Med., 1918, 181-182. 

9. BONNE. Suggestion and Hypnosis in Practice. Dsch. med. Wchnschr., 1919, 45, 

132. (Review in /. Amer. Med. Ass., 1919, 72, 1579.) 

10. BORIAC, E. La suggestion comme fait et comme hypothese. Rev. Phil., 1916, 

82, 94-221. 

11. BROWN, W. Individual and Sex Differences in Suggestibility. Univ. of Cal. Pub. 

in Psychol., 1916, 2, 291-430. 

12. BUMKE. Suggestibility, psychogene Reaction und hysterische Charakter. Berl. 

klin. Woch., 1918, 55, 1185-1186. 

13. CAILLARD, E. M. Cure by Suggestion. Contemp. Rev., 1919, 116, 216-20. 

14. CARTELL, H. Hysterical Sleeping Attacks Treatment by Gross Suggestion Rein- 

forced by the Operation of Trephining. Lancet, 1919, 197, 1128-31. 

15. COURTIER, J. Recherches sur la temperature peripherique du corps pendant 

1'hypnose et les suggestions. Bui. de f Institute General Psychol., 1915, 15, 141- 

!5.3- 

1 6. DERCUM, F. X. Rest and Suggestion and other Therapeutic Measures in Nervous 

and Mental Diseases. Phila.: Blakiston, 1917. Pp. 395. 

17. *ENGELEN, P. Suggestion und Hypnose. Aerzll. Rundschau Miinchen, 1920, 30, 

147-167. 

18. GANDY, T. H. Suggestion during Natural Sleep. Brit. Med. J., 1919, 2, 632. 

19. *GAULT, R. H. Suggestion and Suggestibility. Amer. J. of Social., 1919, 25, 

185-194. 



SUGGESTION 375 

20. GORDON, R. G. Suggestibility and its Relation to the Psychology of Hysteria. 

Seale Hayne Neurol. Studies, 1919, i, 264. 

21. HADFIELD, J. A. The Influence of Hypnotic Suggestion in Inflammatory Condi- 

tions. Lancet, 1917, 2, 678-9. 

22. HART, B. Methods of Psychotherapy. Proc. Royal Soc. of Med., 1919, 12, 13-34. 

23. JANET, P. Les medications psychologique, Vol. I. Paris: Alcan, 1919. Pp. 349. 

24. JEFFREY, G. R. Notes on a Case Treated by Hypnotic Suggestion. /. of Men- 

tal Sci., 1919, 65, 258-61. 

25. LADELL, R. G. M. Psychotherapy in Civil Practice. Practitioner (London), 1920, 

213-216. 

26. LANGFELD, H. S. Judgments of Facial Expression and Suggestion. Psychol. Rev., 

1918, 25, 488-94. 

27. MATHEWSON, T. H. R. The Psychic Factor in Medical Practice. Med. Jour. 

Australia, 1920, 2, 73-74. 

28. McAREE, J. V. Notes on Applied Psychology and Suggestive Therapeutics. 

Med. Jour. Australia, 1920, i, 355-361. 

29. McDouGALL, WM. Social Psychology. Boston: Luce, 1918. Pp. 398. 

30. *MONTESANO. La suggestione. Roma Cooperative Tipografico Manuzio, 197, 29. 

31. MYERS, G. C. Control of Conduct by Suggestion, an Experiment in Americani- 

zation. /. of Applied Psychol., 1921, 5, 26-31. 

32. PODIAPOLSKY, P. P. La suggestion hypnotique de 1'hopital de camp. Paris Med. 

1917, 23, 165-170. 

33. POTTS, W. A. Psychotherapy in Ordinary Practice. Lancet, 1919, 2, 1123-1128. 

34. *PRANTL, R. Die Untersuchung der Suggestibilitatmitels der ersten Binetschen 

Linienfallenversuchs. Zsch. f. Pddagogische Psychol. u. Exp. Pad., 1919, 7, 8, 
245-278. 

35. *PRANTL, R. Die Untersuchung der Suggestibilitat mitels der zweiten Binetschen 

Linienfallenversuchs. /. /. Psychol. u. Neurol., 1920, 26, 33-69. 

36. PRIDEAU, E. Suggestion and Suggestibility. Brit. J. of Psychol., 1920, 10, 228- 

241. Brain, 1919, 42, 291-303. 

37. RAYMOND E. Auto-education and Auto-suggestion. Geneve: Kiindig. Pp. 47. 

38. *RIVERS. Mind and Medicine. Bull. Jno. Ryland's Library, London, 1919, 235, 

53- 

39. ROBERTSON, A. An Introduction to Psychotherapy. Edin. Med. Jour., 1920, 

29, 100-113. 

40. SOUTHARD, E. E. Shell Shock and other Neuropsychiatric Problems of the War. 

Boston: Leonard, 1919. 

41. SOUTHARD, E. E. Review of General Psychopathology. PSYCHOL. BULL., 1919, 

1 6, 187-199. 

42. TOMBLESON, J. B. A Series of Military Cases Treated by Hypnotic Suggestion. 

Lancet, 1916, 191, 707-709. 

43. YELLOWLEES, D. Psychotherapy in General Practice. Glasgow Med. J., 1920, 

94, 72-90. 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 

HOLLINGWORTH, H. L. The Psychology of Functional Neuroses. 

New York: Appleton, 1920. Pp. 259. 

Professor Hollingworth's book grows out of his experience in 
charge of a military hospital in Plattsburg. It is largely concerned 
with the application of psychometric methods, and is chiefly 
valuable for certain questions of interpretation on which it throws 
light. The reader does not perhaps get a full idea of the medical 
and military issues that complicate the problem for the present 
material, and it is not surprising that medical reaction to the book 
has not been wholly favorable. 1 The present endeavor is to sketch 
briefly those aspects of the presentation which are of chief interest 
to the psychologist. The psychometric work was based chiefly 
upon a group of selected tests, completion, opposites, substitution, 
word-building, digit span, cube imitation. The scores in these 
tests are converted into mental age units, according to existing 
norms. Among the patients observed, all the presumably func- 
tional groups have a median intelligence rating inferior to that of the 
average soldier. The average mental age of 1,172 cases is 11.7 
years, about 2.5 years below that of the average soldier. The 
distribution of mental ages is bimodal; the soldiers reaching this 
country with chronic or extended functional nervous conditions 
tend to be distinctly inferior or superior to the average. Various 
interpretations are discussed. In 252 cases of functional conditions 
a comparison was made according to whether the condition had 
developed in line of duty, or had existed prior to enlistment. The 
mental age of the latter group was definitely lower. Comparison 
with data accumulated by Baldwin shows special educational 
poverty in the present cases. Fifteen per cent, of the present 
cases reached the 8th grade, 4.4 per cent, graduated from high 
school. In analysis of symptoms, a three-fold classification was 
made: class I, including cases where the specific symptom was 
physical; class II, where both physical and psychic symptoms 
were exhibited; class III, those where the complaints were definitely 
of a psychic or subjective character not externally obvious. The 
mode for class I is at n years, for class III at 15 years, class II 

1 Cf. Arch, of Neurol. y Psychiat., 1920, 5, 228-230; Mental Hygiene, 1921, 5, 
181-189. 
376 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 377 

occupying an intermediate position. The possibility is suggested 
that the relationship between the anxiety neuroses and military 
responsibility on the one hand, and between somatic symptoms 
and enhanced suggestibility on the other, represents the dependence 
of the clinical picture on the intelligence level of the individual. 
A series of results with the Woodworth personal data question- 
naire are cited. These questions are classified in three groups, 
according as they relate to present condition of health; or to 
conditions referring to the present, past or both; or to matters of 
historic fact. Figures are given, showing the effect of the armistice 
in replies to questions so characterized. In the questions bearing 
directly on present condition, each diagnostic group reports fewer 
symptoms, but the change is much more marked in psychoneuroses 
and hysteria than in neurasthenia or constitutional psychopathy, 
and less in epilepsy. A less striking effect is observed with the 
questions of intermediate classification, and a still lesser effect in 
the questions on historic fact. The normal score of white recruits 
in this test is the report of ten positive symptoms; with college 
students it is the same; with colored recruits, nineteen symptoms. 
Psychoneurotic disorders incurred in the service averaged from 30 
to 40 symptoms reported. The scattering of the group intelligence 
tests was measured by computing the variation of the separate 
test ages from the median mental age in the tests. The greatest 
variation is shown in the hysteric, epileptic and concussion groups, 
with an average deviation of up to two years. The mental defec- 
tives are least variable, with a measure of just less than one year. 
The variation for neurasthenics, psychoneurotics and constitutional 
psychopathic states averages about 1.5 years. The result for the 
mental defectives is somewhat questioned by the author. Corre- 
lations are computed between the ratio of psychoneurotic cases to 
population and various other population statistics. It is highest 
with density of population per square mile, the coefficient being 58. 
It is also distinctly positive with the percentages of insanity, 
illiterates over 10 years, and of urban population; these coefficients 
being about 25. In the discussion of "mental ability and age," 
it is brought out that certain types of intelligence tests may show 
a uniform increase in average score up to 40 years. Other tests 
may show progressive increase in score up to about 15 years only; 
other tests may even show a loss after maturity is reached. For 
the five tests examined in this respect, numbers of cases varying 
from 1 8 to 50 were available for each of fourteen age intervals 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 

examined between 20 years and 45 years. There is no change in 
the age level scores except in the substitution test, which shows a 
fairly consistent decreasing tendency, the score at the oldest level 
being 84 per cent, of what it is at the youngest level. It is inferred 
that up to the age of 40 or 45 years, "attentive apprehension and 
general mental alertness do not change with chronological age, but 
that learning capacity changes inversely." The variability in a 
group does not appear to be influenced consistently by chronological 
age, but it ranges from 13 per cent, in the digit span to 43 per cent, 
in word-building. A comparison of 93 cases is made between the 
group survey test and an individual examination; the average 
difference between the two is 1.3 years mental age; the group survey 
rating tending on the whole to be lower than that of the individual 
examination. It is concluded with Pintner and Paterson that 
group tests are very adequate as applied to groups, though with 
possibilities of considerable errors when applied to individuals in the 
group. The test procedure is described with the detail of an 
"examiner's guide." A concluding chapter discusses the different 
ways in which psychological service is to be utilized under the 
conditions where the present work was done. Here the accounts 
of a few cases where special re-educational results were obtained 
are of particular interest. 

The remainder of the volume, including the earlier portion, 
develops a concept of "redintegration" as an underlying mental 
mechanism in the group observed. When a situation has evoked 
a certain reaction, some part of that situation in the setting of 
another situation may elicit the total reaction to the first situation. 
This is the essential mechanism of redintegration. The process 
has found acceptance in formulations of the psychology of the 
neuroses, where it has been embodied among other concepts, as 
transference, regression, infantile fixations, the unconscious, carrying 
some additional topical connotations. At the slight meaning he 
finds in these, our author evinces an impatience vaguely reminiscent 
of a picture of Brahms trying his technical skill before a group of 
intent and appreciative listeners. The title of the picture is " Die 
Macht der Musik." The conventional Magyar examines the 
picture. "Saudumm!" he exclaims; "Schreibt der Kerl 'Die 
Macht der Musik' anstatt ' Der macht die Musik.'" 

F. L. WELLS 
BOSTON PSYCHOPATHIC HOSPITAL 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 379 

TANSLEY, A. G. The New Psychology, and its Relation to Life. 

New York: Dodd, Mead, 1920. Pp. 283. 

Some twenty years ago, the "New Psychology" was an account 
of experimental methods, in a book by Scripture that is still useful. 
Today the conventional Athenian is invited to the psychology that 
has grown up through the influence of Freud. Tansley's book can 
itself hardly be called Freudian psychology, but represents one of 
its cadet branches. As an exposition of this matter on the popular 
level, Hart's Psychology of Insanity has long been in a class by 
itself. To Hart, Tansley acknowledges much indebtedness and his 
book may appeal more to the student, though less to the general 
reader, than Hart's. With its greater length it is more complete 
and systematic, on the other hand is less concrete and colorful. 
There is hardly enough "novel" material in the book to make a 
summarizing survey in place. Besides Freud and Jung, Trotter and 
McDougall seem to be those whose influence is felt most. The libido 
concept is derived with some directness, and the reviewer thinks, 
appropriately, from Jung, there being remembered the special, or 
rather general, sense in which Jung conceives this term. The sexual 
sphere is taken up from an unusual angle, and very well dealt with. 
The general impression is of a rather successful attempt to fit these 
newer views into the more classical setting; and this nowhere shows 
to better advantage than in those portions of the material which 
would ordinarily give the most difficulties in presentation to the 
undergraduate student. As a text or as collateral reading, it seems 
particularly commendable to elementary collegiate courses in which 
it is not intended to emphasize the experimental phase. For the 
more advanced student, the first place would still seem to belong to 
Pfister's work. 

Tansley's book combines with its clarity a dryness not usually 
associated with contributions from its angle. There is less "case 
teaching" than one could wish for; nor are many books written to 
give so little hint of the personality behind them. One wonders if 
the author fully intended the sacrifice to objectivity that this in- 
volves. Such a book is apt to move slowly for the general reader, 
seem a little dull to the expert, while teaching of more than ordi- 
nary quality is needed to "get it across" to students. It is unusual 
indeed to recommend a quasi-psychoanalytic writer to "jazz it up." 
For the instructor who can compensate this lack, the book has no 
superior as a foundation text for the elementary course. 

F. L. WELLS 

BOSTON PSYCHOPATHIC HOSPITAL 



380 SPECIAL REVIEWS 

EUGENIC RIGNANO. Psychologie du raisonnement. Paris: Alcan, 
1920. Pp. xi +544. 

The behavior of all organisms, from the lowest unicellular 
species to man, is interpreted as the manifestion of a tendency to 
maintain or restore the creature's physiological equilibrium. This 
underlying tendency is regarded by the author as the generic form 
of a large number of "affective" tendencies, which appear to man 
subjectively as desires, appetites, or needs, and which express 
themselves objectively in the non-stereotyped movements of all 
animal species. These affective tendencies are attributed to the 
phylogenetic accumulation of mnemonic material in the higher 
nervous centers. 

Attention is a derivative form of the affective tendency, in which 
the consummatory act is checked and held in suspense. Attention is 
the basis of the orderly and systematic associations of ideas which 
gradually replace the incoherent and illogical associations due to 
chance contiguity or resemblances. By this temporary suspension 
of the tendency to action, thought is kept in touch with objective 
reality. This is the essence of reasoning, considered as a psycho- 
logical phenomenon. 

The evolution of reasoning is traced from its lower concrete 
forms to abstract reasoning and from simple " intuition' ' to inference. 
Rignano devotes several interesting chapters to an examination of 
the various types of mathematical reasoning and symbolic logic. 
Pathological manifestations of reasoning are found in dreams and 
various types of insanity. Dreams are both incoherent and illogical. 
The reasoning of the insane may be either illogical and coherent 
or incoherent and logical. 

The author contrasts two forms of purposive reasoning, which 
he calls dialectical and metaphysical. The former is used in scientific 
research and has proved uniformly fruitful. Metaphysical reason- 
ing, as used by philosophy in attacking cosmological problems, 
leads to sophistry and has generally been barren. 

The problem of conscious and unconscious reasoning leads to 
an examination of current theories of the subsconscious. Rignano 
recognizes the reality of double personality, but considers it dis- 
tinctly a pathological phenomenon. He does not accept the 
Freudian notion of the subconscious psyche, which he characterizes 
as a form of mysticism. The phenomena attributed to its workings 
are in reality automatic and mechanical. The special function of 
consciousness is to bring about choice, and no selection is possible 
in mechanized behavior. 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 381 

Mental activity falls into three essentially different classes: (i) 
Potential states, capable of passing into actual states. These 
include the underlying affective tendencies, which are neither 
conscious nor subconscious. (2) Automatic activities, including 
organic (autonomic) functions, reflexes, and the complex mechanized 
behavior activities due to grouping of reflexes. The last named 
are all built up by the method of trial and error. (3) Acts and 
associations of ideas in which the presence of selection or choice is 
manifest. In some of these last, where there is no consciousness, 
we "must fall back on the hypothesis of subconsciousness or cocon- 
sciousness"; that is, we must assume a double personality. 

Our inner life, says Rignano in conclusion, is fairly saturated 
with purpose with teleology. The lifeless world outside us, on 
the other hand, appears to be activated by no purposiveness 
whatever. In the history of thinking two opposite tendencies 
have contended for supremacy: Reasoning strives to strip the 
universe of its teleological meaning. Feeling (sentiment) irre- 
sistibly drives us toward a purposive interpretation of all things. 

HOWARD C. WARREN 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 

Practical Psychology and Psychiatry, C. B. BURR. (5th ed., rev. 

and enl.) Philadelphia: Davis, 1921. Pp. 269 -+- viii. 

This book which has passed through five editions under slight 
changes of title shows the need of a brief manual on psychological 
subjects that bear application to the work of our institutions for 
mental and nervous diseases. Psychology is still very much 
misunderstood by the medical profession, but there is a growing 
desire to learn such essential facts as are no longer controversial 
and to cooperate on problems of a scientific nature that are common 
to both professions. Nowhere is there more favorable ground for 
mutual assistance in the search for truth and for the reciprocal 
recognition that stimulates the search than in our hospitals for 
mental derangements. A book like the present volume but with 
the introductory chapters on psychology written by a professional 
psychologist in consultation with the mental practitioner would be 
very much worth trying. 

Part I gives very briefly and in an almost catechismal manner 
the outlines of psychology. It is here that the author would have 
done well to consult a psychologist in the revision of his text. 
"Dogs often display a high type of reasoning and judgment" (p. 4) ; 



382 SPECIAL REVIEWS 

"the brain is the organ of the mind" (p. 5); "the faculties of the 
mind are three: thinking, feeling, acting" (p. 13); "these special 
senses are six in number: hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting, touch, 
muscular" (pp. 1314); "winding the watch before retiring fre- 
quently takes place without consciousness" (p. 38); these are 
statements that would secure the sanction of few if any present-day 
psychologists. The discussion of feeling, volition, and thought, 
together with a special section on localization of function in the 
brain 1 and a chapter on special mental phenomena that bear on 
clinical manifestations, are calculated to aid materially in the 
comprehension, diagnosis, and treatment of mental and nervous 
disorders. 

The short Part II on "Symbolism in Sanity and in Insanity" 
is very well done and should be of interest to psychologists who 
are concerned with the problems of meaning. With more authority 
the volume then proceeds in Part III to a consideration of the 
definition, causes, forms, and related psychoses of insanity. The 
author gives clear, succinct accounts of many, if not most, of the 
variations that develop and expert advice concerning their treat- 
ment. This clinical management is described in greater detail and 
with rare insight in the succeeding parts (IV and V). If the author's 
psychology is somewhat out of date, his conception of the mental 
needs and desires of his patients and his application of psychological 
principles to his practice is thoroughly modern and commendable. 

In the final part the writer has added a chapter on the prevention 
of insanity. It ought to be read by every parent and trainer of 
children. The untoward influence of a stilted environment, the 
unwholesomeness of an overgrown civilization, and the indulgence 
of thoughtless guardians of youth are largely held to account for 
the increase in mental derangements. In the arraignment the 
educational policy of departing from the rigor of a disciplinary 
procedure and of courting favors of the goddess of interest and 
appeal is also blamed for the mental products that result. The 
author thinks and the reviewer agrees that there is some merit in 
the mere recitation of the multiplication table that no modified 
program can furnish in its place. Memory training without regard 

1 Dr. S. I. Franz, in his presidential review of the question of cerebral-mental rela- 
tions (Psychol. Rev., 1921, 28, 81-95), does not come to the positive conclusions at- 
tained in the text on matters of localization of function. It is always difficult to com- 
promise between the dogmatism of a textbook and the tentative attitude of the scientific 
investigator, but certainly the research of today should prompt modifications of state- 
ments in several instances (pp. 9, 26). 



SPECIAL REVIEWS 383 

for content, but with emphasis on the instruction to remember, is 
a point that recent inquiry has not failed to substantiate. But 
with this one must also recall that the hereditary influences of 
insanity, frequently inadequately checked, are beginning to show a 
reckoning. 

The volume is provided with a carefully compiled index and 
especially in the earlier part with well-selected diagrams. Elsewhere 
the citation of illustrative case material helps to clarify descriptions 
of mental symptoms. The style is lucid throughout and in many 
places forcefully enthusiastic. The impression is gained that 
whatever the faults of the psychological section may be, psycholo- 
gists would do well to read what a successful practitioner has 
accomplished with an appreciation of the psychological aspect of 
the problem. Systematically there may be defects, but practically 
there are results. The book ought to bring light to those institu dons 
that are managed in stereotyped fashion and that are redolent with 
clinical practices of vintages not improving with age. 

CHRISTIAN A. RUCKMICK 
WELLESLEY COLLEGE 

The Basis of Psychiatry, (Psychobiological Medicine.} ALBERT 

C. BUCKLEY, M.D. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1921. Pp. 447. 

Review by Clara Harrison Town, Ph.D. 

The subtitle of this latest text on mental disorders makes clear 
in two words the viewpoint from which its problems are discussed. 
One expects to find, and does find, interpretations of the psychiatric 
phenomena in terms of physical and psychological reaction and 
development and a therapy based upon these interpretations. 
The author is strongly imbued with the behavioristic tendencies 
which everywhere dominate psychological thought to-day, and 
looks upon each patient as a biological problem requiring for its 
elucidation a study of every reaction of the individual physical, 
physiological, psychological however unrelated these reactions 
may appear to be to the symptoms which occasion the study. 
"It is firmly established," we read, "that there is no fundamental 
difference between the pathological problems of the psychiatrist 
and those presented to the observer in general medicine." 

The author holds that in all cases of mental disorder there is an 
organic basis "that the person whose reactions . . . occur in a 
distinctly abnormal manner . . . should be regarded as a person 
differently constituted from the average from the standpoint of 



384 SPECIAL REFIEWS 

the nervous system." He recognizes with equal clearness the 
effect of the environment on the development of the psychoses, 
emphasizing the part played by the environment in the development 
of all the potentialities of the organism, normal and abnormal. 
He separates those suffering from the psychoses into two classes: 

(1) Those who develop psychoses irrespective of environment. 

(2) Those who develop psychoses provided there exists the proper 
environment and exciting causes. As illustration he points to the 
fact that such experiences as severe mental strain, excessive alco- 
holism or syphilis lead to psychoses in some individuals while in 
others they are sometimes severe enough to cause death without 
exciting the least mental disorder, and he deduces the conclusion 
that the difference in effect is due to difference in organic consti- 
tution. This well-balanced viewpoint which emphasizes impartially 
each aspect of an individual's experience and behavior is consistently 
sustained in the chapters concerning etiology, exciting causes and 
classification. As a basis for study and for statistical reports the 
following classification, predominantly behavioristic, is offered: 
(i) Mental disorders with an organic substratum which show 
evidence of defective function of the organ of adjustment in the 
form of an irrecoverable loss. (2) A group which represents a 
quantitative disturbance of the normal mental processes (manic 
and depressive psychoses). (3) A group characterized by primary 
disturbance of the sensory sphere and consequent mental confusion, 
resulting in qualitative disturbances. Part 2 of the volume, which 
is devoted to the differential description and discussion of the 
various mental disorders, follows in a general way the classification 
adopted by the American Medico-Psychological Association in 
191*7, but there is also a synthesis of types following the above 
behavioristic classification, and a grouping of the dementia praecox 
types and the manic-depressive types under the respective rubrics- 
schizophrenic psychoses and cyclothymic psychoses. 

The descriptions of the disease types are graphic and complete 
and in every case are preceded by a discussion of the etiology, and 
followed by valuable directions concerning treatment. In the 
discussion of the popular psychoanalytic method of treating the 
psychoneuroses the author does not hesitate to state unequivocally 
that he holds a dissenting opinion: "The experience of the writer 
is in accord with that of Dercum and Lloyd that the instances in 
which sexual matters form the basis of worries, fears and depressions 
are not in the majority; that the results to be obtained can be 






SPECIAL REVIEWS 385 

reached without resorting to the operation of 'mental catharsis' 
which has the disadvantages of being tedious, painful to the patient 
and in the end indefinite as to the accuracy of the results obtained, 
for the reason that it is difficult to clearly separate that which is 
primarily the product of the patient's mind from those psycho- 
analytic results which are the products of the examiner's mind." 
This opinion is followed by advice to "avoid going out of the way 
to inject into the fatigued patient's mind a score of ideas which 
even though submerged in the unconscous possibly may do less 
harm than if brought to the patient's realization." It is a relief 
to the reviewer to find a current discussion of the psychoneuroses 
which is not submerged in the vagaries and symbolism of the 
Freudian psychology. 

The chapters on mental processes and symptomatology are so 
admirably correlated that one feels they might advantageously have 
been molded into one, the symptoms being utilized to more fully 
illustrate the mental processes and the processes in turn to elucidate 
the symptoms. The biological viewpoint of the author does not 
lead him to develop these chapters after the more extreme behavior- 
istic tendencies; the familiar nomenclatures of both psychiatry and 
psychology are retained, and the ideas of Wundt and Titchener 
contribute largely to the general psychological scheme. A few 
pages are devoted to the subject of the unconscious and the theories 
of Janet and of Freud. The treatment of the emotions is enriched 
by a presentation of the results of the recent studies of the activities 
of the endocrine glands and the autonomic nervous system in 
relation to affective states. The author preserves throughout an 
impartial, impersonal attitude presenting theories and findings of 
diverse sorts with equal fidelity and emphasis. 

The chapter on methods of examination is disappointing to the 
psychologist on account of the striking difference in exactitude of 
the methods employed for the physical examination and those 
employed for the psychological examination. The physical exami- 
nation includes exact laboratory tests and measurements, and the 
directions for making such tests are detailed and clear. On the 
other hand the psychological examination recognizes the rich technic 
of clinical psychology by the association test alone. And this 
occurs in a text which makes abundant use of the theoretical con- 
tributions of the psychological laboratory. The omission seems 
to the reviewer a direct challenge to the psychologist who visages 
the science as of value from the clinical standpoint. 



386 SPECIAL REVIEWS 

A review of the volume would not be complete did it not include 
a word of praise for the admirable topic summaries and the remark- 
ably complete and well arranged index which add greatly to its 
practical usefulness as a text and reference book. 

CLARA H. TOWN 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

\ 

ZACCHI, ANGELO, UUomo. Vol. I. La Natura. Roma. Fran- 
cesco Ferrari. Pp. xi +548. 15 Lire. 

The aim of this book is to set forth the traditional spiritualistic 
doctrine of the nature of man, and is addressed in the first instance 
to persons of ordinary cultured attainments. It is not a text book 
of philosophy, but one of a series of philosophy of religion by the 
same author. 

The method adopted is not one of a priori dogmatism but starts 
from a survey of the various activities, biological and psychological, 
which man exhibits. We cannot however confine ourselves to the 
data of experience but must try and bring these under higher 
categories of causation, in order to get a complete theory of man's 
nature. Writers in other fields are asserting to-day that psychology 
is the study of what a man does; but a study of behavior alone will 
not tell us all that a man is. 

The author carries one through a discussion of the various 
activities of man, and insists on the distinction between sense and 
intelligence as maintained by the scholastics, not merely because 
they are the doctrines of the scholastics, but because the facts 
themselves lead to this conclusion. From the discussion of intelli- 
gence and the intellectual faculties the transition to that of will 
follows as a matter of course. Will is inclination and is rooted in 
knowledge, and as there are two kinds of knowledge, sensible and 
intellectual, so there are two kinds of inclination or appetite, 
sensible and intellectual. Will is properly of the latter order. Is 
the will free? or determined? This problem is dealt with at 
considerable length; various objections to free will are temperately 
dealt with; and the scholastic doctrine of will and its exercise is 
clearly explained. 

At the back so to speak of man's activity is the soul, a spiritual 
substance which incomplete in itself as a substance informs the 
body so as to constitute an individual person. Man therefore 
though one as an individual is dual in nature, partly material and 
corporeal, partly spiritual and incorporeal. The relation of body 



SPECIAL REriEfTS 3 8 7 

and mind, concerning which so much confusion of thought prevails, 
becomes immensely clearer in the light of the scholastic theory 
here exposed. Soul is the root cause of all man's being and activity. 
It is endowed with various powers or capacities, the vegetative 
sensitive, and intellectual; hence its immediate dependence on the 
body for the due exercise of some of its functions, and its relative 
independence as regards its higher intellectual and spiritual func- 
tions. The union of the soul with the body is not merely accidental 
like that of the motive power of an engine, but something vastly 
more intimate and personal. 

The author fully realizes the difficulties of the theory, but 
maintains that that is not a sufficient reason for rejecting it. A 
copious bibliography of modern writings of psychological import 
accompanies each chapter, and throughout the volume the author 
shows his full acquaintance with the views of other writers. Would 
that these writers had a more accurate and first-hand knowledge 
of what the scholastic doctrine of man's nature really is. 

G. A. ELRINGTON 

OXFORD, ENGLAND 



388 COMMUNICATION. 



COMMUNICATION 
MAASS' BEYTRAEGE 

In his "Contribution towards a History of the Doctrine of 
Mental Suggestion or Association" (The Works of Thomas Reid, II., 
e.g., 1863, 889 ff.)> Sir Wm. Hamilton expresses his indebtedness to 
the Beytrdge of J. G. E. Maass. Since even so diligent a scholar as 
H. C. Warren has been unable to verify this reference (A History of 
the Association Psychology, 1921, 21), it may be worth while to say 
that Maass' Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Lehre von der Vergesell- 
schaftung der Forstellungen form the third part of his Versuch uber 
die Einbildungskraft (1792; 1797, 311 ff.)- 

E. B. TITCHENER 



EDITORIAL NOTE 

Plans have been under way for a number of months to have the 
Abstract section of the BULLETIN truly international in scope by 
having as cooperating editors the editors of other national journals 
in France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, and Sweden. Already 
promises of active cooperation have been received from some, and 
it is hoped that announcement of definite foreign cooperation may 
be made in our next Abstract number. 



Vol. 18, No 8. August, 1921 



THE 



PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN 



2. NERVOUS SYSTEM 

430. UHLENHUTH, E., The Internal Secretions in Growth and Devel- 
opment of Amphibians. Amer. Nat., 1921, 55, 193221. 

Here are outlined the results of the author's experiments on 
thyroid and pituitary treatment of various amphibian larvae to 
gether with brief discussions of the results from the numerous 
researches on amphibians which for the most part have been con- 
ducted since 1910. Thyroid treatment produces a remarkable 
acceleration of development sometimes with complete absence of 
growth. The changes of the relation between growth and develop- 
ment furnish an important link in the chain of facts necessary for an 
understanding of how the thyroid functions. This, as well as former 
studies, shows that amphibian metamorphosis is the result of a 
highly increased metabolism, under thyroid treatment, in which 
catabolism becomes faster than anabolism. This indicates and 
structural analysis shows that the early stages of metamorphosis 
are processes of atrophy rather than of constructive development 
although the latter may accompany. The author believes that the 
advance of the higher vertebrates from aquatic forms would not 
have been possible had it not been for the thyroid apparatus, 
although crucial experiments giving evidence of this view have not 
been performed. It is clear, however, that metamorphosis is in- 
itiated by thyroid products. The fact that certain of these changes, 
once initiated by thyroid action, continue automatically indicates 
that the problems of metamorphosis are extremely complex. More- 
over, in amphibian development various groups of organs develop 
independently of one another, thus indicating that specific hormones 
or conditions control the growth of different groups of organs. 

This entire field of research is of great importance for many 
reasons not least of which is the light which it may at any time 

389 



390 NERVOUS SYSTEM 

throw upon problems of evolution and the inheritance of acquired 
characteristics. 

R. H. WHEELER (Oregon) 

431. LARSELL, O., Nerve Terminations in the Lung of the Rabbit. 

/. of Comp. Neur., 1921, 33, 105-132. 

This paper contains a contribution to our knowledge of the 
nerve structures terminating in (i) the epithelium of the primary 
bronchi within the lung and at the points of division of the succeed- 
ing orders of bronchi, where there are evidently three functional 
types of terminations; (2) the smooth muscular fibers of the bron- 
chial musculature where the nerve endings are probably motor and 
inhibitory; (3) the cells of the intrapulmonary ganglia where are 
found pericellular networks apparently of vagus origin; (4) the 
pulmonary artery, its branches and arterioles where is to be found 
a rich innervation of fibers concerned with the smooth muscle cells 
of the tunica media. 

R. H. WHEELER (Oregon) 

432. HALL, ADA R., Regeneration in the Annelid Nerve Cord. /. 

of Comp. Neur., 1921, 33, 163-191. 

Miss Hall studied regeneration in Helodrilus calignosa (i) after 
a simple cut of the nerve cord, (2) after removing two to four seg- 
ments of the cord. She found (i) that there is a rapid formation 
of plug material which closes the wound. (2) This cicatrix material 
forms strands along which nerve fibers regenerate. (3) If the cut 
is through a ganglion large ganglion cells migrate into the strands. 
(4) When several ganglia are removed fibers and ganglia are replaced 
by outgrowths from both cut ends. Rate of growth for fibers in 
the annelid was about o.i mm. per day, considerably slower than 
the rate of 0.65 found by Ranson (1910) in the sciatic nerve of the 
dog. Bibliography and seventeen figures. 

R. H. WHEELER (Oregon) 

433. CRAIGIE, E. H., The Vascularity of the Cerebral Cortex of the 

albino rat. /. of Comp. Neur., 1921, 33, 193-211. 
The measurement of vascularity here taken was the total length 
of the capillaries enclosed in a given area. Samples from five areas 
were examined: the insular, prsecentral, occipital, temporal and 
parietal. Eight brains were used. In all the five areas the 4th 
lamina (lamina granularis interna) was the richest in vascularity 



NERVOUS SYSTEM 391 

followed in order by the third lamina (pyramidalis), the fifth 
(ganglionaris), the fourth (lamina zonalis) and the sixth (lamina 
multiformis). The latter was relatively richer in the insular region. 
The granular and supragranular layers tend toward a greater 
vascularity than do the infragranular layers. It seems probable 
that the former group is receptive and associative in function while 
the latter group is corticifugal. This is consistent with the lower 
centers in which it has been found that sensory and correlation 
nuclei are more vascular than are the motor. Sexual and racial 
differences appear to be more marked in the cortex cerebri than in 
other parts of the nervous system, suggesting that the vasculariza- 
tion of the more recently evolved centers is more susceptible to 
sexual, hereditary or environmental influences than that of the 
more ancient regions. The insular region is less vascular than other 
regions and differs from the rest more than do other areas differ 
from each other. 

R. H. WHEELER (Oregon) 

434. HERRICK, C. J., The Connections of the Vomeronasal Nerve, 
Accessory Olfactory Bulb and Amygdala in Amphibia. /. of 
Comp. Neur., 1921, 33, 213-279. 

Of special interest are the author's conclusions regarding the 
genesis of the amygaloid complex and his descriptions of the struc- 
tural relations of the corpus striatum, the habenula and hypothal- 
amus. The amygdala in the anuran is connected with the olfactory 
bulb (vomeronasal formation) by a secondary tract, the ventro- 
lateral tract; it is connected to the opposite amygdala through the 
anterior commissure, and to the habenula, the medial olfactory 
areas and the hypothalamus. The hypothalamic nucleus of the 
olfactory projection tract is connected with the dorsal part of the 
thalamus, with the septal areas and probably with gustatory and 
other visceral systems and the pars nervosa of the hypophysis. 
The frog possesses a true corpus striatum which is related with the 
lateral forebrain bundle and which is quite separate from the lateral 
olfactory nucleus and the amygdala. The amygdala, then, was 
apparently differentiated under the influence of excitations from 
the vomeronasal organ but in higher forms of organisms other 
sensory systems modified the functional aspects of the amygdala 
as a whole until the primitive olfactory systems were suppressed 
ithout destroying the integrity of the surviving components of 
the amygaloid complex. The olfactory system in all vertebrates 



392 NER70US SYSTEM 

has the dual role (i) of a visceral or interoceptive function concerned 
with the selection and digestion of food and (2) of a somatic or 
exteroceptive function concerned with environmental conditions. 
Such a study as this is important in throwing light upon the origin 
of the cerebral cortex for the reason that primitive olfactory systems 
and their connections played so dominant a role in phylogenesis. 
In this connection, however, one must bear in mind the dual nature 
of the sense of smell. 

R. H. WHEELER (Oregon) 

435. SPAETH, R. A., An Artificial Nerve. Science, n.s., 1921, 54, 
360-1. 

S. notes that Lillie has recently shown that apparently "the 
transmission of the momentary wave of activity which occurs in a 
passive iron wire on activation in 70% nitric acid is closely analogous 
both chemically and electrically to the passage of the nerve im- 
pulse." (R. S. Lillie, Science, 1918, 51, 43. /. Gen. PhysioL, 1920, 
3, 107.) "The general similarity of the two phenomena was appar- 
ently first noticed by Wilhelm Ostwald" who called attention in 
1900 to "the possibility of nerve transmission being a process akin 
to the transmission of activity." Acting on this suggestion, Heath- 
cote experimented with iron in nitric acid and published a paper in 
I 97- (/ S c ' Chem. Indust., 1907, 26, 899.) In this paper 
Heathcote stated that he had found "by direct experiments in the 
case of iron in nitric acid" that transmission of activity was natu- 
rally "slower immediately after the first transmission owing to 
products of reaction around the iron. . . . An effect of this kind 
in a nerve would explain the nature of 'fatigue' so far as it concerns 
nerves." S. states "It is not surprising that Heathcote's paper 
should have escaped the attention of physiologists. Lillie 's inde- 
pendent rediscovery of this analogy, however, and his detailed 
studies and analysis strengthen the probability of a fundamental 
relation subsisting between the two phenomena." 

S. describes an apparatus suitable for lecture table demonstration 
of the "passage of a wave of activation" over the surface of a No. 
20 piano wire immersed in 70 per cent, nitric acid (by vol.) and 
connected with a demonstration galvanometer registering both 
positive and negative variations. (Picture of the apparatus accom- 
panies the article.) When a zinc or copper stimulus is applied to 
the surface of the acid, there ensues a longer or shorter "latent 
period," after which the entire wire becomes activated and the 



SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 393 

galvanometer registers a diphasic action current. With proper 
precautions, the preparation may be used repeatedly to demonstrate 
mechanical, chemical and electrical stimulation. 

H. E. STARR (Pennsylvania) 



3. SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 

436. OLMSTED, J. M. D., Effect of Cutting the Lingual Nerve of the 

Dog. /. of Comp. Neur., 1921, 33, 149-153. 
Several dogs were anaesthetized and on the right side, 5 mm. 
of the lingual nerve just peripheral to the branch to the submaxillary 
gland were removed. In one dog, killed 8 days after the operation, 
taste buds had disappeared from 18 anterior fungiform papillae on 
the operated side; in three papillae one bud remained but was 
imperfect; 2 papillae each had one perfect bud, one papilla having 
the remains of a second. On the unoperated side each papilla had 
from 2 to 5 perfect buds. In another dog, 15 days after operation, 
similar results were found. Check experiments proved that the 
disappearance of the taste buds was not due to shock incident on 
the operation. The process by which the taste buds disappear is 
one of degeneration with the aid of phagocytic leucocytes and not 
one of dedifferentiation or metamorphosis as was formerly supposed 
(Vintschgau, 1880 and Meyer, 1896). Epithelial cells take the 
place of the taste buds with an attending proliferation by mitosis 
from the germinative layer. 

R. H. WHEELER (Oregon) 

437. WHEELER, R. H., The Synaesthesia of a Blind Subject. Univ. 

of Oregon Pub., I, No. 5, 1920, 61 pp. 

The investigator reports a series of very interesting descriptions 
of the various forms of synaesthesia characterizing the mental life 
of a subject who has been blind since eleven years old. As a basis 
for an understanding of this case of synaesthesia and with a view to 
a theory of synaesthesia in general, the author gives a lengthy 
review of the literature appertaining to the subject of synaesthesia 
and appends to his article a bibliography of one hundred and 
forty-five scientific, and twenty-two popular, references. Synaes- 
thetic phenomena, in the form of colors and color schemata, for 
tones, music, letters of the alphabet, vowels and consonants, num- 
bers, voices, proper names (geographical materials), abstract terms 



394 MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

and theories, tastes, odors, pressures, temperatures, kinaestheses, 
the days of the week, and the months of the year are described in 
detail and summarized. An especially interesting and valuable 
feature of the paper is the arrangement of descriptions of color 
schemata in parallel columns, to show that the lapse of time and 
forgetting effected very few changes in the colors and n their 
arrangements during several months and over periods of a year 
or more. 

From the literature the investigator summarizes four classes of 
theories of the cause of synsesthesia: (i) a theory that it may be 
caused by some pathological condition, notably in the eye; (2) a 
theory that the cause is physiological, in the nature of anastomosis 
of fibers, irradiation of impulses, functional lack of differentiation 
in cortical areas, and the like; (3) the psycho'ogical theory of 
association by contiguity and repetition (which after all is still a 
physiological theory); and (4) a theory which combines both the 
physiological and psychological theories. Wheeler is inclined to 
the view that synaesthesia can be readily explained on the basis of 
the concepts of "reflex arcs" and "conditioned" reflexes; and he 
goes as far as to say that "in synsesthesis, the end effect," similar 
to the movement of a muscle or the action of a gland in a reflex arc, 
is "the associated image" of a color, is the "implicit" response 
of a reflex arc (but the exact meaning of this term "implicit" he 
does not give, nor does he show how a muscular movement and a 
visual image are responses of the same kind and order in a reflex 
arc). 

He has discovered a veritable gold mine of psychological material 
in the person of his gifted blind subject and has had great success 
in exploring into this mine and in developing the subject's ability 
to describe his mental equipment and his mental operations. 
Further researches on the synaesthesia of this subject are promised. 

H. R. CROSLAND (Oregon) 



5. MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

438. BAGBY, E., Psychological Effects of Oxygen Deprivation. /. 

of Comp. PsychoL, 1921, I, 97-113. 

The Henderson Rebreathing Apparatus was used by the Medical 
Research Board to test fitness for altitude flying. The subject's 
reactions were studied under conditions of progressive deprivation 









MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 395 

of oxygen, results being quantitative test records, observations, 
and introspections. The tests included: visual aorty, auditory 
acuity, pitch discrimination, pressure discrimination, aiming, tap- 
ping, knee jerk, immediate reproduction, attention to serial reaction, 
addition. Results found were: that the most obvious effect of 
lessened oxygen supply was tremor and general muscular incoordi- 
nation; that the attention field becomes restricted with a decrease 
in distractibility; that resting muscles change from relaxation to 
tension to twitching; that primitive emotional outbreaks showed 
removal of inhibitions in final stage; that intermittent testing 
showed "spurt" results. 

Dunlap's standard psychological test adopted by the Board 
provides for a continuous performance demanding frequent shifting 
of attention, used with the rebreathing apparatus. Three parallel 
discrete activities are demanded: (i) touching stylus to buttons 
corresponding to lights being flashed; (2) keeping an ammeter at 
a given point by readjusting rheostat with changes in the curr nt; 
(3) keeping a motor at low speed by reversing a pedal when speed 
increases. The psychologist is to make observations, especially as 
to the character of the subject's motor tendencies. The scoring of 
this test is weighted in the Bagby-Ross rating scheme. 

J. F. DASHIELL (North Carolina) 

439. HUMPHREY, G., Imitation and the Conditioned Reflex, Fed. 
Sem., 1921, 28, i -21. 

Imitation is not to be conceived as instinctive or innate, but as 
an acquired reaction. Specifically, it involves a conditioned reflex 
the secondary stimulus of which is similar to the reaction. This 
secondary stimulus may originate either in the same or in another 
organism, so that imitation may be of self or of another. A child 
suffers pain, cries, hears himself crying and the last becomes the 
stimulus to further crying; cattle are fear-stricken, run in stampede, 
after which the sight of a running fellow serves as incidental stimulus 
for flight. Imitative units tend to become combined with them- 
selves and integrated to form larger and larger wholes of imitative 
conduct; as chiseling, hammering, etc., to carpentering. No new 
material is learned by imitation, but only new combinations formed 
of activities already acquired. This points to a pedagogical danger 
in the use of imitation: a child first attempting to copy a movement 
is likely to import some of his already acquired motions and thus 
develop a "bad habit." A field of investigation is opened up, of 



396 MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

determining just when a given imitative task is not premature, 
does not presuppose sub-integrations not in the pupil's repertoire. 

J. F. DASHIELL (North Carolina) 

440. Muscio, B., Is a Fatigue Test Possible? Brit. J. of Psychol., 
1921, 12, 31-46- 

Finally, we have before us a paper which fills a long felt need, 
namely, an analysis of the fundamental concepts of fatigue, and 
the suppositions which underly fatigue studies. Muscio begins by 
raising the question as to what fatigue really is and how it can be 
known. He points out very shrewdly that all the tests of fatigue 
thus far prove absolutely nothing, because in order to establish a 
measure of fatigue it is necessary in the first place to know just what 
we are measuring and how much fatigue is present. If we knew at 
the outset what fatigue was and what degrees of it existed from 
time to time, then the results of fatigue tests could be evaluated. 
In other words, it is impossible to find or to calibrate any fatigue 
test unless it can be correlated with units of fatigue which are 
already known. Muscio then proceeds to define the representative 
definitions of fatigue and finds that none of them present anything 
to which an objective technique can be applied. And in doing so, 
he upsets definitely and finally all those elaborate and refined 
biological and psychological fatigue studies to which so much weight 
has been given in the past. The objective results of all these 
studies has been nil in so far as they pretend to establish measures 
of fatigue. 

In order to measure fatigue, since we do not know scientifically 
what it is, an assumption as to its character must first be made. 
And this assumption must be of such a nature that it will lend itself 
to objective observation. Muscio suggests, therefore, that fatigue 
be considered as "a condition (partly specifiable by reference to 
accumulation of metabolites and blocking in impulse paths) caused 
by activity, in which the output produced by that activity tends 
to be relatively poor; and the degree of fatigue tends to vary directly 
with the poorness of the output." If this assumption is accepted, 
it becomes possible to measure fatigue in terms of the quantity and 
quality of output, though even here, Muscio shows, there are many 
factors which will upset or modify the value of this criterion. 
Nevertheless, such an assumption must be made if we are to have 
a basis upon which to determine the value of proposed fatigue tests, 
or if we are to correlate the results of such tests with the expressions 
which have been assumed as characteristic of the fatigue condition. 



MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 397 

These tests are of two kinds: performance tests, such as the 
commonly used muscular and mental tests, and non-performance 
tests, such as industrial accidents, consumption of power, variations 
in the blood-pressure, pulse, skin reaction, excretions, muscle 
tonus, etc. The performance tests are condemned because they 
usually interfere with the actions which are taken as the accepted 
characteristic expressions of fatigue, and above all, because their 
results are vitiated by practise. Non-performance tests, though 
presenting many difficulties, are the only tests which offer any 
possibility of establishing a convenient and practicable measure 
of fatigue. 

Even if such tests can be found, their value is doubtful unless 
they can also aid in determining the points at which fatigue is 
inimical to health. Muscio therefore suggests, as does Watson, 
that the term fatigue be dropped entirely and that attention be 
concentrated upon methods for determing the effects of different 
kinds and amounts of activity upon mental and physiological 
functions, with the ultimate purpose of arranging work so that it 
results in a minimum of harm to the individual. 

H. C. LINK (New York City) 

441. Weber, E., Fortschritte in der Ermudungsmessung. Prak. 

PsychoL, 1921, 2, 97-108. 

This study begins with a discussion of the importance of deter- 
mining fatigue, especially in the case of work requiring muscular exer- 
tion, and with emphasis upon its significance for the welfare of the 
laboring class. He clears the ground for himself by asserting that 
none of the methods of the past have contributed anything decisive 
to the solution of this problem, because none of them have dis- 
tinguished between the primary or controllable stage of fatigue, and 
its secondary or uncontrollable stage. The unique feature of 
Weber's studies is just this discovery, namely, that there is a pre- 
liminary stage of fatigue which is not harmful to the organism, and 
a secondary stage which is. This discovery rests upon a further 
one, made by Weber fourteen years ago. He found that in any 
muscular exertion, whether local or general, the bloodvessels of the 
areas involved become distended and take up a greater supply of 
blood, whereas the bloodvessels of the abdomen and the periphery 
of the head, which are usually richly supplied with blood, are con- 
tracted. This change is cerebrally controlled, as Weber was able 
to demonstrate by means of electric stimuli applied to certain parts 



398 MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

of the brain and by means of suggesting to hypnotized subjects 
certain muscular activities which were not actually performed. To 
be sure, the activity of the heart is also stimulated by muscular 
exertion, but the presence of this centrally controlled vascular 
mechanism makes it possible to supply blood easily to the locality 
most in need of it, thus reducing the acceleration of the heart to a 
minimum. 

Now, instead of a positive reaction, by which the bloodvessels 
of the affected area or areas are distended, a negative reaction, or a 
contraction of these vessels may take place. This occurs particu- 
larly in cases of neurasthenia, and in connection with mental 
exertion, but with such variations that it cannot be taken as indic- 
ative of exhaustion due to mental effort. On the other hand, the 
reaction is always positive where muscular effort is involved, and 
Weber found it so even in hundreds of cases of shock, hysteria, 
traumatic neuroses, and other central disturbances which he inves- 
tigated. When muscular exertion has continued up to a certain 
point, the negative reaction sets in, and this can occur either in a 
local area, or throughout a more extended area. For example, the 
exertion of one arm may lead to a contraction of the vessels in that 
arm, whereas the other arm, which has been less exerted, will still 
be in the state of positive reaction. If this arm is exerted further, 
it also will show the negative reaction. Weber's explanation of 
this fact is that the increasing quantity of toxic substances in the 
blood finally affects the local sensory organs in such a fashion that 
the appropriate central motor areas respond with a negative motor 
impulse causing a vascular contraction in that area, while other 
areas may still be responding to a positive motor reaction. 

It follows, therefore, that the point at which the positive reaction 
becomes negative, is the critical point of muscular exertion; for 
any further exertion of a particular area in which the bloodvessels 
have contracted throws the entire burden of furnishing the necessary 
blood supply upon the heart. This entails a very severe strain on 
the heart, for the heart not only must circulate blood through 
vessels below normal capacity, but must supply it at a rate con- 
siderably above the normal. 

Weber claims for this discovery consequences of the utmost 
value. It can be used as a check on treatments for heart conditionst 
to determine the least exhaustive distribution of effort, the prope, 
periods for various kinds of work, the length and frequency of resr 
periods, and the regulation of training or practise periods. The 



MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 399 

task is complicated by the fact that the reaction times vary with 
each individual. 

Weber measured these reactions by means of ergographs. 

H. C. LINK (New York City) 

442. BAUMBERGER, J. P., Fatigue and Error in Mental Occupation. 

/. of Indust. Hygiene, 1921, 3, 149-153. 

A selected part of the output of eighteen clerks distributed over 
a period of one month, but totaling only about six actual days, 
was studied. The results showed little variation in quantity of 
work done at different times of the day, but more marked variations 
in accuracy. The investigator concludes that a normally recurring 
routine occupation of a few minutes duration is a valuable cri- 
terion of fatigue among clerks. 

H. C. LINK (New York City) 

443. WHEELER, R. H., An Experimental Investigation of the Proc- 

ess of Choosing. Univ. of Oregon Pub., I, No. 2, 1920, 59 pp. 

Like a cat of nine lives, beliefs in and concepts of "a free will," 
"a will element," "psychic entities," "entities of self-consciousness 
and self-activity," "imageless thought," and "unconscious con- 
sciousness" have lingered persistently and die only after a furious 
struggle. Wiirzburg tried to perpetuate "psychical monads" and 
unconscious and conscious thoughts; Louvain attempted to im- 
mortalize "self-activity" and an element of willing; Wellesley is 
famous for a most able promotion of the doctrine of a "unique" 
and "unanalyzable" "consciousness of self"; and it has been 
alleged, unjustly, that Clark, with its faith attached to the intro- 
spective method, has used its hypodermics to keep the cat alive. 
Occasionally a flash of the animal's vitality is emitted from the 
Catholic University of America; and Columbia University once or 
twice has administered a stimulant. 

But, contrary to the expectations of the critics of the Clark 
method, of introspection, Wheeler has accumulated data, obtained 
results, reached conclusions, and postulated interpretations which 
are in no whit offensive to objectivists or behaviorists and which 
should be of extreme service also to psychologists of a wholly 
different stamp. And, be it said, the reviewer regards Wheeler's 
results as being more detailed than and at least as accurate as data 
obtained by certain of our objectivists (notably the observations 
published serially by Ulrich, in Psycho-Biology and the /. of Comp. 
PsychoL, abstracted by the reviewer elsewhere in the Bulletin). 



400 MOTOR PHENOMENA AND ACTION 

Wheeler's investigation, comprising over one thousand experi- 
ences of choosing, done with nine highly trained introspectors, 
consisted of four series, choices of pictures, of cigarettes, and of 
musical selections, and of musical selections chosen without the use 
of certain specified muscles or kinaesthetic consciousness. Each 
experiment resulted in two main periods of experience: the fore- 
period characterized by the giving and accepting of instructions, 
preparation for the presentation of stimuli and the adjustments for 
the various steps in the choosing; and the main-period character- 
ized by the various steps and stages of scrutinizing the stimuli, 
weighing of alternatives, accepting and rejecting of lines of choice, 
and the announcing of a choice. Vigorous and genuine choices 
were stimulated by really desirable stimuli (pictures, cigarettes, 
and music), promises from the experimenter that the observer would 
be allowed to enjoy the object of his choice, and specific instructions 
that the choice was to be a vigorous and genuine one. 

In the main, the investigator found that all choices, and practi- 
cally all steps in a choice, including the initial stages in the Aufgabe, 
were motor reactions or some form of kinaesthesis, indicative of 
explicit or implicit motor reaction, to the stimuli in question or to 
their use and to fulfilling the instructions. He most definitely 
failed to discover an intrinsic entity of "will," "self-activity," and 
"unconscious conscious thought"; and also failed to discover 
combinations, sequences, and concatenations of mental contents, 
other than those of a kinaesthetic nature and origin, as the core and 
essential content of all steps in a choice. 

The final stage of a choice consisted in a terminating decision 
by the re-agent, called by the author the "fulfillment period"; 
it had been preceded by two periods termed respectively the 
"designative" and the "interpretative" periods. It was discovered 
that the latter two periods were unessential to the act of choosing 
and to the various acts in the choice. 

The act of choosing is an unbroken continuum of steps or stages 
beginning in the fore-period, in the Aufgabe, and continuing until 
the choice is terminated; and consists of sequences of motor reac- 
tions, or the elimination of competing motor reactions. The as- 
cendancy or supremacy of a given motor tendency is effected 
directly by re-enforcement or intensification or indirectly by the 
diminution of competing tendencies. Throughout the sets of stages, 
from Aufgabe to announcement of choice, there is a hold-over of a 
motor tendency or motor adjustment; it really began in the Aufgabe, 



ATTENTION, MEMORY AND THOUGHT 401 

and consisted of a tendency favorable to one or the other of the 
alternatives, and finally culminated in the selection of this alter- 
native, or its competitor, of similar age, finally predominated. 
The hold-over was weakened or strengthened as descr